Controversies in Depth Psychological Treatment
July 27-29, 2001 in Santa Barbara, California
A clinical conference with: Allen Bishop, Lionel Corbett, Lawrence Hedges, Donald Marcus, Avedis Panajian, Cathy Rives, Estelle Shane, Barbara Stephens, and concurrent sessions with Pacifica Faculty
Beginning with Freud's characterization of the analyst as "surgeon" to the mind, a steady stream of thoughtful analysts from a number of diverse traditions, theories, and practices have attempted to capture the essence of the psychotherapeutic relationship. Both Freud and Jung were well aware of the "volatile chemical reaction" initiated by analytic engagement. As a postmodern art form, many contemporary analysts are challenging old views of abstinence, anonymity, and neutrality-suggesting that the analytic dyad is a heart-to-heart dialogue involving courage, mutuality, love, and sexuality and that it derives its inspiration, courage, and heart from many sources.
This conference will bring together inspiring advocates of Jungian, Object Relations, and Self Psychology traditions to discuss and debate the issues of the treatment frame, therapeutic boundaries, love, and physical touch in long term treatment. Issues of provision and gratification versus abstinence and neutrality will be debated. Classical and contemporary views of transference interpretation and the use of countertransference will be a major focus of the presenters. Concurrent sessions addressing specific clinical challenges affecting everyday practice will also be included. The conference is designed for mental health practitioners and students in clinical psychology and counseling programs.
Conference Moderator Allen Bishop
Sex, Love, and Psychoanalysis
Until recently, the analyst's loving and sexual feeling toward the patient have been considered an interference in treatment, requiring further analysis or supervision for the analyst. Using clinical material, Dr. Marcus will propose the idea that the analyst's loving and sexual feelings for the patient are a necessary component of a successful psychoanalysis. Further, that if the analyst does not feel these feelings toward the patient, it means he or she has remained too emotionally distant from the patient and the analysis will fail in some important way. He suggests that patients know intuitively about the therapist's loving and sexual responses to them and, as a result it is necessary that the analyst find a way to confirm what they know without compromising the professional boundary-this on occasion, requiring self-disclosure.
Love, Desire, Boundaries, and Boundary Dilemmas in the Psychoanalytic Situation
How does one traverse the intensely intimate relationship between patient and therapist without doing damage to either, allowing the patient's most intense feelings, fantasies, hopes, and desires-and the analyst's as well-to be engaged in the process without impairing their mutual and individual integrity? From the beginning, this aspect of an analyst's experience in the dyad has been recognized by practitioners as the most challenging, the most threatening, and yet the most potentially rewarding. But the threat posed by passionate love and sexual desire may be exacerbated in contemporary theory and practice where restraints are loosened and boundaries are less clearly defined. Dr. Shane will describe how a nonlinear perspective on boundaries both frees, and, at the same time, complicates the role of the self psychological analyst in these complex situations.
The Dangers of "Redemption": An Exploration into the Depths of Depth Psychology
Barbara D. Stephens
The clinical aspects of depth psychology have been seen by some as a "most dangerous method"-one capable of alleviating psychic sufferings, but also capable of subverting individuality and paralyzing emergent souls. Since "the beginning," depth psychologists have questioned the nature of this "dangerous method" and their role as its representatives. Dr. Stephens will explore what she considers the "bedrock" of analytical psychology. At its core, Jung's dialogical approach engages the analytic couple in a process of mutual discovery which may be dangerously "redemptive" for them both. Aspects of the transference-countertransference dynamic can be seen as an alchemical coniunctio, a symbol of mutual love and death. If explored as a modern form of divination, it offers a foundation for psychological renewal.
Plenary Sessions and Responses
Transformational Relationships: Toward an Integrating of the Intrapsychic and the Interpersonal
Lawrence E. Hedges Lionel Corbett, Respondent
Commencing with Freud and Breuer's initial report on their work with Anna O., psychoanalysis as a discipline has continued to study the ongoing tension invariably arising between the "real" aspects of the analytic relationship and the internalized "transferred" aspects as brought forward from the unconscious relational pasts of both participants. Informed by recent findings in neuropsychology, evolutionary and molecular biology, information theory, developmental psychology, psychoneuroimmunology, and infant research, contemporary Relational Psychoanalysis seeks in fresh ways to maintain and expand the ongoing integration between the interpersonal and intrapsychic. Synthesis on the higher plane of abstraction, afforded by a flexible Listening Perspectives approach, allows us to integrate the interpersonal with the intrapsychic in a genuinely relational approach to psychoanalytic therapy, and to appreciate fully the infinite complexity of mind and the power of human relationships to transform us.
Psychoanalytic Relationship between Two Real Persons
Avedis Panajian Cathy Rives, Respondent
Psychoanalytic relationship that is based on wisdom challenges the boundaries between the patient and the therapist. Openness to the living and to the dying brings about a truly shared experience between the patient and the therapist. Hidden pains in both, along with creative and destructive forces, develop a field that is complex and unknown to both. In this presentation, Dr. Panajian will explore the challenges that confront the therapist in respecting the boundaries that are needed for psychoanalytic work.
Astrology: Oracle of the Gods or Mystical Spoiler
Dorothy Boswell and Jennifer Freed
The astrological map of the psyche fascinated Carl Jung, while more traditional schools of depth psychology are skeptical of its utility in illuminating the relationship between client and therapist. This session will explore this controversy by addressing several focus questions, including: How does astrological information effect boundary issues? How does the introduction of this mystical art impact the therapeutic relationship? What are the positive and negative ramifications of using transit information in the therapy hour?
Manifesting the Inner World: Boundaries and touching in Psychodrama
Psychodrama's unique structure allows clients to reveal a panorama of internal objects. Within therapeutic environments such as individual or group psychodrama, internalized objects become available to participate in challenging, expanding, recreating, and reforming experiences. Action methods such as touch, direction, and self-revelation by the therapist are a few of the controversial boundaries directly challenged within this container. This didactic and experiential session will allow participants to both discuss and experience the controversies inherent in these practices.
Love in the Therapy Room, the Shadows of Prohibition
The powerful force of Eros that shows up in psychotherapy has been known and well documented since the earliest days of psychoanalysis. Ultimately in our time, we have come to prohibit its expression so profoundly that therapeutic love goes into a shadowy place covered up by denial and projection. This campaign against Eros has been waged so effectively that love's healing potential is banished from the room. Dr. Coppin will explore the need to rehabilitate therapeutic love, taking it out of the realm of pathology and allowing it to be borne and expressed without shame-ultimately inviting this power to live again in the therapy room.
Touch: The Most Controversial of Possible 'Corrective Enactments'
More than any other provision of analysis, such as disclosure or sympathy, touch is still considered to be the most toxic of contaminants which threaten to sabotage the purity of analytic understanding. Our natural inclination toward physical contact in the intimacy of the analytic setting is still shrouded with a valance of impropriety and exploitation. Phyllis Dworsky will explore the major forces behind the long-standing taboo against touch in analysis. Garnering the wisdom of six seasoned, classically trained analysts, she will present a careful consideration of the issue of touch in analytically based therapeutic practices with helpful guidelines for its judicious inclusion within the analytic encounter.
The Formation of Therapist Self-Identity in a Sectarian Universe
Beginning therapists struggle to form their sense of identity in a complex professional world characterized by different schools of thought which privilege different modes of understanding and locate the process of psychological healing in dramatically different ways. The closed, doctinaire way in which these differences are sometimes held creates a particulary strong need for therapists to position themselves vis a vis the different theoretical perspectives offered. By examining the experiences and dreams of beginning therapists, Dr. Katsky will explore how one remains open to multiplicity and inherent complexity in the face of the urge to establish an exclusive loyalty to a theory.
Red Eros: Violence and Creativity in The Male Psyche
Violence is iconoclastic. It shatters the rigid details of egoic life into disassociated fragments. Violence, like Eros, can draw us out of a diminished self into greater complexity. Adolf Guggenbuhl-Craig contends, "If we entirely repress the demonic side we become bloodless, empty, not connected to an sort of Eros." The question is how can one express it creatively? Violence is rarely "senseless." Not unlike drugs, violence has quasi-biological and psychological aspects. Violence, for a moment, can awaken as imaginal life desiccated by American consumer culture or pummeled into quiescence by brutality and indifference. This session will consider various methods that clinicians may find facilitative of psychological work with men and boys. The focus will be on ego syntonic, male sensitive interpretations, treatment, and the gender-specific etiologies of male violence.
Direct Embodiment in the Therapy Room
Jung's statement that we "...must give the body its due" has been quoted many times. But do we as clinicians really give the body its due? What are the issues that arise more potently in the somatic transference and somatic countertransference? How do we invite the body into the therapy room as a full participant? Utilizing case examples and experiential work this session will explore these and other questions. Authentic Movement, an inner directed therapeutic and meditative practice with a foundation in the psychology of Jung and dance therapy will be introduced.
Ruthless Compassion: On Treating the Alcoholic
Therapists may have to forego traditional psychoanalytic boundaries in order to offer their patients the stability, containment and control necessary for successful treatment. The questions of whether psychoanalytic psychotherapy can effectively continue in the presence of continued addictive behavior, realistic risks to the patients, and the state of the transference will be explored. Personal struggles, clinical risks, and challenges for a therapist in the psychoanalytic treatment of an addict in holding critical boundaries, however "ruthless," will be highlighted.
Allen Bishop , Ph.D., is a member of the Core Faculty of Pacifica Graduate Institute and former Chair of the Clinical Psychology Program. He is a practicing psychoanalyst in Santa Barbara and a member of both the Institute for Contemporary Psychoanalysis and the Psychoanalytic Center of California. He received his Ph.D. from USC and completed a Post-Doctoral Fellowship in Clinical Child Psychology at the Reiss-Davis Child Center in Los Angeles.
Dorothy Boswell, MFT, is in private practice in Santa Barbara specializing in work with AIDS patients and their families. She is adjunct faculty of Pacifica Graduate Institute and a core supervisor of the Community Counseling Center for the training of interns. She is co-founder of Southwest Institute for Women and the Educational Director of Astrological Counseling Seminars, offering a synthesis of mythology, psychology and astrology. Cindy Carter-Liggett, Ph.D., is a core faculty member of Pacifica's M.A. Counseling Psychology program and the Director of Student Affairs. She leads psychodrama groups for personal growth and professional training, and has developed a powerful psychodrama protocol combining archetypal character styles with traditional interventions. Other areas of interest are human sexuality in the therapy context, narrative and psyche, cognitive psychotherapy, human development, and clinical practice.
Joseph Coppin, Ph.D., is chair of the Depth Psychology Program at Pacifica Graduate Institute. He teaches courses in archetypal psychology, culture, clinical practice, and research from a depth perspective. Dr. Coppin is a Marriage and Family Therapist and has been in practice for 25 years.
Lionel Corbett, M.D., trained in medicine and psychiatry in England and as a Jungian analyst at the C.G. Jung Institute of Chicago. Dr. Corbett is a core faculty member at Pacifica Graduate Institute teaching depth psychology. He is the author of The Religious Function of the Psyche and is co-editor, with Dennis Patrick Slattery, of Depth Psychology: Meditations in the Field.
Phyllis Dworsky, Ph.D., is a recent graduate of Pacifica Graduate Institute in the Clinical Psychology Program. She has been a practicing psychotherapist in Torrance, Caliornia for the past seven years and is currently a registered Psychological Assistant, completing her clinical hours for licensure.
Jennifer Freed, MA, MFT, has been practicing depth-oriented psychology for over twenty years, and using archetypal astrology for the last fifteen years. She is also Executive Director of Astrological Counseling Seminars and Co-Director of The Academy of Healing Arts for Teens. She is author of The Ultimate Personality Guide.
Lawrence E. Hedges, Ph.D., ABPP, is a psychologist-psychoanalyst in private practice in Orange, California, specializing in the training of psychotherapists and psychoanalysts. He is Director of the Listening Perspectives Study Center and the Founding Director of the Newport Psychoanalytic Institute. He holds faculty appointments at the California Graduate Institute and the University of California, Irvine, Department of Psychiatry. Dr. Hedges holds Diplomates from The American Board of Professional Psychology and The American Board of Forensic Examiners. He is author of numerous papers and books on the practice of psychoanalytic psychotherapy
Patricia Katsky, Ph.D., is an adjunct faculty member at Pacifica Graduate Institute. She is a Jungian Analyst with a practice in Los Angeles and the Santa Ynez Valley. She founded and directs a non-profit mental health clinic, Counseling West, in Los Angeles, and is a past president of the C.G. Jung Institute of Los Angeles.
Aaron Kipnis, Ph.D., is author of Angry Young Men: How Parents, Teachers, and Counselors Can Help "Bad Boys" Become Good Men; What Women and Men Really Want; Knights Without Armor; and numerous articles on male roles and gender relations. Aaron is a core faculty member at Pacifica Graduate Institute and regularly presents his research at other institutions such as Harvard, U.C. Berkeley, and Tulane. He is an international speaker and consultant on male psychology to myriad research groups, training institutions, and policy advisors such as the Little Hoover Commission on Youth Crime and Violence.
Donald M. Marcus, M.D., is a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Psychoanalytic Center of California. He was trained in "Classical American" Psychoanalysis, and then later had a Kleinian analysis and supervision with Wilfred Bion. He has written papers on unconscious communication, countertransference, self-disclosure, and intuition.
Kathee Miller, MA, MFT, is a soul-centered depth psychotherapist in Santa Barbara, and has been integrating Jungian/Archetypal psychology, Authentic Movement, Hakomi Body-oriented therapy, mystical practice and the expressive arts into her private practice since 1980. She is co-founder of Healing & Creative Arts Seminars and is adjunct faculty at Pacifica Graduate Institute. Also a poet and visual artist, she facilitates groups on The Body as Sacred Text.
Avedis Panajian, Ph.D., is a Diplomate in Clinical Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology. He is a Training and Supervising Analyst at Psychoanalytic Center of California, Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis, and NPI. Dr. Panajian has received the Distinguished Educator Award from California Psychological Associates. He is an adjunct faculty member at Pacifica Graduate Institute and is in private practice in Beverly Hills, California.
Chris Peterson, Ph.D., is the Academic Coordinator and a core faculty member at Pacifica Graduate Institute. She is a licensed psychologist with a certificate in Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy from the Los Angeles Institute and Society for Psychoanalytic Studies. Dr. Peterson is Diplomate of the American Board of Psychological Specialties, with a forensic specialty in Substance Abuse Psychology and has a certificate in Doctoral Addictions Counselor specializing in Alcohol/Drug from the National Board of Addiction Examiners. She has maintained a private practice in Santa Barbara since 1981.
Cathy Rives, M.D., is a psychiatrist, Jungian Analyst, and Chair of the Clinical Psychology Program at Pacifica Graduate Institute. She is particularly interested in Jungian developmental theory, a way of working analytically that integrates Jungian theory, Object Relations, and Self Psychology. She is also pursuing a new field of study, the law, motivated by a desire to participate more effectively in the field of non-human animal rights.
Estelle Shane, Ph.D., is a Training and Supervising Analyst at the Los Angeles Psychoanalytic Institute and Society and the Institute of Contemporary Psychoanalysis in Los Angeles. She is a founding member and a past president of ICP, on the clinical faculty of UCLA Department of Psychiatry, and has authored and co-authored many articles on Self Psychology, development, and attachment theory. She co-authored Intimate Attachments: A Developmental Systems Self Psychological Approach to the Psychoanalytic Situation. Her most recent article, published in Psychoanalytic Inquiry, March 2001, concerns the connection between this theory and neurobiology, specifically the role of the mirror neuron in psychodynamic change.
Barbara D. Stephens, Ph.D., is a clinical psychologist, Jungian analyst on the faculty of the C.G. Jung Institute of Los Angeles, and an adjunct faculty member of Pacifica Graduate Institute. She is interested in the nature of dialogue as it manifests in a variety of relationships and settings. Her recent publications examine the letters between Freud and Jung, the disputations between Jung and Martin Buber, and the Jungian themes in Post-Freudian thought. She was a tenured professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison before becoming the Clinical Director of USC's graduate program in counseling psychology. Dr. Stephens has been twice honored with distinguished academic teaching awards and currently maintains a private practice in West