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/***
StyleSheet for use when a translation requires any css style changes.
This StyleSheet can be used directly by languages such as Chinese, Japanese and Korean which need larger font sizes.
***/
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}
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<div class='header' macro='gradient vert [[ColorPalette::PrimaryLight]] [[ColorPalette::PrimaryMid]]'>
<div class='headerShadow'>
<span class='siteTitle' refresh='content' tiddler='SiteTitle'></span>&nbsp;
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<div class='subtitle'><span macro='view modifier link'></span>, <span macro='view modified date'></span> (<span macro='message views.wikified.createdPrompt'></span> <span macro='view created date'></span>)</div>
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To get started with this blank [[TiddlyWiki]], you'll need to modify the following tiddlers:
* [[SiteTitle]] & [[SiteSubtitle]]: The title and subtitle of the site, as shown above (after saving, they will also appear in the browser title bar)
* [[MainMenu]]: The menu (usually on the left)
* [[DefaultTiddlers]]: Contains the names of the tiddlers that you want to appear when the TiddlyWiki is opened
You'll also need to enter your username for signing your edits: <<option txtUserName>>
These [[InterfaceOptions]] for customising [[TiddlyWiki]] are saved in your browser

Your username for signing your edits. Write it as a [[WikiWord]] (eg [[JoeBloggs]])

<<option txtUserName>>
<<option chkSaveBackups>> [[SaveBackups]]
<<option chkAutoSave>> [[AutoSave]]
<<option chkRegExpSearch>> [[RegExpSearch]]
<<option chkCaseSensitiveSearch>> [[CaseSensitiveSearch]]
<<option chkAnimate>> [[EnableAnimations]]

----
Also see [[AdvancedOptions]]
<<importTiddlers>>
<<link 1676347501>>

<<<
The purpose of this research is to enrich and deepen our understanding of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by employing a Jungian depth psychological perspective. The hermeneutic-theoretical method forms the basis for a thematic/textual approach to the "text" of OCD as defined by various sources and viewpoints, including the DSM-IV-TR . In this way, a bridge may be formed between the standard body of knowledge regarding OCD and the field of Jungian depth psychology.

This work aims to bring a greater sense of meaning and purpose to our current conceptualizations of OCD while establishing the nature of the deeper foundational forces at work in such cases. In the current study, links are clearly established between OCD and the Jungian viewpoint in areas as diverse as Jungian typology, modern music, mythology, and the connection between humans and the divine. The goal is to carve out some new territory as the material currently available on OCD from a Jungian depth perspective is sparse at best.

<<<
<<link 726041421>>

This study describes one group of adolescents participating in a daily psychotherapeutic group, Back Talk. For 18 weeks, sessions were conducted in a public school in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The multi-cultural, co-educational group of nine eighth-grade students was treated as a case study utilizing the following data: Self-Report instruments, creative writing, drawings, and direct observation. Themes of anxiety, sadness, anger, and hope organized the psychological emergence of the students in this study. It was concluded that adolescence is dominated by grief associated with leaving childhood, feelings of not having had a childhood, and a felt sense of exclusion from adulthood. Adolescents cope uniquely. This study expands opportunities for understanding adolescent behavior and their unique presentation during a rapidly changing emotionally vacillating phase of the life-cycle.
<<link 731857241>>

A comparison between Jungian, archetypal, and Buddhist psychology was undertaken to identify mutual connections in their approach to suffering and its alleviation. The research focuses on the nondual, postmodern aspects of these traditions which question the Cartesian dichotomies between self and other, knower and known, and spirit, soul, and world. As such, the Middle Way of Buddhism is similar to the middle territory of soul and imagination. In Buddhist thought, suffering is caused by the illusion that we are separate from our experience. Realizing the fundamental interdependent and impermanent nature of life frees one from this limited viewpoint. Both Buddhism and depth psychology deconstruct the habitual ego and help us recognize our essential "no-thingness." Jung's concept of the Self, the polytheistic perspective of archetypal psychology, and the Buddhist concept of no-self ( anatta ) are discussed as perspectives which are liberating in this regard. Archetypal and imaginal psychology deepen the links between Buddhism and depth psychology by their emphasis on the phenomenology of images, process, and soul as a mode of perception which illuminates the dynamic and metaphorical nature of existence. Buddhist teachings emphasize a similar experientially based openness and nonjudgmental attitude towards life. Both traditions recognize that healing is to be found in accepting life as it is, and they offer ways to increase equanimity and compassion in the face of life's difficulties. Vipassana (insight meditation) and mindfulness practice are compared to the archetypal dreamwork methods of Aizenstat, Hinman, Sardello, and Watkins. Both techniques help reduce rigid identification with habitual consciousness (the tendency to reify and literalize life); they increase our tolerance for ambiguity, multiplicity, and change; and they enhance our appreciation of the "suchness" and soulful qualities of life. A natural result of these perspectives is the extension of psychology and spiritual practice into the world whether by tending the world soul or bringing compassionate awareness and action into daily personal life. Engaged Buddhism and ecopsychology are compared as parallel movements within their respective traditions which seek to heal the separation between self and world. Implications for the field are discussed.
<<link 1941965511>>

<<<
The purpose of this study is to understand whether a negative correlation exists between depression and a diet high in various proteins, fruits and vegetables among a non-clinical sample of adults. For this survey style study, undergraduate psychology students ( N = 188) from a university in the Northwest were asked to complete a Center for Epidemologic Studies Depression Scales (CESD; Radloff, 1977), an original food frequency questionnaire (Breiholz, 2009), a demographic information form, and an informed consent. Independent samples t -tests from this survey-study did not support the hypothesis that depression scores are negatively correlated with diets higher in various proteins, fruits, and vegetables. Further, no negative correlations were found between depression scores and any of the variables of various proteins, fish, or fruits and vegetables when analyzed independently. However, when males only were analyzed, a significant negative correlation was found between depression scores and a diet higher in various proteins. A significant negative correlation was also found between depression scores and the variable of various proteins and the variable of fruits and vegetables when analyzed independently in males only. No negative correlation found was when depression scores were analyzed with the variable of fish intake in males only. Neither were negative correlations found when these variables were analyzed with females only. It is unclear why a negative correlation was not found when these variables were analyzed in female participants only. Perhaps a larger sample size would be able to demonstrate a negative correlation in female participants and also in both male and female participants together.

In working with depressed patients in a clinical setting, it is useful to know if the amount of specific foods a person eats has a negative correlation with depression. More research in this area will help to shed light on the possible need to explore nutritional intake with clients.


<<<
<<link 728970271>>

Carl Jung was one of the first therapists to propose that the symbolism produced by his patients and symbolism found in varying world cosmologies had commonalties. These universal symbolic elements have been shown to correspond to the cosmic archetypes found throughout worldwide cultures and are often demonstrated through ritual, imagery, and the creative arts. 

This dissertation is a phenomenologically based discourse using a hermeneutic method to explore the impressions of the culturally relevant creative arts with Native American Indians who demonstrate significant at-risk behavior. Past programs that focused on pathology and symptomatology have not been effective in ameliorating the tragic legacy of the American Indian. Despite what appears to be much investment of money, time, personnel, and programs, Native American Indians still suffer from some of the highest rates of at-risk behavior, to include suicide, domestic violence, accidents, ill-health, and poverty in our country. The focus has for too long not served the needs or worldviews of Native Americans. 

This author believes that risky behavior, which has been part of the Native legacy, is a mask that has been used in attempt to cover and at times to soothe the incredible soul wound that has been oozing for generations. The medicine for such a wound has been sought through the ways of Western medicine. This, however, is not the only source of healing. There is within the ancient psyche of Native America an extremely strong cultural heritage. By integrating this heritage within an application of the analytical psychology of Carl Jung, a powerful collaboration can transpire. 

A culturally relevant creative arts program is one means to illustrate the symbolism, imagery, cosmology, poetry, art, and music of a civilization that has thrived on the symbolic languages of the soul. Tribes have within their own structures a wealth of resources that need only to be revived in order for their power to be realized. Besides culturally relevant arts, sweat lodges and talking circles were also implemented, as a means of accessing the wounded psyche and empowering those at risk through culturally relevant experiences. 

Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology that cultivates a cross-fertilization of cross-cultural ideologies, authentic visions based on the strengths and not the pathologies of American Indians were established. Culturally specific integration of cross-cultural relationships allowed for empowerment of individual and community resources. 

The analytical psychology of Carl Jung opened wide the doors of inquiry, as each culture draws on the symbolic life of their own roots. To Walk In Beauty for the contemporary Native American is to be able to walk not only in two worlds, but also in the all inclusive millennium moccasins. This study has given us a base to work with Native Americans, as well as other cultures that are experiencing transformation, in order to resonate with their more authentic self.
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This dissertation attempts to reveal the healing and transformative power inherent in the contained process of singing and vocal sounding. It is a hermeneutical exploration of three disciplines: Jungian psychology, voice therapy as a subfield of clinical music therapy, and cultural anthropology. Several indigenous cultures from all over the world are presented to introduce other cultures' relationship to vocal sound healing. Each of the three disciplines offers containers in which healing and transformation through singing and sounding take place. The Jungian therapeutic process is demonstrated to be one vessel in and through which vocal sound healing can occur, the small but burgeoning field of clinical voice therapy is shown as providing ritual containers for transformation through singing and vocal sounding, and indigenous cultures are presented which utilize song and vocal sounding—with the assistance of animal figures—to induce healing in ritual formats. The way in which voice and song is used for healing in these three disciplines, and the places where these disciplines overlap, is explored. A clinical voice therapy case from the author's private practice is presented which includes points of reference to all three disciplines. The specific case and the dissertation as a whole reveal the individual and cultural process of moving from inhibited to uninhibited vocal sounding and emoting through the assistance of an animal figure, the bear. In addition, the dissertation offers a Jungian analysis of the fairytale The Little Mermaid to deepen the discussion of vocal inhibition and the wounding of psyche. The contrast between Western and indigenous worldviews regarding vocal sounding, emotional expression, and healing modalities sets the stage for critical suggestions as to how Western culture can incorporate the transformative power of voice and song into traditional and radical healing contexts.
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The primary purpose of this study was to compare the behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms among Hispanic ( N = 43) and non-Hispanic White ( N = 73) Alzheimer's disease patients. Of the patients who participated, 57% were female, 43% were male, 56% were non-Hispanic white, and 44% were Hispanic. The hypotheses formulated were based on an extensive literature review and were tested using archived data collected from a sample of community-based Alzheimer's disease patients evaluated at the Wien Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Memory Disorders, an affiliated clinic of Mount Sinai Medical Center and the University of Miami School of Medicine. The MANOVA conducted showed a significant main effect for ethnicity [Wilks' Lambda = .89, F (7, 131) = 2.2, p = .04]. This significant main effect was followed by a series of one-way ANOVAs. Significant between group differences emerged for the following factors: Delusional Ideation [ F (1, 137) = 6.0, p = .02] and Anxiety [ F (1, 137) = 5.6, p = .02]. Compared to non-Hispanic white patients, Hispanic patients evidenced increased symptoms of anxiety and delusional ideation. The ANOVAs failed to find that ethnicity was associated with hallucinations, activity disturbance, aggressiveness, depression, and diurnal disturbances. Due to a clinically based small sample size, the purported results may not be interpreted as possible universal aspects of Hispanics with Alzheimer's disease. Future research of Hispanics with Alzheimer's disease will help determine whether these findings are universal and generalizable to other Hispanic subgroups in the community. Overall, these findings are important to future research focusing on ethnic and cultural factors affecting dementia patients and their family caregivers.
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This dissertation attempts a therapeutics of culture by exploring hermeneutically the archetypal relationship between delicate small (DS) and forceful big (FB)—that is, the relationship of unequal power in which the more powerful exploits the others energy and curtails daily freedoms, never intending equality to result. and relational is defended, and identification with the archetype is said to produce at least five states of mind: Absorption in FB, Awakening to being a victim, Fascination with the relationship, Becoming FB, and Neither/Nor. Second, the nature of a depth psychological cultural-historical frame is described—an approach to history emphasizing what is most denied yet begs to be heard—and then that frame is provided. One area of history that has been particularly ignored is what is called prehistory, with its remarkable peace. Also denied is the traumatic change at the end of the Neolithic when incursions of horse-riding nomads brought warfare, kingship, and slavery. Instead there is the glorification as the dawn of civilization a spreading barbarism arising from the nomad's dedication to expansion (as compared to the Neolithic agriculturists' acceptance of limits). Expansion was and is joyous, another point denied. However, it required for the first time in human experience the exploitation of another being, the horse, creating the first DS/FB relationship. Third, three collectively repressed examples of DS are considered—the horse, the person born with a highly sensitive nervous system, and the archetype of the little girl. In the process diverse texts are explored: a standard college history textbook, archeological theories, a Vedic Upanishad, two novels, psychological research articles, a Greek tragedy, a dream, and a folktale, as well as occasional transferential material as it arose during the work and provided additional insights.
<<link 1127211421>>

This study seeks to contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of youth-perpetrated American school shootings through a depth psychological analysis of the Columbine Massacre, which occurred on April 20, 1999. Events leading up to the tragedy are examined along with the developmental and school histories of the perpetrators. Based on available information, a motivational understanding of the shooters' behavior is advanced. Anxiety in an adolescent personality dominated by the intra-psychic defense structure known as aggressive narcissism is revealed as the consistent and specific setting for the incubation of the homicidal tendencies which are enacted in school shootings. These principles are believed to be applicable beyond the Columbine incident and to this end biographical information regarding shooters other than those at Columbine is included to a lesser extent. This dissertation addresses the question of what is a depth-psychological understanding of the Columbine Massacre and the phenomenon of American school shootings. A cultural-textual hermeneutic research method is used to construct new meanings from psychoanalytic and depth-psychological texts as they are brought to bear on the subject of school shootings. The literature review elucidates the relevant principles of psychoanalytic thought, beginning with Freud, before moving on to discuss defense structures, object-relations models, and narcissistic pathology. The etiology of aggressive behavior will also be discussed from a developmental perspective as well as from a sociobiological/evolutionary perspective. The literature review constantly dialogues with what is known about the school shooters to test the hypothesis that these tragic incidents are examples of aggressive narcissism run amok. Within this dialogue, the origins of narcissistic pathology are explored as they relate to development amidst the (suburban) culture of 21st-century America. Finally, recommendations are presented both from an immediate, functional, logistical perspective, as well as from a depth psychological frame, with the objective of reducing the frequency of mass school shootings to the greatest extent possible.
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Individuals living with terminal illness experience dream intensification and acceleration. This heuristic study examines how depth psychology, specifically dream processing and amplification have therapeutic value to those experiencing end-of&mdash;life dreams and psychospiritual, existential distress. The research concludes that dream processing can move persons from psychospiritual and existential distress to an experience of individuation (psychological differentiation and divesting the self of false wrappings), rebirth (a renewal of the personality), and the numinous (transcendent experience of the self). Case studies of four hospice patients are followed through the final months of their lives. The composite themes found in the group's dream amplification experience include: (a) confronting and integrating the death-archetypes in dreams is the most challenging element in processing end-of- life dreams; (b) dreams evoke deep existential, philosophical and religious questioning in the attempt to find meaning and purpose in illness; (c) dreams evoke the need to renegotiate self-identity in illness; (d) shadow characteristics of death-archetypes evolve to archetypes of transformation and meaning; (e) dreams evoke the sense that the psyche survives death; (f) dream processing evokes a deeper sense and mindfulness of being "in the moment" versus a Janus-faced experience of being overwhelmed by past and anticipatory future psychospiritual challenges. A depth psychological research methodology: Alchemical Hermeneutics , developed by Robert D. Romanyshyn and Veronica Goodchild (2003) at Pacifica Graduate Institute, is integrated into the case studies. It is a method that keeps soul in mind in the research, thus liberating the imaginal life by way of dreams, processing of complexes and transference dialogues as autonomous voices of the researcher's soul. Research implications include: (a) dreams evoke increased levels of wholeness and individuation; (b) dreams are preparatory and help the individual to better cope with death and dying; (c) dreams evoke a sense of soul- survival; (d) dream processing enhance the patient's sense of autonomy and empowerment in the medical milieu; (e) the Alchemical Hermeneutic method expands the clinician's internal awareness thus making him or her more therapeutically effective; (f) a depth-dream paradigm is more truly psychospiritual in nature thus offering a viable therapeutic model for Chaplains, Pastoral and Spiritual Counselors.
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Cooking is an everyday, ordinary practice. It is a simple, yet complex ritual that provides a perfect metaphor for valuing and understanding body wisdom. Hidden within the commonplace experience of cooking is an extraordinary rite that ensouls life. The prayer "Give us this day our daily bread" expresses simply and profoundly the deep relationships between food, the body, and the sacred. While the divisions between food and, feelings, mind and body are unclear, we may, through the art of cooking, understand our biological hunger as the body's need to replenish itself and in addition, the soul's desire to give meaning to life. The cooking process, as focused upon in this study, places food and eating in the larger contexts of spiritual and psychological development. The symbolic matrix of the cook, all the different parts that combine to make the cook who and what she or he is, serve the individuation process in a fundamental way. Everyone has to eat. Growth is contingent upon the taking in of nourishment. We cannot live apart from our relationship to the cook. Depth psychologists are involved with psychic transformation, helping patients learn how to eat the mental foods that support their psychological development. When the psychologist has done his or her job well enough, the patient becomes the eater in life and develops into the cook for his or her own psychic transformation. Depth psychology encourages those processes, which support the psychological aspects of life that ask that something be eaten or assimilated. Cooking, from a depth psychological perspective, is about saying yes to the food in one's life. It is about opening to the process of cooking, eating, and living one's life well. The cooking process attends to wholeness and growth. To become the cook of one's life is to become more deeply engaged with the interiority of psychic material, which feeds body and soul. To be familiar with nature's ingredients and comfortable in the kitchen, and to know how to use one's mind, senses and body in holistic ways, is to build an awareness of the spiritual connection between food, cooking, and other psychological planes. The contemporary films, "Babette's Feast" and "Like Water for Chocolate", provide a deepening of contextuality for depth psychology and the psychological examination of cooking, food and eating. These films serve as research material for expanded understanding, offering images of the ingredients that make the invisible visible. This theoretical dissertation utilizes a hermeneutic methodology and a mythopoetic perspective, it examines cooking images from a personal level of individuation within a younger cook in the film, "Like Water for Chocolate." It also explores the larger context of community through the examination of cooking images of an older cook in the film, "Babette's Feast." Cooking then, is learning, it is life. Eating is more than just feeding the body; to eat is to feed the soul's longing for life: the soul's timeless desire to learn the lessons of earthly existence—love and hate, pleasure and pain, fear and faith, illusion and truth. Therefore, our attitudes towards cooking, food, and eating reflect our attitude to life itself.
<<link 727914301>>

The phenomenon of romantic love, including both its personal and transpersonal qualities, is explored as a reflection of and response to our cultural archetype. The hermeneutic approach of this research looks at the inner world and the outer world of romantic love as mirror reflections of one another. It is proposed that, in a patriarchal society, which values logic and reason, an attitude of mastery and ego control, and the independence of the individual, romantic love serves a compensatory function, not only for the individual but for the culture. It is seen as psyche's means of protest. The study examines the "lived experience" of romantic love through interviews with six subjects, producing not a study of numbers but of love stories. The love stories are viewed as arising from some core of truth in the individual and his/her experience in the world. The romantic love experience is also examined as a symbolic event. The data produced "texts" which are interpreted from a depth psychological perspective, that is, deliteralizing, revisioning, and illuminating. These clinical interviews are analyzed in order to reveal the meaning of the romantic love experience for the subject. Six major constituents of the romantic love experience grew out of the research, and each of these categories was examined through the narratives of the subject. This vantage point produced a four-stage developmental sequence of the romantic love experience. Romantic love is interpreted as a way of experiencing and seeing the world that restores balance, overcomes separateness, and gives soul to an impoverished culture. The clinical implications of this study hold a key to greater self-understanding. These love stories offer an opportunity to understand and integrate shadow and projection, those of the individual and those of a culture, when the unconscious is made conscious. Such is the focus of psychotherapeutic dialogue when practiced from a depth psychological perspective.
<<link 1697887151>>

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This study provides a quantitative description of the impact of chronic, complex abuse on the object relations and intrapsychic functioning of children. Specifically, data regarding the Rorschach variables of 232 children and adolescents, ages 5-18 at the time of testing, who have experienced chronic complex abuse are reported and discussed within an object relations framework. Variables from Exner's Comprehensive System, Urist's Mutuality of Autonomy Scale, Kwawer's Interpersonal Modes of Relating, and Gacono and Meloy's Aggression Variables are used. The results are consistent with object relations theory, indicating deficits in ability to think about experience, reduced coping capacity, polarized representations of self and other, denial of dependency needs, internalized aggression, maladaptive interpersonal behavior, and fragmentation. In addition, historical and clinical data characterizing the sample are reported. This data yielded useful information regarding etiology as well as caregiver and provider perception of these children. Treatment that does not assume the presence of psychological resources and that helps these children gradually develop a degree of integration, ego strength, and the capacity for mentalization is indicated.
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This research attempts to establish the possibility of a developmental process that begins in the womb, based on the four psychological functions of intuition, sensation, feeling, and thinking as described by Carl G. Jung. Primary questions are the following: Do the four psychological functions occur in the individual human psyche in a given order? If an order exists, what would it be? What are the implications inherent in the possibility that an order can be said to exist? Mythology, religion, and various archetypes are utilized and interpreted to establish the hypothesis that an order exists, with intuition being the first psychological function in the human psyche occurring in the womb, followed by the functions of sensation, feeling, and thinking, which appear, in this order, at birth. Aspects of the transcendent function, or the union of opposites as described by Jung, are considered essential to the developmental process. The transcendent function is assumed to be linked to the four functions from the beginning of life. All four functions and their possible relationships to each other are discussed, but a special emphasis is placed on the function of intuition as the first (and last) psychological function and as the basis of the soul complex. The function of sensation is seen as the basis of the ego complex. This initial ordering of the functions, intuition as the beginning of consciousness in the unconscious, sensation as the beginning of consciousness in the ego-complex, is seen as universal, just as the myths which illustrate this process are universal in their distribution and in their application regardless of the local type emphases of particular cultures and the individual type preferences of the individuals in those cultures. To support this theory, myths that describe the interactions of these two archetypes leading to the coniunctio, as an expression of the Self, will be discussed. It is also postulated that the experience of being in the womb can be interpreted as the foundation for the paradise mythology of Genesis. Genesis can be seen as a metaphor for the womb experience and the Fall can be seen as a metaphor for the experience of birth. The motif of returning to the womb, or returning to Paradise, describes the experience of returning to the psychological state first experienced in the womb. Intuition leads to the original state of oneness, with this important difference: The ego or ego consciousness is aware of its awareness, whereas in the original womb experience, it was not. It is suggested that this research contributes to the literature of Jungian developmental psychology by linking elemental processes with the existing concepts of Carl Jung and those of the child analyst Michael Fordham. A connection can also be seen to exist with the work of Jean Piaget concerning the genesis of structures.
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Carl Gustav Jung was deeply concerned about the state of Western society, the corresponding inner state of his fellow human beings, and the survival of the planet. He sought ways to understand the psychic life of humans, psychopathology, and the individuation process into the fall potential of being human. The Yoga Sutras are a subtle and comprehensive map of the human mind and its journey from a state of confusion to a state of Yoga that is clear, still, and focused, allowing for accurate perception. Jung's psychology and the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are expressions and revelations of the thinking and nature of their time and culture. They contribute to our understanding of each other and of human beings in general, because human experience is remarkably similar across time and cultures while also, paradoxically, so unique and different. One is Western and modern, the other is Eastern and ancient. Both systems are based on experiences and their articulation—one of the mind, the other of psyche. The psychology of Jung and the teachings of Patanjali overlap as they address the process, structure, formation, and unfolding of the psyche or of the mind. The significant differences lie in the metaphysical nature of the Yoga teachings and the psychological base of Jung's writings. This results in fundamental variances in the foundation and goals of both systems. This research engages ideas and concepts from Yoga and Jung's psychology about mind and psyche, the goals of the study of Yoga and psychoanalysis, how change occurs, and the effect of their concepts on experience and understanding. It highlights the overlap and concurrent uniqueness of concepts that are being compared. The impact of the dialogue is on the person engaging with ideas from different systems, since similar ideas produce an unusual tension that forces subtle discernment and increases the capacity to perceive the nuances of life.
<<link 1436352291>>

The aim of this study was to develop a theory of spirituality based on personal narratives generated by spiritual images. The themes for the images resulted from the aggregate analysis of the most prevalent domains of a variety of spirituality instruments and definitions. The predominant resulting themes were those of commitment in life, connectedness, search for truth, and search for meaning. Twelve images were chosen for their capacity to evoke a story. These were then shown to 25 participants, who were asked to relate a story about each image using the standard instructions of the Thematic Apperception Test: what happened before, what is happening now, and what will the outcome be, along with what the subjects in the images were feeling and thinking. All the responses were analyzed using grounded theory analysis of data. 

Through eliciting narratives about the experience of spirituality via an apperceptive technique, this research was able to tap into the function of spirituality by accessing more implicit, hidden, and only partially conscious aspects of the personal experience of spirituality. 

An analysis of the narratives reflected six themes: (1)&nbsp;the persistent expression of psychological pain or human suffering, (2)&nbsp;seeking connection with an other, (3)&nbsp;having the expectation of relief, (4)&nbsp;acquiring wisdom, (5)&nbsp;transformation, and (6)&nbsp;transmutation through a transcendent factor. 

Results suggest that the personal spiritual process is motivated by an experience of suffering which generates movement towards a connection with an other (personal or transcendent). The expectation is that of relieving the suffering through acquiring wisdom or through transformation. The process becomes perfected when the search leads to a connection with a transcendent factor, since the suffering then becomes transmuted.
<<link 1273132521>>

This depth psychological study sought, through transcendental phenomenological investigation, to understand the relational dynamics that exist between humans and their canine companions and what the bereaved pet owner experiences when this bond is broken through death. Through the lens of depth psychology and the phenomenological perspective the objectives of this study were to: describe the nature of the human-canine bond and the experience of grieving the death of a canine companion; to uncover the process of grief associated with the death of a companion animal; to explore the applicability of current models of human grief for this process; and to create a depth psychological model of grief specific to canine companion animal loss. This study moved towards the stated research objectives from a transcendental phenomenological perspective that assumes the world is a highly subjective place in need of interpreting rather then of measuring (Merriam, 1988). Drawing on the methods of Moustakas' (1994), Giorgi (1997), Streubert & Carpenter (1995), this study uncovered the lived experience of bereaved pet owners through first-person accounts via open-ended interviews. Emphasis was on wholeness of experience of the human-canine bond, and the meaning and essence of the experience of what it is like when that bond is broken through death. The systematic data analysis model utilized by Moustakas (1994) was selected for this study based on its ability to uncover the essence of experience from the phenomenological data. This study revealed the grief response reported by bereaved pet owners were consistent to that of losing a human loved one such as; shock and disbelief, painful emotions, living in the past, acceptance, reconciliation, and for some transcendence potential. Additionally, bereaved pet owners described emotional, psychological and environmental variables that were unique to the death of a canine companion lending itself to the potential for complicated grief response. Implications of this study are to: give voice to the marginalized population of bereaved canine companion owners, increase awareness and sensitivity of this topic among the psychological community, and provide a process model of canine companion animal loss for mental health professionals.
<<link 1031052351>>

This phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of never married women over 40, who struggled with the stereotypes of "old maid" and "spinster," as well as psychological obstacles brought on by being never married, childless, and middle-aged in a married society. In addition to hearing their personal stories and experiences first hand, this study also discovered healing methods that were derived and utilized successfully by the case subjects in overcoming the stigmas of being never married. These healing methods proved to be instrumental in achieving a life that was meaningful and whole without being a wife and mother. This study interviewed four never-married women over 40 in depth. From this study resulted prominent themes and healing methods shared by the women that lead to self-actualization, independence, enlightenment, and causes greater than themselves. It was a journey that produced jewels inside their hearts and souls, which gave them self-confidence and inner strength that defied all the negativity of being never married. There is still a great lack of research conducted in understanding never-married women over 40 in our culture. Therefore, this study is crucial in showing support for this population, as well as sharing healing methods that may serve as tools for other women who may be struggling alone. This study can also assist therapists to educate themselves about never-married women over 40 and overcome any existing biases, and help restore hope and acceptance to never-married women who are often rejected by society for not following the traditional paths of wife and mother. Overall, this study gives us a glimpse into the private lives of never-married women over 40, who were courageous enough to share their painful memories, as well as their triumphs, in hopes of helping those who may be suffering in silence.
<<link 728970161>>

This study was conducted to explore the felt experiences of a phenomenon referred to as the need to create among four men and women over 75 years of age who saw themselves as creative throughout their entire lives. The data was collected from personal, tape-recorded interviews, and a questionnaire of six specific questions. The analysis of material resulted in four literary portraits. The researcher's impressions and experiences of these four people were incorporated to create individual interpretations. The method used to analyze the data was phenomenological and heuristic. All the portraits and interpretations were reviewed by the participants to ensure validity before inclusion in this study. The findings that resulted from this study support the existence of a separate phenomenon in the process of creativity referred to as a need to create. Each of the chosen participants was able to identify this phenomenon and speak to it as a separately felt experience throughout their long lives. They spoke of this phenomenon in metaphorical terms and identified its inherent qualities. The first of which was that it never goes away. It can lie dormant for a period of time only to surface with a feeling of demand that it be expressed in some new form. Each of the participants chose a variety of ways to express this phenomenon ranging from classical art forms such as music, poetry, and painting to the formulation of theories. All four participants insisted that they made major decisions based upon the need to create but it was unknown if this phenomenon was the reason they moved toward self actualization. For all four participants, the impact of this phenomenon was felt throughout their lives, but none so severely as when the opportunity to express it was removed. It was described as a devastating loss. Among the most significant findings was the discovery that all of the participants saw themselves as creative and in fact referred to themselves as artists, musicians, and the like, from childhood on throughout their lives. The unique contribution that this research makes to the literature is that it offers first hand accounts on the need to create phenomenon over the course of a long life. There has been no research that has uniquely addressed this issue in the contextual frame of phenomenology until now.
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This dissertation explores the existential experience of prostate cancer in the lives of men who have been diagnosed and treated for this disease. The review of literature provides an overview of prostate cancer with an explanation of treatments and side effects of treatments that are utilized to combat prostate cancer. The review of literature also explores biological, psychological, cultural, and archetypal issues involved in the development and maintenance of masculinity of males in our contemporary culture. Prostate cancer treatments affect the biological masculinity of men, and most men are rendered impotent in the medical process that is used to cure prostate cancer. Although surveys have been done regarding quality of life issues of men with prostate cancer, there has been no effort to explore in depth the phenomenological experience of men who are afflicted with this disease and who experience emasculating prostate cancer treatments. This study investigates the phenomenological experience of men who have been treated for prostate cancer using in-depth interviews with nine men with prostate cancer who have experienced prostate cancer treatments that affected their biological masculinity. Each interview was summarized and presented as a portrait that represents the individual story of each man and his experience with prostate cancer. Four fundamental existential themes including corporeality, spatiality, relationality, and temporality were utilized as guides for reflection in the analysis of the data from the transcribed interviews with the men in this study. The analysis of the interviews and portraits in regard to corporeality, spatiality, relationality, and temporality revealed many common issues in the experience of prostate cancer. All of the men in the study experienced profound effects in regard to their biological masculinity that had a significant impact on the intimate relationships of the men and their spouses. Communication with doctors was inadequate for the men in regard to the issues they faced. Prostate cancer support groups were important for all of the men in this study who appreciated an arena where they were able to discuss prostate cancer treatment issues with other men who were afflicted with the disease and understood the issues.
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This dissertation explores the existential experience of scleroderma in the lives of women who have been diagnosed with and who have suffered psychologically from this disease. The review of literature provides an overview of scleroderma with an explanation of medical and psychological treatments that apply to scleroderma. Scleroderma affects women physiologically, biologically, and psychologically, and requires changes in many aspects of their lives. Through in-depth interviews with eight women with scleroderma, this study portrays the phenomenological experience of women who shared the diagnosis of this disease.

Eight women volunteers of different ethnicities between the ages of 30 and 70 years old were randomly selected from the Bay Scleroderma Support Group directory. Each interview was summarized and presented as a portrait that represents the individual story of each woman's experience with scleroderma. Emerging from the analysis of the interviews were nine common thematic areas: (a) initial psychological reaction to diagnosis, (b) initial symptoms with an accurate diagnosis, (c) medical treatment, (d) the psychological effects of scleroderma on women, (e) the affects of physical changes and appearance, (f) physical limitations and challenges, (g) scleroderma's life-threatening aspects, (h) psychological treatment, (i) and being a woman with scleroderma. These themes were utilized as guides for reflection in the discussion of the effect scleroderma had on the lives of the women. Most prior studies of women with scleroderma have focused the physical effects of scleroderma without analyzing the psychological effects encountered in regard to the lived experience of the illness. As indicated in the findings, among these women, the psychological aspects of the experience of scleroderma seemed less important than the physical aspects. Their resistance to receiving counseling was high however, a variety of emotional responses to this disease were found to affect the women personally, socially, and in relationship with their partners.

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This dissertation explores the experience of psychotherapists' love for their clients. A review of the literature examines definitions and forms of love as well as countertransference love according to psychoanalytic, object relations, self psychology, Jungian, existential, and feminist theories. In the history of psychology, love for clients has been ignored, repudiated, or inferred obliquely, but rarely cited as central. Nowhere has it been named and explored explicitly, thoroughly, and phenomenologically. This study addresses that gap by examining therapists' experiences of love for their clients through in-depth interviews with eight psychotherapists from a variety of theoretical orientations. Analysis of the data using a hermeneutic phenomenological method reveals 23 themes descriptive of the experience, including vision of the client's deeper essence and the concomitant experience of their unique beauty; understanding; authenticity, discernment, and truth; vulnerability; opening, welcoming, and presence; union; meeting, mutuality, and reciprocity; sacrifice, suffering, and the related experience of hate in the therapeutic relationship; dangers and illusions of love; lack of support from the profession for loving one's clients; and love as a mystery involving a larger source beyond the self. These elements are fairly consistent across all interviews, even though the form of love varies according to the individual. Neither the form nor the elements are static; love is a fluid and ephemeral experience which cannot be reduced to a formula. Each interview is presented thematically. Theoretical, clinical, and training implications of the data are discussed, including the problem of boundary violations engendered by failure to acknowledge appropriate, healthy forms of love. The co-researchers report that authentic, non-violating love leads therapy into deeply transformative territory for both parties. Being a psychotherapist is often experienced as a practice in love. For some, a core of love inherent in the act of psychotherapy is always present and may or may not lead to additional forms of love; for others, the successful therapeutic relationship inevitably leads to a full and unique experience of love for the individual client beyond that which is intrinsic to the role of psychotherapist.
<<link 1404355681>>

This study focused on the lived experience of women with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. In pursuit of the following phenomenologically oriented psychological research, 2 questions related to the topic at hand were addressed: what is the phenomenon that is experienced and lived, and how does it reveal itself? 

Descriptions of lived experience were gathered during interviews with 6 anorexic and bulimic women, and were analyzed using the philosophy and methodology described by Giorgi (1985). From a reflective analysis of the material revealed, I identified meaning units that were transformed in order to create individual psychological structures and then a general structure with regard to the lived experience of the woman with anorexia and bulimia nervosa. 

The general psychological structure contained the following essential features gathered from the analyses of the narratives: The onset of anorexia or bulimia occurred during childhood or adolescence and was experienced as an intrusive presence, regarded and lived out with ambivalence. Difficulty with separation and boundary confusion created an atmosphere in which the anorectic or bulimic woman became utterly dependent upon her disorder for a cohesive sense of self. Her engagement in the eating-disordered behaviors was often an attempt to meet selfobject functions as well as a reaction to the absence of a healthy superego. By living out her eating disorder, the anorectic or bulimic woman simultaneously denied and gave expression to needs and feelings she could not "mentalize." 

Concretization of her emotional experiences in her physical body helped her to tolerate overwhelming feelings that included "nothingness" and were a feature of the anorexic and bulimic landscape. Each woman in this study lived her eating disorder differently at different times. No symptom was experienced the same way all the time. The eating disorder was regarded as highly personal and fraught with complex and multiple meaning: it could be what she needed it to be.
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The purpose of this study is to explore in depth the lived experience of participating in yoga during an individual's recovery from drugs or alcohol. Yoga is a potential alternative to traditional approaches to addiction and recovery. Eight subjects were interviewed using a phenomenological, open-ended interview method. They were individuals who were able to articulate their experience clearly, no longer perceived themselves to be actively addicted to drugs or alcohol, and who voluntarily used yoga during recovery. At the beginning of each interview, subjects were asked, "please describe for me, in as much detail as possible, your experience of using yoga during your recovery." In order to offset the researcher's bias that it would be a positive experience, subjects were also asked, "were there any negative associations to participating in yoga during your recovery?" The findings of this study are presented in Chapters 3 and 4. Individual depictions that give the reader the opportunity to hear each interviewee's experience in her own words make up Chapter 3. Chapter 4 presents common themes derived from phenomenological data analysis methods. Three aspects of being in recovery as discussed by subjects are (1)&nbsp;alcoholism in the family of origin, (2)&nbsp;perfectionism and other alcoholic personality traits, and (3)&nbsp;the impact of Alcoholic's Anonymous (AA). Three aspects of using yoga during recovery are (1)&nbsp;the role of the yoga teacher, (2)&nbsp;addiction to yoga, and (3)&nbsp;yoga as a reflection of mental or emotional states. Specific areas of life affected by using yoga during recovery were (1)&nbsp;physical, (2)&nbsp;mental or emotional, (3)&nbsp;spiritual, and (4)&nbsp;relationships. Parallels between yoga and recovery, as discussed by subjects, were (1)&nbsp;slow but long lasting changes, (2)&nbsp;intangibility or subjectivity of the experience, and (3)&nbsp;discipline or structure. Finally, there are themes regarding contraindications of using yoga during recovery. Although there are clinical studies, theoretical and philosophical writings, as well as practical guides written to address the population of people using yoga during recovery from drugs or alcohol, there is not a body of literature that focuses on the lived experience of those individuals. It is the researcher's intention that others considering using yoga during their recovery from drugs or alcohol will benefit from this study.
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This phenomenological study addressed the emotional and psychological effect of aging mothers upon Mexican American daughters in the middle socioeconomic level of the population. The middle socioeconomic sector was chosen as the focus of this study when my research into available resources for these elderly and their families revealed a dearth of material. Some literature on the Hispanic population as a whole and various resources addressing Mexican American aged of lower socioeconomic status exists. But this researcher could find almost nothing that addressed the emerging working professional segment of the Mexican American population. I wished to know if other Mexican families of our American-born generation still honored the cultural tradition of caring for their elder parents at home as my family had. I made the assumption that this traditional aspect of our culture, regardless of socioeconomic status, still remained intact. That assumption proved to be valid, as borne out by my research with the families who served as my co-researchers on this project. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with two families, each consisting of three daughters. The interviews took place within a 2-month period, the co-researchers having previously been sent five questions that would be addressed during our meeting. The interviews followed a conversational, yet semi-structured, semi-open-ended format which was the mode selected most conducive to encouraging expression, elucidation, and disclosure of the experience being investigated. From these interviews, narratives were created of each participant's experience. The findings in my research are derived from the unfolding of words, stories, and remembrances of those lived experiences by Mexican American daughters and their journey with an aging parent. Additionally, it is this writer's hope that the data that has emerged will serve to further enhance insight and awareness into the importance of cultural sensitivity and ethnicity in mental health and why the honoring of such is crucial for more effective and relevant therapeutic work.
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Many attempts have been made to integrate psychological findings with theological formulations. This dissertation proposes a hermeneutic discourse between depth psychology and theology in which a network of interrelated meanings becomes accessible. The treatise inquires into the interdisciplinary relationship in order to demonstrate that a theological method is feasible with a grounding in psychology, the science of the psyche. It explores the landscape from which both proceed: the psyche as the ground of our shared human existence. It also examines the language of psyche: symbol and creative imagination. The theological and psychological image of transcendence is the hermeneutic premise of both disciplines of inquiry. The methodology of this dissertation is a hermeneutic approach based upon an interdisciplinary relationship within a network of intersubjective meanings. This is not an eclectic process whereby pieces of each tradition of study are merged into one, but rather a cross-fertilization in which each tradition of inquiry evokes the imaginal life of the other. It addresses human experiences, especially transcendence, that are meaningful and integrated through creative imagination. This methodology is achieved through the hermeneutic circle, a dialectic procedure consisting of relationships between the whole and its parts, between the knower and that which is known. The hermeneutic method cultivates a symbolic vision in a network of relationships between the analytical psychology of Carl Jung, the transcendental method of the theology of Karl Rahner and Bernard Lonergan, and the archetypal imagination of Henry Corbin. Within the hermeneutic communication between these disciplines, the psyche is the place of human existence and religious experience. Psyche is image, and speaks through a hermeneutic of language in poetic discourse and creative imagination. It is preeminently a hermeneutics of symbols discovered in a collaborative relationship. A psyche-centered vision overcomes the dualism between mind and world, belief and experience, and discloses the archetype of meaning between depth psychology and theological investigation.
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This study examines the Amish group persona to learn more about the psychology of a people who express themselves through a group identity. The Jungian concept of persona is used as a framework for this examination. Carl Jung's ideas regarding persona and those of post-Jungians presently working in the field are presented. In order to become familiar with Amish culture, an extensive review of scientific studies, biographies, sociological studies, religious studies, and Amish literature and fiction was completed. From the studies examined, it is suggested that identifying with a persona is a viable option for maintaining a distinct heritage, as well as a particular type of internal and external psychology. A large shadow, often an outcome of a strict adherence to persona, was not found. It is hypothesized that this is due to the Amish culture's development of containers for shadow. Adoption of persona is also found to provide a structure for the developmental stages of a person's lifespan as conceived of by Erik Erickson. Conscious adoption of a group persona is seen to have psychologically beneficial effects in coping with modernity in a fast-changing world. The archetype of persona with its emphasis on community is found to serve as a mediator towards Self. It is concluded that an adherence to persona is a direct experiencing of Self for the Amish culture.
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Consumerism was defined as a theory which stated that an increasingly greater consumption of goods was of economic benefit. The root word, consume, meant to ingest, use up, waste, or destroy totally. A tension was noted between these two definitions as coming from an expectation of something beneficial resulting from waste and destruction. The question posed was: What is the price for the individual living within the theory of consumerism? A hermeneutic method was used to investigate both the parts and whole. The study's organization supported this by centering on four topical areas: history, social sciences, economics, and psychology. Each chapter provided a different perspective, or another part to be studied in relation to the whole. The whole was viewed as the subjects of the question—consumerism and the individual. The history of consumerism showed a relationship between changes in culture and changes in consumption patterns, and that these changes moved away from values of the communal toward those of the individual and material. Social theory saw that whether active or passive, consumers were affected by the symbolic aspects of their purchases. The effects related to desire, need, and meaning. Economics stressed the domination of money relations for people. Psychology described the manner in which a character structure can shape relatedness, or the lack thereof. The finding was that increased levels of consumption have resulted in a new mode of relating. The resulting mode of relating was described as extropersonal, a term coined to describe an outwardly personal relationship. This outward focus denoted a relatedness with the surface or exterior, focused on things, or on people as things. This extropersonal relationship was seen as the symptom of consumerism. It resulted from people looking in the wrong place and in the wrong way for relationships. They looked on the outside and at the surfaces. They looked with the marketplace in mind. Desiring relationships that "work" in terms that the marketplace reflects and respects.
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This study explored how Nepalese shamans and other traditional faith healers in Nepal conceptualize and treat mental illness in their communities. It endeavored to describe the healers' "weltanschauung" (cosmic view) of the phenomenon of madness. The research was designed to investigate certain key questions: How do shamans and faith healers in Nepal describe the general causes of mental disturbance? What is the nature of their classification system of mental illnesses? How do they form diagnoses? How do they attempt to cure insanity? What limitations do they perceive to curing mental illnesses? As no literature was available on the topic of shamanic healing of mental illness, this study reviewed the literature in three broad areas: the general characteristics of shamanism; the particular features of shamanism in Nepal and in the Himalayas; and the relationship between shamanism and insanity. To carry out this investigation, the researcher interviewed two female and three male shamans/faith healers in Kathmandu and in the Nepalese Himalayas. Several translators were used and translations were cross-checked. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed. The responses of shamans and native healers were analyzed to identify themes that related to mental illness and healing approaches. In a final section of the study, themes related to the guiding questions of the research were discussed and amplified with further information. The data obtained in this research present a phenomenological view of how shamans and native healers approach madness and the healing of madness. Their perspective is one in which the inner and outer world, the individual and the collective reality, the "real" and the "imaginal" space, the human and nonhuman world, and the past, present, and future all coexist without contradiction or mutual exclusion, presenting a marked contrast to contemporary Western perspectives.
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This preliminary study of the psychological use of tattoos in lesbian, bisexual, gay, and transsexual tattooees utilizes a grounded theory methodology and 17 tattooed informants who self-identify as outsiders to mainstream culture. Gender nonconformity, rather than sexual orientation, was the primary feature of this sample's sense of outsiderness. A tattoo history was taken during one 2 1/2 hour interview followed by a second 2 1/2 hour reflective interview (clarifying meanings and asking questions about the tattooees' experience). Findings suggest that the subjective meaning of the tattoo process is partly conscious, partly unconscious, the tattoo may be described as a validating, safety-enhancing relational phenomenon that augments the tattooee's sense of control over herself or himself and her experience of being an outsider. First-level open coding revealed experiences that approximated the functions of transitional objects, among other things. Second-level axial coding was applied to the raw data that then revealed that informants' use of tattoos met 13 of Winnicott's criteria for transitional objects. They also function in ways similar to Kohut's (1978) "selfobjects." Examples of each criterion and case studies demonstrating this use are provided. A differential diagnosis guide is provided distinguishing tattooing from addictive behaviors and the self-destructive behaviors accompanying borderline phenomena. The function of the tattoo as a transitional object protects the ego against loss by attaching the tattooee to (m)other: here (m)other can be understood as aspects of the parents or the primary caretaker of any sex, as the maternal nurturing environment (such as a feature of the culture) or as a dissociated or ego-dystonic part of self experience. It also aids the tattooee in differentiating from (m)other and integrating split-off parts of self. This paradox occurs in a dynamic, inter-relational matrix where oscillations occur between inside and outside, self and other, subjective sense of self and an objective self, self and part self to produce a third. This supports a dynamic relational model of self and a model of human development where centrality and marginality are in dynamic tension. Tattoos, when used as transitional objects (as opposed to mental representations) facilitate an embodied sense of self and the development of a gendered subjectivity.
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The presenting problem of this study: Is it possible for a polarity of psychology and Christianity to be established by a juxtaposition of the works of a Christian icon and a psychology icon? This study focuses on mythology, theology, and psychology, weaving masculine and feminine principles into the lacunae of the tapestry (the sodality) of Western Religion, the substructure of the spiritual and psychological development of C. G. Jung and C. S. Lewis. Lewis, despite his unconscious use of (feminine) psychology, considers it antipathetical. Jung, his covert alliance with Christianity notwithstanding, pleads similar antipathetic views towards the institutional Church. Both Lewis and Jung, as children, chose to not trust God or women. Lewis' mother died when he was nine, and God no longer was in good stead with him. He grows up in an all male household with no feminine model. Jung grew not to trust "Lord Jesus," and although his mother was important to him, he, despite the ineptitude of his father, forever trusted men, but not women. Jung and Lewis, two crusty old lions of men, are Garden People (metaphor for humankind). The history of this indefatigable species and their descendents is one of enmeshment in transition between the Garden (wisdom, freedom, growth, and expansion) and the Wilderness (theological systems, rigidity, and stagnation). Jung, entering the garden, embraces the feminine, whereas Lewis does not enter the garden, maintaining a regimental patriarchal Christianity. The dialogue of Jung and Lewis, in which they agree to disagree, exemplifies a divergence and convergence of their mythotheopoeic and psychological positions. As I begin this study, my thoughts are pendulous: Is it possible to fulfill my priestly vows, concurrently practicing psychology according to a Jungian model? An apt danger is polarization, for which no psyche has room. My inner self demands synchronization, solution. For the psyche to be healthy and whole, polarity is not a mere option. My creation of the dialogue of Jung and Lewis changes nothing for them, but allows the cobwebs in my mind to dissipate. Polarity is possible! As one travels the parallel mythology-paved roads of theology and psychology that remain mostly separate, but sometimes converge, the traveler, unconsciously, intentionally, sometimes forcefully, creates a synchronicity. Divergence, like convergence, to be a unit, must have masculine and feminine commonality.
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The purpose of this study is to identify from patients' records an optimal set of predictor variables (model) associated with psychiatric readmissions to an inpatient setting. The Clinton Administration's endorsement of managed competition calls for the establishment of a healthcare delivery system that provides cost-effective as well as comprehensive coverage. As managed care matures into an integrated and capitated healthcare delivery system, the rationing of psychiatric treatment will only expand. A random sample of 101 initial admission adult patient records was examined alongside the records of a total population of 101 readmitted adult patients from a private psychiatric hospital. Readmission within 1 year of discharge was the criterion measure. Sixteen demographic, diagnostic, economic, and community variables were selected for potential predictive power. Chi-square and analysis of variance revealed that readmitted patients have a tendency to be admitted initially at a younger age, are more likely to report suicidal intent/ideation and a history of sexual abuse upon admission, work fewer hours per week, and are given an Axis I and Axis II diagnosis of PTSD and borderline personality disorder respectively, a lower GAF score upon admission, and a lower GAF score for the past year. In addition, the greater the number of previous hospitalizations, the greater is the likelihood of readmission. Multiple linear regression analysis identified a set of four predictor variables (model) which included frequency of prior hospitalizations, Axis II diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, Axis I diagnosis of PTSD, and GAF score upon admission. The model accounted for .5418 of the variance associated with psychiatric readmissions within 1 year and was significant at the .05 probability level. All four of these predictor variables are specific diagnostic characteristics available upon the completion of an initial psychiatric evaluation. It is suggested that these patients would respond best within a facilitated model of care which embraces a strong biopsychosocial orientation. This model creates a continuum of care which utilizes a brief, crisis-oriented inpatient stabilization philosophy accompanied by a full array of partial programs, outpatient, and self-help groups. The facilitated orientation, with its emphasis on diagnostic assessment and treatment protocols, allows the providers of psychiatric services to efficiently manage limited mental health benefits using present cost-containment strategies. Such an approach embraces managed competition's call for comprehensive but cost-effective healthcare coverage.
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The number of mental health professionals interested in and using psychological astrology in their clinical practices is growing. The literature available for clinical work does not offer a paradigmatic synthesis of psychology with psychological astrology. When authors attempt to combine the two disciplines, their information is filtered through either psychology or astrology. An alternative to two distinct approaches is to evolve psychological astrology's dialog by building a body of literature that crosses the lines within and between them. In this dissertation, Jung's theory of personality and Fordham's theory of development are the platform used in a synthesis of psychology and psychological astrology. 

The method through which this inquiry proceeds is an astrological hermeneutic, a research method that combines the interpretive philosophical foundations of the hermeneutic method with analytic psychology and the astrological interpretative method. This study is unique not only from the standpoint of its research method and the symbolic language that was created for it, but also because Fordham's concept of deintegration-reintegration has not been used previously as a lens through which to view a person's life astrologically. This study proceeds through a review of Jung's theory and Fordham's expansion of Jung's ideas, a review of their ideas on synchronicity, and finally a conceptual review of psychological astrology. Through a time analysis of the T-square and two yods in Jung's birth horoscope, this study identifies a synchronistic link between celestial activity and Jung's personal and professional activities from 1901 to 1918. Between these years, Jung's T-square and two yods were activated by transits of Neptune, Uranus, and Pluto and, to a lesser degree, by transiting Saturn and progressions of the Moon and Pluto. Synchronistically, during these transits Jung's life developed in three distinct and overlapping areas. The first was his decision to pursue a medical career in psychiatry and his rise to being internationally known for his word association test and research (1901-1907). The second was his relationship with Freud and the demise of that relationship (1907-1913). The third was his "confrontation with the unconscious" (Jung, 1961/1989, p. 170), between the years 1912 to 1918, from which he drew "everything that I accomplished in later life" (p. 192). 

This work extends the theoretical work of Jung and his colleague Michael Fordham as well as the depth psychological perspective on synchronicity and offers insight to deepen the depth psychological perspective used in astrology.
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Synthetic method, which combines and integrates research and theory from different disciplines, was used to bring together several seemingly contradictory theories of human incest avoidance (HIA) and knowledge from biology, anthropology, psychoanalysis, and analytical psychology. Biology's concept of four levels of explanation (ultimate, proximate, phylogenetic, and ontogenetic) was used to structure the synthesis and to piece together the disparate perspectives into a unified theory. Incest avoidance was defined as the avoidance of sexual activity with an individual according to the perceived family relationship with the individual. Both too close and too distant relationships are innately avoided. The complexes of phenotypic characteristics that constitute HIA include the childhood association aversion, the caregiving aversion, kin recognition, dispersal, female resistance, pair bond, philopatry, xenophobia, male sexual proprietariness, opportunistic out-mating, defense mechanisms, laws, and prohibitions. The phylogenetic explanation finds the origins of sexual aversion and desire in the reproductive (family) and erotic (sexual) responses of our unicell ancestors. The conscious awareness of the father relationship is a phylogenetic event that makes HIA different from incest avoidance in other animals. The ultimate explanation proposes these species-wide benefits of HIA: it lowers the rate of inbreeding and outbreeding anomalies, and it promotes family and clan harmony, loyalty, and individual and family psychological integrity. The proximate explanation demonstrates how ERA complexes function as mechanisms through imprinting and the identification of the complexes with environmental objects. It is proposed that complexes integrate into generalized states which produce proximate action in a flexible manner. The ontogenetic explanation proposes these developmental tasks as key to HIA: bonding and attachment, and separation and individuation (early childhood); splitting the maternal object into familial and erotic aspects, and repression (middle childhood); repression and sublimation, and introjection of the cultural taboo (late childhood); puberty and dispersal (adolescence); identification with the familial aspect of the maternal object and bonding (adulthood).
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The purpose of this theoretical dissertation has been to explore male images presented in children's films, as a way of imagining the current culture's conscious and unconscious relationships to masculine archetypes. A hermeneutical method is used and will be informed by depth psychology, men's studies, mythology, fairy tales, dream work, film, and personal experiences. To achieve a more thorough exploration, several means have been amplified. The first includes examining cinema, as a potential source of temenos, for experiencing masculine archetypes. The second means was to review feminist literature of the last four decades, to highlight the possible effects of limiting the choices available to a gender. The third method, and possibly the most revealing, was to examine the author's experiences, like those of other men, of being a boy and a man in this culture. The last means for seeing this culture's relationship to masculine archetypes was to imagine a more whole experience of masculinity. This was achieved by exposing masculine expressions in film that are often undervalued and under-represented, especially compared to heroic male figures. These less imagined potentials were brought to light by dreams, men's successful mid-life transitions, and some children's cinema. At different times in a person's life or the life of a culture, certain archetypes move in or out of conscious favor. Certainly, the archetype itself is intact. Yet, conscious and unconscious relationships with them change. People can be aware of or even possessed by some archetypes, where as other archetypes remain unconscious. It is proposed that those archetypes not consciously honored by individuals or the culture, are marginalized, neglected, and distorted. This process can leave archetypal masculine potentials, possibly necessary for healthy development and balance, difficult to find, utilize, believe in, and access.
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The purpose of this study is to articulate how psychoanalytic theory presents the primary organization of the human psyche as the dialectic interplay between the opposing and irreconcilable dynamics of the dual instincts, Eros and death. The death instinct is explicitly characterized in the theories of the Nirvana principle, the repetition compulsion and various aggressive reactions to primary anxiety. Yet because of the phenomenon of the unconscious revealed by psychoanalysis, it becomes imperative to locate the implicit form of the death instinct. This leads to the recognition of the death instinct as the unconscious negation of an intrinsic sense of loss. The negation and extroversion of the death instinct thus represents the basic organization of the ego in its neurotic attempts at identifying exclusively with a sense of presence and continuity. These same processes of splitting and projection of the death instinct that are fundamental to the organization of the ego are also located in the structure of history and within the rationalistic methodologies employed by scientists such as Freud. It is concluded that the only possibility of transcending neurosis is through the re-integration of the death instinct. In claiming the loss or absence intrinsic to the self the subject is necessarily de-centered, resulting in both the terror of uncertainty and the humble realization of the ineffable mystery of being that we come to recognize in each other.
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This heuristic theoretical dissertation explains holographic reasoning, demonstrates its usefulness, and recognizes the archetype of holography as a Self archetype resulting in the expression of a personal cosmology, the creation of the holographic mind model, and the presentation of a theory of transcendence. This heuristic research is accomplished through the exploration of a professional bilingual practice (Jungian psychology and holistic psychiatric nursing) spanning 3 decades. This dissertation acknowledges the need for a method of reasoning congruent with technical definitions but supportive of intrapsychic and interpersonal dynamics that transcend, yet invite, all other theoretical methods of reasoning for consideration under the umbrella theory of transcendence. Application of the theory of transcendence begins with composite clinical vignettes exposing aspects of human suffering through denial, obsession, and possession. An example of the psychologizing process is used to demonstrate an experience of transcending an aspect of pathology. Use of the holographic mind model as it reflects the theory of transcendence is generalizable from individual therapy sessions to the level of staff development interventions. Staff development application is demonstrated within the current health-care system in the domains of education, practice, research, and administration. As Jungian psychology finds the quarternity theory of wholeness as a cornerstone, the holographic cosmology also supports the structures of fourfoldedness. For evidence of this quaternary structure, four archetypes selected from the Gaia Matrix Oracle (Kryder, 1990), four images from the Rosarium Philosophorum , (Jung, 1550/1980) four phases of professional practice, and the four phases of the heuristic research method are discussed. An intrapsychic organization occurred in me as the archetype of holography that has been in overt pursuit found containment in my personal cosmology. This internal organization, though difficult to expose, was no less potent than the visible applications of the theory of transcendence in the world. In essence, the value of this heuristic research process has been found both in the world and in my soul. I believe it can also be of value to others who wish to find a model of containment for a world view full of contradictions and paradoxes.
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Using the hermeneutic method, this study presents a depth psychology of vocational life. From a theoretical perspective, it addresses the following question: What is the relationship between psyche and vocation in the context of contemporary American work life? Beginning with an introduction to contemporary work issues, the study surveys the contributions of Freud, Jung, Erikson, Gould, Hillman, and Moore to vocational theory. It explores the development of "calling" in Western spiritual traditions. It describes the cosmology of calling as revealed in Greco-Roman mythology and Christian theology. These perspectives provide the foundation for a depth psychological formulation of the vocational psyche. Variations in vocational identity are based on differences in learning, temperament, and typology. The study traces the evolution of life purpose during various developmental stages. It draws on the research of Piaget, Ainsworth, Pearce, Gardner, Levinson, and other developmentalists. Sections on early childhood, midlife, and late adulthood suggest a thematic structure to the experience of vocation over the human life span. Developmental theory serves as a background for an analysis of the role of public education in career development. Based on these ideas, the study offers a depth psychological theory of vocational counseling. It delineates the roles of assessment, psychotherapy, and psycho-education. It introduces several vocational counseling techniques, including analytic recall, dream work, and active imagination. The research integrates themes from science, philosophy, and psychology. It explores the notion of emergence in physics and psychology, drawing on common ideas of the transcendental origins of the material world. Adopting a transpersonal perspective, it defines human development as a process of self-transcendence. Taking a depth psychological approach, it presents vocation as a vehicle for personal growth.
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This phenomenological study examined the reactions of people in the field of professional psychology who read an anger management training manual. Most people in any given field, including psychology, find that training manuals are boring and cumbersome to read and difficult to abstract information from. They are often detailed and contain a lot of information that is not easily accessible for the person looking for instant information for a specific question. Professional psychologists and therapists at times need information that can be accessed in crisis and emergency situations in dealing with mentally ill people. Very often, they do not have time to look through a detailed training manual to find a crisis intervention they can use at the time of a crisis. This study took all this information into account. A purely phenomenological method was used to explore the specific information that professionals in the field of psychology are looking for in a behavioral training manual. The researcher created an anger management training manual from his own experiences in dealing with the mentally retarded/severely mentally ill population at his internship. A series of anger management classes were given to this population, and an anger management training manual was created with behavioral interventions. After the anger management training manual was created, the researcher gave it to five people to review. Participants were asked to keep in mind specific questions having to do with their reactions to the training manual while reviewing it over a week's time. They were then asked to come back and report to the researcher the strengths and weaknesses they found in the training manual. The researcher then created a second manual based on the participants' feedback and recommendations. The researcher's hope is that the revised anger management training manual is easier to read and use for any professional in the field of psychology dealing with the mentally retarded/severely mentally ill population.
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A descriptive analysis was performed of the clinical presentation of children with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a history of abuse living in a short-term emergency residential facility. An assessment battery including IQ, academic, continuous performance, depression, and behavioral measures was analyzed while attending to potential family, genetic, and environmental variables. These variables included comorbidity, abuse, previous medication treatment, family history of learning disability (LD) and ADHD, and perinatal insults including maternal nicotine, alcohol, and other drug use. A total of 160 cases previously referred for additional psychiatric and psychological treatment were examined and correlations were sought among the variables. Continuous performance testing and depression screening were done repeatedly during medication stabilization. It was revealed that females were more likely to have disruptive disorders, greater levels of comorbidity, and lower IQs. Males, however, had lower hyperactivity scores on behavioral scales. Younger children had lower IQ scores. Most children had experienced perinatal insults but this was not correlated with ADHD. The Conners' Parent and Teacher Rating Scale (CPRS, CTRS) (Conners, 1989, 1997a, 1997b) Hyperactivity scale only predicted comorbid ADHD. Neither of the DSM subscales (CTRS, CPRS) predicted ADHD. The males were rated as having fewer problems on multiple CTRS and CPRS scales. The continuous performance tests (CPTs) did not predict ADHD. The Kovacs Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) predicted depression and also exhibited sensitivity to the abuse including variance based on type of abuse. The relative severity of symptoms for females does not converge with prior studies of comorbid ADHD referred samples. These results suggest that history of abuse, even if not part of the current diagnosis, impacted assessment results more than other sources of crisis. There is an insensitivity of behavioral rating scales to ADHD in this sample of children in crisis. Accordingly, history of abuse or crisis, even if not part of the current diagnosis, should be ruled out in subject selection for future studies involving ADHD owing to potential confounding influence on particular ADHD assessment instruments.
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The cycle of life archetype presents a primary pattern that is true to all organic life forms. Life gives way to death, and death, by means of transformation, regenerates life in a new or renewed form. Death and change are the only facets of life that we can be sure of. Fear of death and resistance to change become obstacles that block the natural flow of the cycle of life archetype. Misalignment with the cycle of life archetype can result in blockages in either somatic unconscious or psychological unconscious, the two poles comprising the subtle body. As the situation progresses, physical or psychological symptoms, such as food addiction or an eating disorder, may emerge. Providing a container in psychotherapy to heal the subtle body is essential in treating an eating disorder. Food dream images that are activated and embodied provide the coagulating factors or materials that can serve to repair the fabric of the subtle body. This research argues that activating food dream images provides a way to nourish the subtle body. When embodied, these images provide the coagulating factors essential to the healing of the field of the subtle body, personally and transpersonally. The research is designed as a theoretical study, making use of a hermeneutic method of interpretation on a theme. The hermeneutic theme threading through this work is this: To eat, be eaten, and thus be transformed, is the essence of the cycle of life archetype—life, death, and regeneration. The premise of this work is that the activation of the food dream image nourishes the subtle body, which in turn feeds the personal psyche and soma and the psyche and soma of the world. The activated food dream image functions as a mediator between the psyche and the soma, strengthening the integrity of the realm of the subtle body through metaphoric consciousness.
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This is a phenomenological dissertation that makes use of a heuristic method to study the influence of the sacred in the formation and healing of addictive disorders. Heuristic research attempts to discover the innate meaning of sacred spiritual experiences in the participants. In-depth interviews corroborate and add depth to each participant's lived experience. Interpretation of the data involves a multi-level process. The interviews from each participant are revisited in a six-step process to hear the person's story in depth. The 7th through the 10th steps are a comprehensive analysis of the individual participants illumination of their sacred spiritual experiences expressed holistically that most closely represents the phenomenon being studied. An impassioned portrayal of the phenomenon of the participant's sacred numinous experience is presented. The individual is allowed to perceive the unity of the cosmos, fuse with it, and rest in it: completely satisfied in the yearning for wholeness. It fills from within and extends beyond the Self, embracing the universe. Destiny is revealed and Life's purposes are realized. There is liveliness, spontaneity, joy, playfulness, and wonder exuding from the Self. What became evident during the analysis of the data was the similarity between the characteristics of addictive behavior and narcissistic personality disorder. I am proposing that along the developmental path of the addicted individual, a serious narcissistic injury occurred. Kohut (1984) views optimal frustration as periods when a mirroring or an idealizing object is not available. These empathic failures are necessary for developing healthy defenses to hold the Self together in times of wounding. For the addict, these wounds are especially traumatic. In response to the injury, unhealthy defenses are erected to protect the Self that inevitably cut off the life force. The process of transformation from additive behaviors to revitalization of the Self is not a simple undertaking. The times when weakened defensive structures predominate are the optimal moments when suffering is capable of initiating the transformation process. The tears help to loosen and melt the armor, once erected to protect the Self but in actuality blocking the connection to the greater spiritual powers of the universe.
<<link 725998811>>

The purpose of this study was to address how a mental health agency in which spirituality was not identified as a primary concern began to address this issue with clients. As it has been demonstrated, spirituality plays a vital role in mental health and is an area historically neglected within mental health agencies. The study explored the attitudes, values, and associations held by mental health professionals and agency administration regarding spirituality. It reviewed how these factors influence the individual's comfort level in addressing spirituality, the obstacles that have had to be overcome or that are still impeding the successful of incorporating spirituality. The study was conducted utilizing qualitative research interviews as the basis of methodology. The research format utilized is a case study and explores the perspectives, experiences, and changes related to spirituality with a sample of individuals involved with the mental health agency. Information was gathered through interviews with eight (8) subjects. It captures the individual's perspectives, as well as the group's (agency's) evolution over the past 5 years. The results of this case study indicate that agency staff and administration identify spirituality as being important. Despite this, there continues to be a discrepancy regarding the amount of emphasis placed upon addressing spirituality. A number of issues and obstacles must be addressed in order for this and other agencies to pursue and improve upon the incorporation of spirituality. Some of the major obstacles identified require agency staff to be given the support, permission, and training to address spirituality adequately with clients. Therefore educational institutions must increase the incorporation of spirituality into the curriculum of training and workshops for mental health professionals. Due to the significance of spirituality and the resulting psychological impact, it is indicated that failing to address spiritual aspects of the individual results in the neglect of an essential human element. Spirituality has been identified as having specific impact on areas of personal development, psychological growth, sense life meaning, coping, interactions, thoughts, and behavior. The consequence of neglecting the spiritual component has a converse effect on these as well as other areas.
<<link 728842531>>

This work studies resonating concepts, symbolism, and practice in Jewish mysticism and C. G. Jung's psychological interpretation of the art of alchemy as means of gaining consciousness and therapeutic transformation. From time before antiquity, in all four corners of the earth, man has desired to transcend the shackles of the mundane, driven to search for meaning. The particular religious experience connected with Judaism is explored here from a psychological perspective. The history, ideology, and teachings of the mystical Kabbalah and of the Hasidim , a sect of Jews who apply its lessons, are provided for background. The world of alchemy is treated similarly; historical links, similar goals and analogous methods are discussed. The symbols of the Burning Bush, menorah , Star of David, Jerusalem and the Tree of Life are explored. Transformation in the Torah is viewed from the psychological and Jung's alchemical perspectives. The significance of the symbol and concealed meaning— Gematria —in the written or spoken word of the Torah , and its building blocks, the Aleph-Bet , are each treated separately. The relationship between the Kabbalists' concept of Tohu VaVohu (Original Chaos) and the alchemists' Prima Materia , their creative potential, along with both perspectives on the essential elements, fire, water, air and earth are elucidated. The Kabbalists' ultimate goal, Tikkun Olam , man's God-given task to complete the perfection of the world, as a path to individuation, and how it results in healing—the very heart of this thesis—is compared to the goals of the alchemists. Moreover, both approaches to the concepts of unity, oneness, the cosmology of the Self and Self-transformation are surveyed. The inquiry continues with the Kabbalistic theory of the Sephirot (God's Manifestations in the universe), consciously transformative processes of Self-reflection, prayer, teshuvah (atonement and redemption), the mitzvoth (commandments), as well as the altered states of consciousness of meditation, prophecy, and dreams. Shared concepts between the ideas and ideals of alchemy and Jewish mysticism are studied, specifically between unio mystica and devekut (devotion), the interplay of ego and Nothingness, kavanah (intentionality), hitbodedut (isolation), chochmat haseruf (the wisdom of refining), Mysterium Coniunctionis , and the therapeutic process.
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<<link 2032823811>> 
<<<
Alzheimer's is a growing epidemic, which is expected to affect over 100 million people by the year 2050. It is a fatal condition, which progressively impairs the cognitive, behavioral, and physical functions that sustain memory, personality, and the tasks of daily living. To date, there is no cure or effective medical treatment for Alzheimer's, and while the scientific field continues to explore the medical possibilities, there is a growing need for more effective methods of clinical care and support. This study attempts to expand upon current medical perspectives by offering a depth psychological view of Alzheimer's that can be incorporated into clinical approaches. A hermeneutic method of research is used to explore the condition's unique processes, symptoms, and inner experiences from a teleological perspective, which assumes that meaning and purpose may be contained within the condition's complex manifestations.

The subject matter of this dissertation is approached through the thematic lenses of cultural influences, mythological underpinnings, symptomatic manifestations, states of consciousness, and clinical applications, and the primary theoretical foundations of Jungian psychology, archetypal psychology, process-oriented psychology, and transpersonal psychology are used to inform these thematic lenses and investigations. The study suggests that Alzheimer's may function as a personal and collective shadow to Western cultural values, because it challenges the extraordinary value currently placed on youth, productivity, independence, rational thought, and personal identities. These challenges often result in increased fears of the condition, which not only serve to marginalize Alzheimer's affected people even further into the margins of society, but also to marginalize everyone's unconscious tendencies towards more dependent and less rational ways of functioning.

Collective, archetypal, and imaginal underpinnings of Alzheimer's are introduced through the mythological story of Persephone and through investigations into the condition's most pronounced symptoms and disturbances, which are explored as teleological expressions of meaningful psychological material. Investigations into Alzheimer's altered states of consciousness suggest that the condition may serve as a transitionary experience from egoic to transpersonal realms of consciousness, and clinical psychotherapeutic approaches are reviewed and examined for their applicability to people experiencing the various stages of Alzheimer's. The study is complemented and deepened by numerous quotations and descriptions of people's first-hand experiences with the condition.
References
<<<
<<link 1031062791>>

This dissertation reports a depth psychological study of the obstacles that Japanese women today are facing in the process of individuation. The study examines the impact of collective corporate society on the lives of Japanese women, arguing that the rigidities of contemporary Japanese society limit women's opportunities and lifestyles. The study attempts to show how many Japanese women have withdrawn from prescribed roles and overburdening expectations as mothers and wives, refusing to participate in the expectations of society, and how this trend has resulted in a substantial drop in the birth rate and the number of marriages. The hermeneutic analysis then describes these women's efforts to throw off the bridles of excessive obligations and restrictions and designates this unique form of feminine protest with a depth psychological construct, the Unbridled Feminine. The dissertation then argues that the activities of the Unbridled Feminine are an aspect of the unspoken form of Japanese feminism. Utilizing a hermeneutic approach, this dissertation interprets these phenomena from sociocultural, mythological, and depth psychological sources. The mythological aspect of this investigation focuses on the story of the withdrawal to the cave of the ultimate deity of Japan, the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu Omikami. This story sheds light on the nature of withdrawal as an act of confidence on the part of the feminine to reconnect with inner resources to gain insight into a situation and thereby affect a renewal and a re-harmonization. The author argues that this withdrawal is characterized by an active receptivity rather than mere passiveness. Characterizations of the Japanese psyche as distinct from Western psyche are used to demonstrate the value of this dynamic for clinical work. In particular, the feminine nature of Japanese consciousness, its wandering ego, and the cyclical rather than linear individuation process are elucidated in order to understand the strategy of active withdrawal and its central role of feminine in Japanese psyche and culture. The understanding of the importance of the feminine in Japanese culture results in an interpretation of the Unbridled Feminine as a native rather than an imported phenomenon. Implications are drawn for therapeutic practice in clinical psychology.
<<link 1436369791>>

Every year, the parents of over one million children divorce, sometimes amicably, often with deep conflict. The children of the conflict-filled divorces, whom I call America's Little Warriors, often endure both emotional and physical trauma as their parents try to maneuver their way through their own conflict. Because divorce rocks the very foundation of a child's sense of security, they attempt, with varying degrees of success, to reach a homeostasis, a re-defined sense of family, stability, and safety. 

This phenomenological study gives voice to the experiences of 12 children, ages 12 through 16, whose parents were involved in highly conflicted divorce. Individual interviews sought to extricate from their experiences the children's perceptions of safety and emotional well-being. Data from these interviews was used to identify significant themes and universal elements that helped the children mediate their parents' conflict. Analysis of the data revealed three major elements the children perceived as necessary for their own safety: (1)&nbsp;places: physical location to which children retreated or were sent to escape the conflict at least temporarily, (2)&nbsp;pauses: those actions that drowned out sights, sounds and thoughts of their parents' conflict, (3)&nbsp;people: relationships that provided a sense of safety and stability. These findings can inform professionals who work with families of divorce and help them provide children with the necessary ingredients for safety during these difficult and sometimes dangerous times.
<<link 732683721>>

This study applied techniques from computerized voice recognition to speech recorded from a trance channeler. The goal was to provide evidence which could assess survivalist explanations of trance channeling—those that claim the channeled voices originate from discarnate, paranormal intelligences controlling the speaker's vocal apparatus, including unconscious speech processes. Digital speech material was obtained from one channeler and two other adult male subjects, one of whom was an actor who purposely disguised his voice. The automated speaker-recognition methods included short-time linear predictive spectra computed from low-pass filtered speech, which were derived from nasals and other voiced sounds. These parameters have proven useful in identifying speakers, and were also conjectured to be difficult for a speaker consciously to disguise. Voice classification was done by vector quantization. Analysis of variance of the classification results indicated statistically significant differences among combinations of voice pairs. The actor's natural and stage voices were among those pairs significantly different. Furthermore, poor speaker-recognition accuracy was obtained for the actor. Thus, the automated methods used in this study were in fact susceptible to a disguise attempt. The results, then, are inconclusive with respect to survivalist theories because of the obvious difficulty in finding speech parameters that are not susceptible to conscious manipulation by a speaker.
<<link 727914331>>

The symptomatology and psychopathology of 395 Roman Catholic priests and brothers referred to treatment centers for psychological evaluation were examined. Three independent variables were utilized: (1)&nbsp;vocation/lifestyle, (2)&nbsp;sexual orientation and (3)&nbsp;age. Selected scales on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), the Edwards Personal Preference Schedule (EPPS) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) provided the dependent measures which were analyzed using a Multivariant Analysis of Variance (MANOVA). The results indicated no significant differences among diocesan priests, religious priests and religious brothers in relation to any of the MMPI dependent measures examined, except on Scale 4 where diocesan priests had slightly higher scores. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual subjects on any dependent measure with the exception of a notable variation on Scale 5 of the MMPI, where homosexual subjects had higher scores. There was no significant difference between heterosexual and homosexual subjects whose sexual orientation is age inappropriate (i.e. toward minors) on Scale 4 of the MMPI. Older subjects (>46) had significantly higher scores on Scale 2 of the MMPI than the younger subjects; they also had significantly higher manifest needs on the EPPS for Order, Abasement, and Deference and on the SJ temperament of the MBTI. The younger subjects had significantly higher scores on the Perceiving (P) attitude of the MBTI. Results suggest that this population had needs for independence and were perfectionists. Their frustration over dependence/independence issues may have led to maladaptive behaviors which resulted in psychological evaluation. There were strong suggestions of personality ambivalence among this population and a need for "dichotomy-transcendence." Overall, this entire group did not suffer from any gross psychopathology. It is possible that they were sent for psychological evaluation for disciplinary reasons (particularly having to do with the vow of celibacy) as opposed to psychological reasons.
<<link 1417803801>>

In the last century psychological researchers devoted much attention to the impact, both positive and negative, of religion on human behavior and individuals' mental health. Analytical psychology, a branch of depth psychology, has displayed a keen interest in religion. Carl Jung, the architect of analytical psychology, wrote extensively about religion, and some of the practitioners and researchers who followed Jung also had much to say about the impact of religion on human behavior. This author, in the tradition of analytical psychology, examines five parables from the New Testament Gospel of Luke. 

How the author arrived at this topic is chronicled in the first section. The positives and negatives of church life did much to create a curiosity about how religion affects mental health. Next, a review of the literature related to myth, Biblical myth, Jung's writings related to religion, and the work of Jung's predecessors related to religion is reviewed. A thorough discussion of the history of depth psychology leads to an examination of Jung's theory. 

In order to make a thorough, contextual examination of these parables, the author utilizes two modes of interpretation. First, in order to place the parables in their context, the parables are interpreted using the historical-critical method of Biblical interpretation. Once the contexts of the parables were clarified, an analytical interpretation was performed, in a fashion similar to interpreting a dream. The interpretation of a dream requires a dreamer to amplify the symbols in a dream, and the historical-critical interpretation was used to amplify the symbols in the parables. 

These parables displayed the importance of the equitable distribution of energy in the psyche. The story-lines in these parables exhibited the symbolic use and misuse of wealth and power. When wealth was used to make a situation better, psychically, we had a better distribution of psychic energy. When wealth was used to maintain social convention, psychically, we had a destructive situation. The misuse of power either clinically or analytically proves to be detrimental to mental health.
<<link 728096971>>

The goal of the dissertation is to demonstrate the efficacy of astrology in describing the archetypal principles that organize and shape the ideas and life experiences of a person. The demonstration of astrology's efficacy at describing personality is demonstrated through the astrological analysis of C. G. Jung's life and psychological writing. A new theoretical concept, the archetypal composite, was defined to help explain the astrological method used in this dissertation. The astrological method consists of grouping specific astrological factors together to form one composite image made up of several archetypes. The author's personality is described through the analysis of his astrological natal chart. The purpose of the analysis is to demonstrate how the author's unique approach analyzing astrological charts correlates to the archetypal dominants of his personality. An interpretation of C. G. Jung's astrological natal chart revealed three archetypal composites titled the Lover/Artist lunar composite, the Capricornian ascendant composite, and the Self solar composite. The astrological analysis of C. G. Jung begins with his childhood experiences and proceeds to his psychological writings. The analysis focuses on how C. G. Jung's main life events and psychological insights correlate to his three archetypal composites symbolically depicted in his astrological chart. The results of this analysis suggest that Jung's main life experiences and psychological theories do correlate to specific archetypal composites depicted in his astrological natal chart. A surprising result of this analysis was the discovery of how strongly Jung's childhood experiences influenced the formulation of his psychological theorizing. This analysis of Jung concluded with the insight that Jung's psychological theories derive from the equal blend of archetypal and personal-historical influences. In the final chapter the possible role of astrology is discussed in relation to students of psychology, education in graduate schools of psychology, and society at large.
<<link 731857251>>

Numinous encounters can inspire the individuation process. Rock stacking is a sacred meditative art which creates a receptive atmosphere conducive for insight to have its full transformative effect. This dissertation explores the numinous landscape of the individuation process. This dissertation enters the sacred realm of psychotherapy and acknowledges that transformation occurs especially when highly refined skills of deep looking, deep listening, intuitive balancing, radical acceptance, providing a safe sanctuary, creating a tranquil hospitable atmosphere, honoring subtle energies, allowing all things to be exactly as they are, trusting that the numinous will be present, and mindfulness are practiced. Another way to practice these and a multitude of similar skills is to practice through an attitude of genuine intent to cultivate stillness, spiritual observation, bare attention, and an open mind. Rock stacking, intensive journaling, meditation, and similar contemplative exercises are a way to practice these skills. This dissertation addresses, enters, and goes on an exotic journey into the many dimensional realms of the problem, or mystery, of the transformative effects of living and practicing a life of sacred genuine intent to be kind, mindful, gentle, compassionate, and centered. Heuristic methods of immersion, twilight imagery, symbolic amplification, intensive journaling, and personal explorations have all been a part of the process of discovery while exploring this numinous landscape of transcendent reality, of interconnectedness. The mythical, historical, and cultural legacy, significance, and relevance of rock and sacred rock gardens are presented. Contemporary artists who evoke numinous experiences through their magnificent work with rock are presented. Several cases of healing and transformation through twilight imagery involving rocks are presented, as is the extensive contemplative work Carl Jung did with stone. Rock stacking as a sacred art informing the individuation process and clinical practice is presented. An adventurous journey and exploration into many of the terms and concepts which are the structural foundation of this work are presented. This work sacredly honors the transformative power of the numinous experience. This work realizes that equanimity is an ultimate skill that can be practiced through learning the sacred art of balancing rocks.
<<link 1251811941>>

This investigation was inspired by the researcher's desire to pursue psychoanalytic training subsequent to completion of her PhD in clinical psychology and the discovery that no comprehensive resource existed to assist prospective psychoanalytic candidates with identifying or evaluating psychoanalytic training opportunities. This dissertation therefore aspires to provide a comprehensive guide to analytic training in the United States today. The researcher presents the expanding horizons of depth-oriented training leading to certification as an analyst, including training based on those schools of thought that resulted from early splits with Freud (Adlerian and Jungian) as well as training based on thought that has remained within the Freudian theoretical umbrella (e.g., classical, object relations, self psychology, etc.). Employing a heuristic approach and using hermeneutics and systems theory methodologies, the study situates analytic training in its historical context, explores contemporary issues, and considers its future. The study reviews the various analytic schools of thought and traces the history of psychoanalytic theory from its origins with Freud through its many permutations. It then discusses the history of psychoanalytic training and describes political, social, and economic factors influencing the development of training in this country. The centerpiece of the dissertation is a guidebook offering detailed information on each of 107 training institutes in the United States. Tables provide contact data and information which differentiate the institutes in terms of such parameters as size; length of program, theoretical orientation, and accreditation. A narrative of each institute summarizes the unique aspects of the program, including its admissions policy, the requirements for the training analysis and supervised clinical work, and the didactic curriculum, along with lists of courses offered. Child and adolescent psychoanalytic training is also discussed for institutes offering this option. A discussion of the contemporary world of analytic training emerges from the results of the analysis of individual institutes. Both the variations and convergences among institutes are explored. Current problems and issues in training, accreditation, and licensing are addressed. Finally, the future of psychoanalytic training is considered; concluding with an assessment of needed reforms and presentation of a model for the ideal analytic training institute of the future.
<<link 727914581>>

In the tradition of heuristic research, I sought to understand more about my experience of surviving the suicide of a loved one by interviewing other survivors. The major themes developed were these: (1)&nbsp;a complex nidus always remains; it literally changes one; (2)&nbsp;certain existential questions arise for survivors; (3)&nbsp;a multitude of feelings are present in grief; (4)&nbsp;specific aspects of therapy are discussed by survivors; (5)&nbsp;images, ideations, and dreams are reported by survivors. In the research literature, little was reported of suicide survivors' subjective experience, particularly concerning their images, ideations, or metaphors. Jungian psychology postulated that attending to these aspects offers hope of healing. Hillman's archetypal psychology provided the background for reviewing the information gathered in the study. The results included detailed portraits of three suicide survivors, numerous quotes from all the co-researchers organized by the themes mentioned above, and dream journal entries and commentary written by the researcher during the process. The most significant result was the wide variation in the survivors' experience. Survivors stated that their relationship with the therapist was important, but also that they particularly needed for their individual grieving needs to be respected. A creative synthesis described metaphorically the essence of the experience of surviving the suicide of a loved one. All the survivors in this study were familiar with Jungian depth psychology. Their ongoing quest to be more conscious of unconscious forces, to honor symbolism, and to give attention to images that appear, especially in dreams, was described as a way to integrate the suicide. Application of this information can be helpful to survivors, their relatives, and their friends, in addition to therapists and other attending professionals. In future research, heuristic methods with the psyche-centered approach of archetypal psychology offered in this study can be applied to other tragedies.
<<link 1172082101>>

This research study shows that an individual's experience of community is greatly enhanced utilizing appreciative inquiry (AI) practices. Appreciative Inquiry is an organizational tool used to improve morale and teamwork. By focusing on what already works well in the group dynamics, the members can move towards a positive and respectful experience within the organization. Al encourages an attitude of joy, celebration, and accomplishment. Communication skills are improved among community members, which creates a nurturing experience for each participant. In this study, the eleven members of a non-profit organization used past positive teamwork experiences to learn how to build a stronger, healthier community. This participatory action research utilizes phenomenological methodology and focuses primarily on work with non-profit organizations and corporations, but other communities will find AI enriching as well. Any group that seeks to improve its collaborative efforts can use AI, however full participation is key to successful teamwork practices. Individuals who participate in the process of AI usually feel rejuvenated and, in turn, breathe new life into their organization and its mission. The social networking created within the community allows the participants to feel more cohesiveness within the organization and reduces psychological anxiety. However, hierarchal structures do not change and therefore future disappointments, especially among those on the lowest levels of the organizational structure, are possible. The AI process facilitates the members of the group in creating collective visions for their organization's future. The new respect for fellow community members and the delight of camaraderie lighten the burdens of the organization's sometimes-difficult past, and new positive teamwork value statements give the individuals a focus towards action steps for the future. Permanent change may result from the AI processes, which can be uncomfortable for some community members. This research illustrates that our communities, corporations, and other organizations have the potential to become more nurturing places, where we act with more psychological maturity. Individuals who participate in groups that utilize the practices of AI experience more meaningful and enriching communities.
<<link 1328075211>>

Numerous studies in the fields of clinical psychology, psychiatry, and social work indicate that being adopted often comes with unique and subtle developmental challenges and emotional difficulties that can reverberate for the adoptee across the lifespan. A fundamental recognition of this study was that the experience of being adopted, including the potentially traumatic separation between adoptee and birthparents, takes place during a preverbal stage of development for many adoptees. Adoption, therefore, can be seen not so much a cognitive affair as an experience more rooted in the unconscious and affective tissues of the body. The methodology of the study was designed with this distinction in mind. 

Data collection drew from three sources: (a)&nbsp;each participant's layered life narrative; (b)&nbsp;the results of a homework assignment, in which each participant was invited to establish dialogues with the imaginal figures of soul; and (c)&nbsp;the experience of projective identification as it arose for the interviewer during the interview process. 

In the analysis of the data, one archetypal theme evident in the life of each participant was identified and explored in the hermeneutic tradition. Psychological theories, fairy tales, and myths were used as hermeneutic structures in the service of generating meaning from the layers of each participant's raw data of words, affect, and imagery. 

A comparative analysis then explored the occurrence of identified archetypal themes as they appeared across data sets. Clinical recommendations, based on this analysis and the subsequent compilation of themes, included: (a)&nbsp;the importance of establishing ongoing, age-appropriate dialogue between adoptee and caregivers to address the profound but often subtle losses endemic to being adopted; (b)&nbsp;the detrimental effects of secrecy, hiding, and shame appearing around the adoption experience; (c)&nbsp;maintaining clinical awareness of recurring, problematic adoptive family system dynamics; and (d)&nbsp;clinical implications of the unique sense of disconnect associated with being adopted. Overall, the voices of each research participant were amplified through use of the hermeneutic spiral, and in these metaphoric circumambulations the connections between being adopted and the horizons of collective human history resounded.
<<link 727914571>>

This is a theoretical dissertation which explores the archetypal images influencing individual family members in the father-daughter incest family as well as the synergy of those archetypal manifestations without which incest is not viable within the family. Through images presented in myth and fairy tales, the study addressed questions about why fathers molest their daughters, why mothers appear to be oblivious to the molestation, and why the child keeps the molestation secret. The myth provides an ontological overview, amplifying the issues of power and control, depression and denial, abandonment and betrayal. Individually, each family member also manifests an archetypal image. The archetype manifested by the incesting father is senex king and therimorphic frog, which creates a tension between opposites. He seeks to escape that tension through his anima projections onto his daughter. But the unconscious, passionate drive of the archetype demands the exploitation of his child to achieve the goal. The archetype manifested by the mother in the incest family is absence and raging. She seeks to escape the tension between these opposites by psychologically sleeping, and is frozen in an unconscious virginal state, her psychological functions closed to comprehending relationships in the family. Thus she does not examine the incentive for her daughter acting as her peer, but rages at her daughter for what the mother perceives as competitive, noncompliant behavior. The mother in the incest family projects her animus onto her husband, unconsciously relinquishing her capacity to question, evaluate, or take action. The child in the incest family manifests the princess and the waif archetype, amplifying the concept that emotional abandonment and rejection are essential predecessors to sexual abuse. It is only through the healing of the primary rejection and abandonment that the incest wounds can be approached, understood, and healed.
<<link 1459905731>>

C. G. Jung's work in alchemy contributes greatly to the field of psychology's understanding of the psyche. However, although alchemical images and ideas preserve the mystery of the individuation process, imagined in this work as Hillman's soul-making, many of them tend to be intellectually unwieldy and static, and, therefore, do not fully present the dynamic, erotic, and sensual essence of soul. Using Argentine tango as a metaphor for soul, this theoretical dissertation contributes a moving, desiring, and embodied image that expands, complements, and sometimes challenges psychology's current image of the soul. Central to the development of this metaphor are the following questions: What is soul? What is soul-making? What is desire's relation to soul? To explore the possible answers, tango images, such as the mirada (the gaze) and the abrazo (the embrace), are used to create the foundation for this researcher's reflection upon psychological and philosophical ideas, such as seeing-through, incarnation, the coniunctio, the relationship between anima and animus, space, place, position, and play. These tango images and ideas of soul, soul-making, and desire are then amplified by the researcher's lived experience and the mythological images of Eros and Psyche, imagined as tango figures. The discoveries made by amplification return once again to expand and deepen understanding of psychology and philosophy in an alchemical hermeneutic dance of images and ideas that invites the participation of the reader and the researcher.
<<link 726336611>>

The highly polarized debates surrounding assisted suicide for the terminally ill suggest that archetypal content is at the core, fueling the debates with unconscious material. Does assisted suicide provide a compassionate response to the pain and suffering of terminal illness, offering a sense of autonomy and control—death with dignity? Or does the availability of assisted suicide deprive terminally ill patients of optimal palliative care and foreclose the recognition and treatment of underlying psychological states? The archetype of initiation reveals how death is confronted symbolically throughout life with each threshold experience. Actual death is the final threshold. As with other milestones, the process of dying is marked by initiatory physical and emotional extremes that challenge and awaken us and pull us out of ordinary consciousness. Using the hermeneutic approach, the dissertation asks: Does assisted suicide represent a collective heroic response by providing rational solutions to the problem of dying? Could the option of assisted suicide undermine the value of a terminally ill individual's end-of-life experience or exclude the possibility of initiatory change? Does opposition to assisted suicide impose a right way to die? The dissertation explores cultural and historical attitudes toward dying through myth, literature, philosophy, and contemporary drama. It traces the art of dying well from its medieval origins to the contemporary death with dignity movement. The study defines palliative care, differentiates pain from suffering, and reviews the scientific literature and the Oregon experience. Drawing from analytical psychology, it explores the to and fro dynamism of integrating the trauma of terminal illness and implications for treatment. The trickster confounds the discussion of the rationality and irrationality of suicide, promising to replace the laws of nature with rational solutions. The dissertation hypothesizes that when the archetype of initiation guides the dying process, the focus may shift from control or mastery to surrender and internalization. It concludes that when caregivers acknowledge and support the dying person's to and fro physical-psycho-socio-spiritual adaptation, the rational conscious as well as the irrational unconscious create each individual's unique end of life experience. The collectivization of assisted suicide may impede the process.
<<link 731678821>>

This study suggests that the widespread repudiation of Freud's concept of the death drive does not stem from an inherent misguidedness in his vision, but rather from the inadequacy of the scientific metaphors within which it is housed. The study reexamines the Enlightenment assumptions that ground, but also delimit, Freud's reasoning. It then juxtaposes the frequently baffling logic of his speculations with more recent theorizing in psychology, mathematics, and quantum physics. The recent engagement of these disciplines with unanticipated paradoxes observed in physical as well as psychic worlds sheds light on Freud's enigmatic formulation, and on the incapacity of his scientific models to address the disturbing truths to which his concept calls attention. In form, the study embodies an experiment in research method that is intended to give flesh to its academic observations and to invite an experiential encounter with the topic of Freud's inquiry. The final chapter of the study returns Freud's controversial notion to the clinical arena out of which it emerged. This section examines the creative dimension of what he calls the "destructive drive," and the potential of the therapeutic encounter to provide both a locus and a means for its transformation.
<<link 734472371>>

This inquiry utilizes a phenomenological and heuristic design and methodology to explore the experience of melancholia in the practicing psychotherapist. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with a small sample of psychotherapists who suffered one or more significant melancholic episodes while continuing to meet with patients. The design of this inquiry focused on these questions: How do psychotherapists experience their melancholia in the consulting room, and what do they perceive its effects to be upon their clinical work? What is it like for them to be practicing psychotherapists while they are significantly melancholic? Six psychotherapists, all women, were interviewed in depth about their experiences. All of the participants had experienced one or more significant melancholias while continuing to meet with patients. The interviews were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved one taped interview, 1 1/2 hours long, from which a written "portrait" of the participant was constructed. Phase 2 consisted of a final 1-hour interview, during which the psychotherapist made corrections to her portrait and discussed her responses to the study. Excerpts from the researcher's own experience of melancholia while continuing to work as a psychotherapist were included. The participants' portraits provided a phenomenological view into the soul of the experience of melancholia in the practicing psychotherapist. They revealed the painful and often shrouded aspects of the wound of melancholia—one that originally drew the psychotherapists to their professions, and whose presence serves to connect them empathically to their own suffering, and through it, to the suffering of their patients. Although all of the participants experienced some degree of stigmatization within the profession and the culture, it was through their own therapies that each of the psychotherapists discovered a more depthful view of the dark experience of melancholia—a view that finds value and meaning in it. Emerging from the stories were hurtful memories of rejection by colleagues and friends, as well as personal remembrances of arduous journeys along an inner spiral way, psychological journeys that led to an enhanced awareness of how to carry consciously the wound of melancholia into all aspects of life, professional and personal.
<<link 764677791>>

The purpose of this study was to examine Attention Deficit Disorder from a Jungian perspective. Carl Jung's theory postulates that individuals have both a dominant psychological function through which they operate in the world as well as individual preferences among functions. The study examined children who were diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder to determine their dominant Jungian function and to further examine whether they specifically preferred the intuitive function. My clinical experience indicated that these children operated intuitively much of the time. The study examined the responses of 40 ADD children. Each child was given two pen and pencil tests. Each set of parents was also given a pen and pencil test. The Conners' Parent Scale was given to the parents to reconfirm the diagnosis of ADD. In addition this instrument was able to give information about specific behavioral problems from which ADD children frequently suffer. The tests administered to the children were the Murphy Meisgeier Type Indicator and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. The first of these tests was administered to determine children's dominant Jungian function. The second of these tests was administered to determine the degree of extroversion and emotionality of these children. Although not statistically significant, the results suggests that ADD children do have a tendency to prefer the intuitive function as their dominant function. A statistically significant number of ADD children did prefer the intuitive function over the sensing function when tested with the Murphy Meisgeier Type Indicator. It was also of interest to note that the behavioral problems often associated with Attention Deficit Disorder remained consistent from ages six through twelve.
<<link 765335961>>

This theoretical dissertation makes use of a hermeneutic method to explore the value and significance of a depth psychological approach to the diagnosis and treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder. The study begins with an inquiry into the societal systems in which the symptoms of Attention Deficit Disorder are manifested, such as school and family, in order to answer the question: What makes is so difficult for children and adults to concentrate within the current cultural climate? Using a sociological and psychological foundation, the existing treatment methodology of those with Attention Deficit Disorder is discussed. The research created an opening for the need to understand Attention Deficit Disorder from a depth psychological perspective, one that has not been considered in the existing literature. Specifically, the investigation sought to explore what a depth psychological perspective would add to the existing body of treatment methodology and approaches. In so doing, a mythopoetic Jungian-archetypal attitude was embraced through which the voices of the past can speak through the hallmarks of Attention Deficit Disorder. As a result, the study identified aspects of the personality from a Jungian-archetypal perspective that are brought into the treatment setting when working with those who experience attention deficits. The prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorder in our culture points to a structural aspect of society that inherently seeks to get rid of this shadow aspect of the personality; namely, the hallmarks of ADD—distractibility, restlessness, and impulsiveness. From a mythopoetic perspective, our culture supports an Apollonian way of being which devalues and rejects the seemingly chaotic nature of those with attention deficits. The chaotic, cyclical energy of ADD is associated with the Dionysian contrast. The finding of the study implies that those with Attention Deficit Disorder carry an archetypal energy that I propose is the Dionysian complex. This complex is constellated in those whose ego defenses do not guard against the Dionysiac—those who are psychologically open to the creative loosening, which Dionysos embodies. Throughout the work, clinical case material is presented in order to emphasize points being discussed.
<<link 1212777581>>

The purpose of this quantitative study, combined with a qualitative analysis, is to research the creative aspect in the condition that is described in our society as attention deficit with or without hyperactivity (ADD/ADHD). This research is looking for an asset in the "shadow" of the deficit. The container used for this research is a game from All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten by R. Fulghum, which honors the differences in people. Using data provided by the Goleta Unified School District, 24 children with ADHD from grades K through 6th were identified. These 24 children plus a control group of 24 children were given the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Streamlined, Form A, that were scored by the Scholastic Testing Service, Inc. for standardized scoring accuracy. This was the Creative Index, and the Quantitative area of the research. Separate by grade, standard scores are reported on a scale with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 20. After the results of the standardized scores are obtained, the Checklist of Creative Strengths is evaluated. This is the Qualitative area of the research. The results of the Creative Index were inconclusive. The Checklist of Creative Strengths, on the other hand, revealed two creative strengths that stood out, Extending Boundaries and Breaking Boundaries. Both are creative as well as ADHD strengths that appeared in both groups. This research has introduced some important information in the area of creativity that appears to be worth further study. Hartmann's theory of the hunters and the farmers, Jung's theory of the psyche, Barkley's theory of the environment and biology, and Oaklander's Gestalt theory have revealed that the area of ADHD and creativity deserves a good deal more research before the topic can be adequately explored. A longitudinal study would be suggested. Possibly with more research, The Inner Threads of Genius will be found hiding in the "shadow."
<<link 765335951>>

In 2001, over 200,000 women underwent non-mastectomy-related augmentation mammaplasty, or breast augmentation, in the United States (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2002). In relation to other cosmetic surgeries, the procedure was the fourth most frequently performed operation that year, ranking behind nose reshaping, eyelid surgery, and liposuction. Conservative estimates place the total number of women who have undergone augmentation mammaplasty in this country to date at approximately three million. This dissertation presents the findings of a phenomenological study of four women between the ages of 20 and 35 who were awaiting breast augmentation surgery and discusses those findings, along with the results of prior research, from the perspective of depth psychology. A broader theoretical discussion of augmentation mammaplasty is also included. The results of this author's study were consistent with the findings of several previous investigations. The most notable consistencies were in regard to the subjects' childhood experiences, which included significant interruptions in maternal care and exposure to parental conflict, alcoholism, and divorce. Evidence of parentification during childhood and internal conflict in dreams relating to the surgery was also found. To this author's knowledge, these findings have not been reported elsewhere in the literature on augmentation mammaplasty patients. The theoretical discussion included in this dissertation first examines augmentation mammaplasty from the perspective of psychoanalytic psychology and then from that of analytical psychology using a hermeneutic methodology. The final portion of the discussion considers the topic from a spiritual perspective.
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Current research indicates 96-98% of females who receive eating disorder treatment state they value a Judeo-Christian belief system. The Judeo-Christian belief system is based Augustine's doctrines, written in the 4 th  century (MacGregor, 1991). The first female death due to self-induced starvation occurred in the 4 th  century. The question is what occurred in the 4 th century that created an archetype of starvation and that has led to what some consider an epidemic of eating disorders in the 21 st  century.

Legally Augustine had to convert to Christianity in order to pursue a political post in the Roman Empire. Augustine was influential as a local judge and Christian bishop through his rhetoric and copious writing, which reflect his previous values and religious beliefs drawn from Cicero, Stoicism, Manicheaism, and Neoplatonism. Augustine concedes that his Christian doctrines are not based on scripture but rather on his personal experiences of God.

Augustine states Christ as a man came to save men but women are redeemed when they take a "vow of virginity" and "eat only when to prevent death" (Saint Augustine, trans. 1997, pp.155-156). He states women corrupt men, even their own sons, through their sexuality (Saint Augustine, trans. 1997). His numerous comments about the depravity of women and the body created the archetype of starvation for females and encouraged a patriarchal society. The doctrines of Luther, Calvin, and the Puritans perpetuated Augustine's archetype of starvation, which is evident psychodynamically in the way that females have had for centuries a not good enough fit with their containing parental authority figures. As a result females, as children, have integrated disintegrations into their sense of self. Additionally, when these females are mothers, they cannot manage and make meaning of their daughters' persecutory archetypal forces. This cycle is evident in the presence of eating disorders among females of all ages in Western civilization.

A paradigm shift is required in which the therapist acts as the containing parental authority figure and assists the client in becoming her own containing parental authority figure. This can occur when the female moves from extrinsic ideology to an intrinsic authenticity with self, others, and the numinous.
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<<link 1404353961>>

This case study of my 13-year therapeutic relationship with an autistic boy explores our work before and after I studied the work of C. G. Jung. In the beginning of my work with the 4-year-old boy, my knowledge derived from currently used behaviorist, developmental, and object-relations models. When I studied Jung, 7 years later, my understanding of and approach to autism spectrum disorders shifted. As I incorporated Jung's approach to the treatment of abnormal and normal psychology in my work with autistic spectrum disorders, I gained a deeper understanding of the world of autism. 

Using a phenomenological heuristic method of research, I present a detailed description of my therapeutic time together with an autistic boy. My investigation draws together observations about the efficacy of using the understanding and therapeutic embodiment provided by a Jungian approach to working with people who have autism.
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The purpose of this qualitative and phenomenological research is to move into a more comprehensive depth psychological understanding of the psyches and lives of African American women who wear their hair in its natural state. Jung (1970/1990) postulates that self-knowledge is contingent upon social environment and that continued existence of an organized society depends on individual awareness of both conscious and unconscious aspects of the human psyche (p. 5). This research is relevant in two main areas within the field of clinical psychology. The first is in understanding ethnic and cultural context; the second is relevant to assisting African American women in the process of trauma and recovery. This dissertation makes the connection between slavery and trauma and the effect of intergenerational trauma on the psyche of African American women.

The researcher uses a modification of the Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen method, reviewed by Moustakas for phenomenological research for the transformation of data through interpretation. Major findings on the meaning of wearing naturally textured hair include the following: natural hair complexes develop in early childhood, and individuals who wear their hair in its natural state are embracing self and culture.

The researcher discovered that clinical manifestations of internalized racism appear in many forms, crying out as messages from the soul. Feminist psychotherapy with African American women, for the most part, challenges the therapist to validate the clients' realistic acuity of oppression and assists the client in understanding the extent to which their problems stem from societal inequities, rather than from perceived internal deficits. Feminist therapists need to work with clients in the process of utilizing personal resources to confront and change their circumstances in ways that are in harmony with their values (Greene, 1994).
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<<link 726045181>>

This theoretical study explores the question as to who is the male juvenile offender and how is he currently being served in juvenile detention facilities by the juvenile justice system. The current system's model that endorses punishment and behavioral control is contrasted with an alternative model suggesting alternative clinical and behavioral interventions with male adolescents. This alternative clinical approach is derived from the theories of Carl Jung and depth psychology. From the studies examined, it is suggested that the majority of male adolescents in the juvenile justice system have a history of physical, social, spiritual, and emotional deprivation. Many have experienced family disruption, abuse, and neglect. In addition, they have been exposed to excessive psychosocial stressors impacting their security, well-being, and acceptance in society. As a result, many of the male adolescents in the locked facilities of the juvenile justice system exhibit a broad range of psychological and social symptoms that require mental-health treatment and effective case management. The value of utilizing imaginal and creative therapies with male adolescents is seen to be a viable option for this population, who are at a particular stage in their development. For many of these adolescents, who lack impulse control and continue to function in self-destructive ways, the use of interventions to assist them in building an alliance between their ego and unconscious is presented as a necessary treatment focus for this population. It was Jung who promoted utilizing active imagination to assist the individual in reconciling internal opposites, transforming conflict, and reconnecting with the Self. The benefits of assisting male juvenile offenders in establishing a conscious relationship with their unconscious via active imagination, ritual, and creativity is concluded to be a necessary requirement for their potential individuation and healing.
<<link 730353681>>

Most women today enter midlife assaulted by either media portraits of flawless ingenues immune from the ravages of aging or by terrifying pictures of Alzheimer victims, bereft of any lingering presence of Aphrodite or Mnemosyne. Through the lens of depth psychology, this study examines a mythological figure who provides a refreshing contrast to these contemporary images. Baubo, is a crone trickster figure unique in Greek mythology. Old, sexually bawdy, and comically lewd, she has been called a belly goddess of obscenity. Yet Baubo appears in the myth of Demeter and Persephone as a vibrantly alive and compassionate nurse, the only character with the wisdom to understand Demeter's needs and the transformative ability to shift the fixity of the paralyzing depression which the goddess suffers after the loss of Persephone, her maiden-daughter-self. It is Baubo's jokes and bawdy gestures, which combine a feminine, Dionysian loosening power with a comic, trickster, transformative energy, that reverse Demeter's despair. Baubo's actions cause a belly laughter that provides a distance from ego concerns and a comic' affirmation of hope. The figure of Baubo reflects three particular aspects of human existence: old age, female sexuality, and transformative personal power. Her image portrays an archetypal wild-woman energy that simultaneously represents the comic Dionysian crone, the non-procreatively fertile vulva, and the transformative trickster. This theoretical dissertation explores the archetypal sources of this image's power. Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology and a mythopoetic perspective, it examines the archetypes of fool, clown, and trickster. At the same time, it recognizes how the archetypal feminine combines with the particular comedic archetypes to imbue the image of Baubo with a transformative potential of special interest to post-fertility women who, like Demeter, mourn the loss of youthful selves. Finally, the study affirms the healing power of primordial feminine images which arise from myth and are grounded in a comic terrain of regeneration and love.
<<link 734406791>>

This dissertation has been written with concern for the symbolic meaning of the tale Beauty and the Beast, and its connection with a woman's journey to meet with her animus. The notion of animus, the writings of Jung, post-Jungians, and feminist Jungians, and various theories of animus development are presented and discussed before the tale of Beauty and the Beast is discussed. The author's theory of animus development and the importance of a woman's connection with her own inner feminine archetype is also presented. The development of the animus from early childhood through late adulthood is outlined. The effects of society, environment, and personal interaction with the animus are introduced and could be explored further to add to an understanding of the effects of the animus on the individuation process of woman. The international theme of the animal-husband fairytale/myth is explored and discussed. Then the fairy tale Beauty and the Beast is presented and discussed as representative of the stages a woman experiences during her inner journey to meet with her animus. The fairy tale is presented as representative of the symbolic journey a woman takes to meet with her animus. In this presentation, eight different stages of the journey are discussed: (1) contentment, (2) loss, (3) dealing with loss without change, (4) acknowledgement of loss and desire to return to stage one, (5) rejection and further loss, (6) journey to the unconscious, (7) an attempt to leave the journey, and (8) acceptance of the masculine image in the feminine and beginning the journey to individuation. The different aspects of the Beast/animus are also discussed, including the role of shadow, and the role of the inferior function, the humble animus, the absent animus, and the negative animus. The issue of the development of the animus in both positive and negative directions during the development of the feminine is discussed. The reality of both positive and negative animus being present from the beginning of human development and both positive and negative animus beginning development at the same time is explored. The fairy tale of Beauty and the Beast represents a woman's journey towards individuation in which some complexes are resolved while others are left unresolved. The idea that the negative animus develops prior to the positive is reviewed, and the idea that both positive and negative animus develop together is explored. It is suggested that the qualities of both positive and negative animus need further exploration. The humble animus and the undeveloped animus are also presented as topics for further study in the understanding of the animus and its development.
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This dissertation focuses on the related feelings of beauty and sadness, and explores them as an experience of longing. Further, it connects the experience of re-membering&mdash;remembering once more, as an act of making soul.

The vocation into this work was initiated by the call of a blackbird, and a calling to attend to a primary wound.

This study approaches the research question from a heuristic perspective&mdash;as a lived experience, viewing the researcher's own experience and story as an instrument of study.

This dissertation also honors an imaginal perspective, which deepens the heuristic approach, adding the dimension of archetypes, myths, metaphors, symbols, alchemy, and the collective unconscious. The imaginal perspective also holds reclaiming soul as psychology's primary concern, and draws on a rich resource of spiritual traditions, creative arts, mythology, native lore, and literary and poetic imagination, within social and critical contexts.

Beauty, sadness and longing are explored from a somatic perspective&mdash;as a feeling , as expressed through language&mdash;as poesis; and also as expressed through music and art. The findings are connected with clinical applications through the pathology of addiction and recovery, as well as exploring the alchemy of transformation&mdash;seeing memory as an alchemical process.

Beauty has a capacity to redress a spiritual imbalance&mdash;it coexists with longing. The experience of beauty can begin with a longing&mdash;often unconscious, but as beauty meets the longing and brings it into consciousness, the longing is felt more knowingly, more meaningfully, and moves into the realm in which it can be felt, and expressed. Beauty rests with sadness, and in union with deep feelings of reciprocal loss and longing, she is human-like, and brimming with soul.

This work reclaims the legitimacy of the writer's maternal grandmother, Beck, and her mother, his great-grandmother, Jane; both women who conceived children out-of-wedlock. This work is in the service of Beck. Her image is the face of a piece of unfinished business that haunted her life, the writer's mother's life, and his own life. It is a work of redemption sung into being in the fading light of a summer night by a blackbird.

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This study was of the lived experiences of women who have transitioned from Christianity to Paganism. The 15 respondents ranged in age from their middle 30s to middle 60s. The researcher ran an advertisement in a magazine with a target readership of women who identified themselves as Pagan. The researcher sent each respondent an Informed Consent form, along with a preaddressed, stamped envelope. Also enclosed was a request that each respondent tell the researcher what would be a good day and time to call. 

Upon receipt of the signed Informed Consent form, this researcher contacted each respondent and conducted the interview, using as a guide the following questions: (a)&nbsp;What can you think prompted your change from ( name of former religion ) to Paganism? (b)&nbsp;Is there a specific path that you follow (Wicca, Celtic Druidism, etc.)? What deity(ies) do you worship, or follow as an example for your life? (c)&nbsp;What kind of fulfillment do you derive from this belief system? How is that different for you from ( name of former religion )? (d)&nbsp;Are you open about your Paganism to your family and friends? If so, what has been their reaction? Has it made any difference in your relationships with them? (e)&nbsp;What emotional reactions have you experienced during your transition, and how has it affected your life overall? 

The interviews were transcribed, and drafts sent to each respondent for her review, and any revisions or additions she might add. Themes that emerged from the interviews included: fear, alienation, evil, individuation, and the significance of spiritual belief. The researcher went on to examine such implications as projection, attachment, self/mirroring, validation, and empowerment. 

The conclusion was that the transition from Christianity to Paganism allowed the respondents to express themselves more authentically through a Goddess rather than a patriarchal God, and contributed to the potential evolution of the collective psyche.
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The purpose of this phenomenological and hermeneutic study is to explore the experience of working clinically using externalization techniques from the point of view of the psychotherapy client. The practice of working directly with psychological material is examined in the literature review, with a close look at Carl Jung's 1916 essay "The Transcendent Function," as well as at other theorists who write about ways of conceptualizing splits in the psyche. Although much has been written in a theoretical context about operations of the psyche, there has been scant quantitative or qualitative research on methodologies that utilize these concepts from a clinical perspective.

The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with six individuals who had worked in psychotherapy with externalization techniques using three different therapeutic modalities. These modalities: (a) Gestalt empty-chair work; (b) Jungian active imagination; and (c) Shamanistic psychotherapy all involve the same basic mechanism in the psychology of humans, to place on outward objects pieces of internal psychological material. The research participants included five females and one male, ranging in age from 32 to 63 years old. Using Giorgi's phenomenological method and Kvale's hermeneutic method for interviews, the interview transcripts were analyzed, essential elements were distilled, and a structural description that synthesized the informants' common experience was developed.

The research found nine common thematic elements that comprise the essential structure of the experience of working clinically using externalization techniques. They include: (a) looking for guidance or resolution of an existing issue; (b) found emotional connection; (c) engaged in conscious relationship with an other ; (d) experienced other as a separate, discrete entity; (e) experience led to conscious integration; (f) experienced shift in view of self or other; (g) therapist provided important support; (h) experience was powerful; and (i) some of the experience was ego-dystonic.

The study suggests the importance of reaching out to, and working with, disaffected unconscious aspects of the psyche in an engaged and compassionate way, and it may assist therapists in finding effective ways to utilize the psyche's innate splitting mechanism in psychotherapeutic treatment.
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This theoretical study considered two ways of "knowing" the world—the scientific and the borderline—and their relationship to one another. It was imagined throughout the course of this work that the borderline way of knowing embodies some of the shadow (or cast off; unconscious) aspects of the scientific attitude. The purpose of this study, then, was to consider both ways of knowing in a different light, and with this new consideration to "see through" the limits of scientific epistemology (specifically splitting) in such a way that the borderline could be considered in a manner other than the traditional split and pathological one. A hermeneutic method was employed This methodology of interpretation allowed for a creative working of both the scientific and the borderline ways of knowing, the literature of which comprised the data of the study. It was imagined that this method provided threads of information which were then woven into the tapestry of the final four chapters. These chapters, wherein the subjects of splitting, projective identification, addiction, and symbol formation were considered, comprised the results of the study. In addition, throughout the work, the language of the study itself was used as a tool to breakdown the limitations of science and to present a more relational and less split picture of the borderline. This study was aimed at a professional audience and as such the implications bear most heavily on the clinician who inadvertently participated in the study through the course of reading the work itself and entertaining the images herein. This participation by the reader-as-co-creator not only had implications for the study itself, it also served to cast light upon the shadow of science (wherein separation and objectivity is valued). Thus the subjective response of the reader became part of the study and, as a result, the final implications of the work have yet to be determined.
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For the woman who is living with the reality of breast cancer, the literal diagnosis is a terrifying ordeal. The intent of this work is to deliteralize the objective reality, not to deny the physical truth, but to add to it the richness of meaning carried in imaginal layers of reality. This work is an exploration of the imaginal meanings of breast cancer. Jung has said that "the gods have become diseases" (1968/1983, p. 37 [ CW , Vol. 13, para. 54]). To work with the imaginal meaning of illness is to enter the realm of the symbolic, to seek the image in the reality, to confront the gods of psyche who carry the demands for becoming whole. The foundation for the work is James Hillman's sense of "seeing through" reality to penetrate to the soul of things, one's own soul. This is an exploration of one woman's inner imaginal processes that circle around a personal experience of breast cancer and the layers of meaning and metaphor discovered there. Through the use of dreams, amplifications, active imagination, sandplay, drawing, and poetry, the messages of psyche are expressed and honored. The central image for the work of this exploration is a spiraling journey, a series of circles of meaning, reflective of the process of psyche itself. It is based primarily on Jung's concept of circumambulation, the circling around a central point. The research methods are two: heuristic, which is an inner deepening, and hermeneutic, which is an external widening. Voices of others are woven through and resonate with the inner dialogues and images of the imaginal realm. The symbolic significance of cancer is explored from multiple vantage points, personal and cultural. A central theme which emerges is a deepening of feminine experience and values. Cancer is understood ultimately to be both an opportunity and a demand for individuation.
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The objective of this phenomenological study was to give rise to the voices of adolescent female in describing their lived experience during a time line in their adolescent development. The phenomenological method was utilized, with data provided by interviews conducted with four adolescent girls, all middle class with intact families. The content of the interview and phenomenological analysis focused on the lived experiences of these adolescents. Findings of the study revealed that adolescence is a period of many physical, social, and intellectual changes. Some of the negative psychological changes associated with adolescent development result from a mismatch between the needs of developing adolescents and the opportunities afforded them by their social environment. This unstable period affects not only the adolescent, but also the family and others involved in her life, including friends and teachers. This period is many times chaotic and confusing to the adolescent and those around her. This study highlighted the importance of understanding detrimental factors many adolescents are confronted with in today's society with numerous pressures on what is or is not accepted. In addition, this study is supplemented by critical reviews of the literature and research. It focuses on developmental theories, the developmental tasks of adolescents, and attempts to assist adolescents through this critical stage of their life. It also presents results derived from the questionnaire and study of the adolescents interviewed. Some of the issues presented in this study include social relationships, sexuality, identity, autonomy, and gaining a sense of self. Adolescent females experience a great number of obstacles during this stage of their lives. Guidance and support may make significant differences for these girls, allowing them to stay true to themselves. This information could make a difference for the future of women and the future of the world.
<<link 728840781>>

The concepts of postmodernism and the experience of living in the age of postmodernity have engendered in many North Americans today feelings of alienation, emptiness, and nihilism. This dissertation examines the effects of postmodernism on contemporary psychological concepts of the self and argues that a Jungian and archetypal understanding of the self, read hermeneutically and with the aid of a postmodern lens, could provide a meaningful framework for many whose values and belief systems have crumbled. In their quest to think what philosophy has left unthought, postmodern writers attempt to wrestle with the truly radical other. I argue that this other is similar to that which preoccupied Jung in his investigation of the collective unconscious and the objective psyche, and that these concepts have profound significance for bridging the subject-object divide and for healing the nihilism inherent in Western metaphysics and the modern scientific paradigm. Jung was marginalized from mainstream psychology precisely because there was no adequate paradigm through which to understand him. It is possible for Jung to be heard by a wider audience in the field of psychology today because much of his work is better understood viewed through a postmodern lens and also because certain contemporary theories of personality development are so much in line with Jung's own. This dissertation compares, in particular, Jung's theories of evolutionary consciousness with Kegan's work on adult stage development and shows how Kegan's insights on the struggle to move from what he calls a stage 4 level of consciousness, which he associates with modernism, to a stage 5 level of consciousness, which he associates with postmodernism, has components which are strikingly similar to Jung's concept of individuation. Kegan suggests that we are being forced to be postmodern before we are psychologically ready and that there is yet no adequate holding environment to help us smoothly through the transition. I argue that Jung's psychology of the self, which transcends the human ego and builds a bridge to the other, may provide that holding environment.
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The fear of breast cancer is rising along with the climb in its incidence. The lives of some of the 46,000 American women who die of this disease each year could have been saved if fear of breast cancer had not prevented them from detecting it in its early, most treatable stage. This dissertation studied the emotional situation, as revealed in dreams and journal entries, of one woman from the period before diagnosis of breast cancer through surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, into her recovery. It emphasized survival and reframed the experience as an initiation into the wise-woman stage of womanhood. The archetypal aspects of recurrent themes in the dreams of the subject were examined, with particular analysis of the images of regeneration that came through dreams of snakes, pregnancy, and new birth. The methodology of this theoretical study was heuristic and used the author's direct experience of breast cancer as a starting point to develop theories of how the mind-body-spirit connection could promote physical healing. Visualization to aid prevention of hair loss, an emotional regression technique, and spiritual aspects of forgiveness were explored. Kirlian photographs were included to show changes in the energy around the fingertips of the subject before and after interventions such as acupuncture, osteopathic cranial manipulation, sauna, and meditation, as well as variations during emotional states. The topic of psychoneuroimmunology was addressed, developing the theory that releasing sorrow through tears stimulates the immune system, whereas repressing anger blocks it. Implications were outlined for Type C cancer-prone personalities, cancer patients, medical providers, and psychotherapists.
<<link 1404353951>>

This dissertation focuses on daily rites and rituals that have their origins in ancient Greek culture, which, despite our neglect, continue to be practiced to some degree in contemporary Western societies. The primary question is this: why do these common, daily rites persist in the west today and how do they contribute to psychological well-being? 

The literature review covers: material on the gods, goddesses, and ritual in ancient Greece; analytical and archetypal psychologies; and ancient and contemporary theories about rites and rituals. 

I begin with an examination of the archetypes and rituals associated with specific Greek gods and goddesses. To establish a solid basis for understanding the role of rites in human life, I explore both ancient and contemporary theory on this topic. I then inquire into what psychological needs corresponding contemporary rituals may be fulfilling in the modern world, drawing on analytical and archetypal psychologies. Because rites of passage—such as those associated with birth, adolescence, marriage, coming of age, and death—are so important, I devote an entire chapter to them. 

The methodology used in this inquiry was heuristic investigation, especially as defined by Moustakas (1990). I outline the ways in which I utilized the six phases of the heuristic research method: initial engagement, immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis. 

The main elements of my thesis are: (a)&nbsp;the rituals associated with Greek deities coincide with the archetypal character of each deity; (b)&nbsp;humans throughout history had and continue to have a psychological need to acknowledge and honor the archetypes; and (c)&nbsp;it is because ritual practice activates the archetypes and fulfills a basic need that certain rites continue to be carried out.
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Throughout the ages, the majority of women have given birth and continue to do so. The ubiquity of motherhood obscures the fact that approximately 19% of contemporary American women forego motherhood. The overarching purpose of this study was to more deeply understand this population through an integration of archetypal and feminist perspectives. The researcher examined unique clinical issues that these women may encounter related to their childfree status, such as social disapproval, unanticipated guilt, and lack of connectedness to future generations. Additional purposes were to become aware of nonbiological ways these women may express mothering, and to sensitize clinicians to limiting views they may hold about childfree women. Clinicians may choose to introduce relevant mythology and film into the therapeutic process. 

An exploration of the energy patterns represented by the three Greek virgin archetypes, Artemis, Athena, and Hestia, was at the heart of this study. Three films were selected for analysis; each portrayed a contemporary western woman whose behavior patterns corresponded to one of the goddesses. Relevant mythology of each goddess was also incorporated in order to amplify understanding of the predominant energy patterns of each archetype. 

A theoretical hermeneutic approach was employed that involved using each film as a starting point or horizon from which to evoke the unconscious of the researcher and to gather relevant information in the form of a narrative summary. Each summary was followed by an analysis of the film based on applying Hillman's (1975) concepts of personifying, pathologizing, psychologizing, and dehumanizing to the central character. The characters were also analyzed according to Jung's (1938/1964) concept of the negative mother complex in order to understand the impact this complex may have on a woman's feminine instincts. 

Each film character was found to have embodied positive and negative energy patterns that corresponded to one of the three archetypes. Commonalities as well as differences were discovered in each of the characters in relationship to the negative mother complex. Nonbiological patterns of nurturing that were exclusive of motherhood and that corresponded to a specific archetypal pattern were also apparent. Therapeutic concerns in relationship to the mythic patterns of childfree women were found to be evident in contemporary film.
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The objective of this phenomenological study is to examine the lived experiences of the now-grown children of interned German Americans in the United States during World War II. As the phenomenon of European internment in America is not well known, this project was designed not only to study the experience of German Americans, but to provide a scholarly forum for those remaining to describe its impact in their own voices. Five individuals volunteered to participate in the project by providing their own stories in the form of a recorded and transcribed interview. The content of the interview focused on each grown child's view of his or her experience of political marginalization, apprehension, and detention. Each participant represents a portion of the entire phenomenon and serves to highlight the essential issues which appear across the entire spectrum. The individual stories have been consolidated and woven into one story representative of the internment and exclusion which took place within the German American community after December 7, 1941. From the collected data there emerged five salient and recurrent emotional themes which were experienced to varying degrees by all the participants: Anger, Fear, Denial, Shame, and Resolve. These resonating themes provided deeper insights into the psychological elements necessary for survival, adaptation, and reintegration after the end of the war.

As a further gesture to Clark Moustakas (1990), whose work forms the basis for much of this study, a screenplay for a short black-and-white film is included. The film is a representation of the events of one night, as seen through the eyes of a small child in the hours after a father had been apprehended from his home by the FBI.

After more than a half century, the shadow of internment remains. The narratives in this study are presented with the hope that they will provide historical perspective for future generations facing similar challenges in the complicated global climate of the 21st century.

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The purpose of this psychoanalytic theoretical study is to define and explore the phenomenon, etiology, and symptoms of psychic deadness and how they are transmitted within the family. Psychic deadness is the experience of having a sense of self that is numb and deadened and/or has an absence of aliveness. This study is approached from a psychoanalytic perspective of the French School of psychoanalysis and the theories of André Green, Joyce McDougall, Christopher Bollas, and Nicholas Abraham and Maria Torok, using a hermeneutic approach to understanding the unconscious processes involved in the development of subjectivity and selfhood. Philosophical assumptions implicit to this research include the concepts of structuralism, post-structuralism, and deconstruction. The outcome of this research is the development of an alternative model of psychic deadness called Shadow Object Relations . This new theoretical paradigm explains how an individual's experiences of psychic trauma and narcissistic wounding result in the development of pathological organizations that utilize a distinct set of defenses and particular projective and introjective mechanisms including and defined as: transgenerational afterwardness; and the projective mortification processes of infective/contaminated mortification, extractive mortification, transplantive mortification, and extinctive mortification. Psychic deadness is psyche-somatically transmitted from parent to child through the senses. The child has the need to be loved. Depending on the extent of neglect and/or abuse, a void, an unhealed, everlasting wound, is created. The original, instinctual need for love is therefore transformed into a drive that is expressed as an insatiable, never-ending series of demands upon the other. Because the child is dependent upon the parents for survival, the child learns that in order to satisfy his needs, he must discover and meet the demands of his parents. As a result, the child develops, through the process of subjectification, an intersubjective co-construction of psychic structures to fulfill the demands of his parents at the expense of aliveness, his own needs, and development of a true self.
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This was an exploratory study seeking to describe the initial 30 children who completed the first day treatment program for conduct-disordered children in central British Columbia, Canada. It used archival research methods to analyze 92 specially selected characteristics of children 7 to 13 years of age and to provide a statistical description of them. Additional Pearson Correlation analysis found some significant interrelationships between some of the variables measured. The children's severe acting-out behaviors started early. Twenty-five out of 30 children had severe behavior problems emerge by age 7 (83.3%). They were a danger to others in that they historically exhibited "marked aggression" towards their mothers (75.9% of the children), marked aggression toward their siblings (61.5% of the children), and marked aggression toward their fathers (50% of the children). Furthermore, 90% exhibited "very poor relationships with peers." In addition, 33.3% of the subjects had a history of having sexually assaulted or been sexually intrusive towards others. Half of the children in the program had been previously hospitalized due to behavioral problems. Child welfare had some contact with 96% of the children prior to admission. A surprising finding was that 24 out of 30 of the children (80%) had histories of abuse. In addition, although the children were enrolled in a program for Conduct Disordered children, only four of the children had a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder at discharge. Comparison of the First-Nations children with the non-First-Nations children verified significant differences in terms of personal characteristics, culture, and their environment. For example, being of First-Nations ancestry (Aboriginal, Native, Indian, or Metis) was associated with a decreased likelihood of aggression towards the mother (Fisher Exact Test, p < .016). These children were also less likely to be medicated at the time of admission (Fisher Exact Test, p < .03) and less likely to have been hospitalized due to behavioral problems prior to admission (Fisher Exact Test, p < .014). The cultural differences suggest that more attention may need to be paid to culturally relevant treatment approaches.
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In Western culture, the Cartesian separation of mind and body has existed for centuries. With the illness Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) as its focus, this dissertation explores the current status of the psyche-soma relationship. CFS is a controversial illness which polarizes people into one of three views. One group believes it is an organic illness with some neuropsychological symptoms. Another group believes it is a psychological illness in which any physiological symptoms have a psychogenic origin. A newer group rejects such Cartesian splitting, believing that the etiology of CFS is multicausal and that effective treatment depends upon working within a new paradigm. They suggest a need for our culture, medicine in particular, to heal from the Cartesian dichotomy. Carl Jung proposed that archetypes, specifically the emotions inherent in activated archetypes, are the unifying factors for psyche and soma. Psychoneuroimmunologist Candace Pert identified the neuropeptides as the biochemical messengers of emotions, and she, too, believes that emotions are the unifying agent of the bodymind. Here, a clinical view of CFS is used to examine the mind-body split and a new paradigm of bodymind unity. The psyche-soma relationship is also explored from a cultural-historical perspective, noting the impact of cultural expectations such as success, conformity, and technological pacing on the individual. Conversely, the influence of CFS patients on the culture is also examined for how they effect changes in the psychosociosomatic expression of illness and for the possibility they are expressing a cultural exhaustion and pain. Finally, CFS is explored as an example of the dynamic interrelationship between the imaginal and literal environmental aspects of a bodymind unity. Depth psychology views all illness as having meaning. This hermeneutic research offers both a traditional scientific and an alchemical approach to finding meaning in CFS. Each approach casts light on the unstated shadow of the other in order to provide an exploration of the whole. Although the meaning of alchemical gold may vary for each patient, the god Mercurius, the ultimate symbol of wholeness and a successful alchemical process, is evident when the message carried from the unconscious is accepted and healing occurs.
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This dissertation will explore the personal and cultural appeal of cinema as a powerful art form. The cinema creates a potent dialectic between what is projected and what is perceived. Disowned parts of the self are projected onto the screen, enabling the viewer consciously and unconsciously to connect to his or her emotional life. Cinema is thus an important agent for the stimulation of inward growth and the process of individuation. The large screen becomes the tabula rasa of the anima mundi where the individual and the collective are presented with opportunities to achieve reconciliation. The dissertation is grounded in depth psychology, whose theory is based on the belief that a psychological shift occurs when affect meets the assimilation of a new insight. Film actively guides conscious and unconscious movement by providing mirroring experiences which stimulate affective responses in the spectator. The cinema thus becomes a container that functions as a regulating center for the digestion of the intense emotional experiences provoked by a film. The cinema becomes the temenos , creating the special conditions necessary to recalling forgotten or misplaced memories which ultimately facilitate growth, transformation, and a maturing of the total personality. A hermeneutic phenomenology is the method I have used in film analysis. A thorough examination of films that clearly illustrate and differentiate the individuation process of the hero and postmodern hero's journey is employed. A "postmodern stage" of development as defined by Murray Stein parallels Jung's fifth stage of consciousness. This serves as a model for the journey of the postmodern hero, where the conscious and the unconscious are rejoined through a symbol. The cinema provides both a means and a space to bear witness to the psyche coming alive. Both psyche and film are rooted in projection as a multi-sensational means through which we "see." My thesis postulates that projection is the most important mechanism we possess to enable us to see into our psyches. Because the cinema is a medium of images, it is able to direct us back to our psychological depths.
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Utilizing a phenomenological and heuristic design, this inquiry explored the phenomenon of encountering the shadow side of one's athletic coach. The following questions best describe the area of exploration: What were the former athletes' lived experiences of the shadow side of athletic coaching? How do former athletes describe their experience of the shadow side of their athletic coaches? How do former athletes understand the influence of these experiences in their own psychological development? 

These questions were addressed in this inquiry by focusing on the perspectives of a small sample of former athletes who have lived this experience. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with six participants. The ages of the participants ranged from 30 to 54 years. All were from North America, Caucasian, college educated, and from middle class backgrounds. Of the six participants, four were men and two were women. All participants played sports in high school, and four had played in college. Only one participant had played professional sports, that being 1 year of basketball in Europe. One of the participants was also a college level (Division III) women's' basketball coach. 

The first phase of data collection involved interviews lasting between 1½ to 2 hours, were open ended, informal, and interactive, allowing the participants to determine when they felt satisfied that they had discussed their experiences adequately. Participants were asked to discuss the fundamental phenomenon: Describe a time when you encountered the shadow side of your athletic coach. The participants were asked to speak about the phenomenon in as much detail as they chose. Next, the interviews were transcribed and the transcriptions given to the participants, asking them to review the material and clarify statements they felt were incomplete or to add any thoughts that reading the transcripts stimulated. 

In the second phase, individual portraits were created depicting each participant's lived experience, with echoes from the information and issues raised in the literature review used as a broad canvas. All of the participants had an opportunity to read their individual portrait and make notations for any clarifications or amplifications of what they had said or intended to convey. 

The participants' portraits offered a phenomenological glimpse into the soul of the experience of encountering the shadow side of one's athletic coach. As a component of this study, an archetypal and depth perspective was utilized as a unique lens through which the specific phenomenon was viewed. Constructs emerging from this specific way of understanding the portraits included archetypal motifs of play, respect, shame, belonging, winning, luck or happenstance, and wholeness. 

Two auxiliary areas of discussion were elicited from the interviews, the first being how the term shadow is understood when used in a psychological context among persons non-schooled in depth psychology. A second focus was the attributes of a good coach as defined by those who have experienced the shadow side of coaching.
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The purpose of this heuristic study is to explore through a combination of depth and clinical understanding methodologies for creating alternative means of expression and connection with people who experience both developmental challenges and mental disorders. Many severely challenged people are often considered "unreachable." Finding workable methodologies which will break through the chaos of the "unreachable patient" forces us to become the "unusual therapist." 

Jung himself was the original "unusual therapist" in his belief in universal archetypes as real and uncreated ideals which connect all people through the collective conscious and unconscious. Jung believed that the archetypes were revealed through active imagination by exploring archetypal mythological motifs, images, and symbolism. His "unusual methodologies" often focused on alternative means of expression. 

Jung's process of individuation, the integration of light and dark within the self as well as the acceptance of light and dark in the other in objective relationships, is not an externally imposed process, but an instinctual one. All people have an innate desire to move toward individuation. This dissertation seeks to delineate forms of expression and connection to bring even the most challenged individuals into a place from which they can move toward that integration within themselves and move toward healing and greater sense of self. 

Using alternative means of expression, patients can find symbolic metaphors to create a bond, by sharing in a moment of affective attunement. The symbols and imaginal landscapes of alternate visions can help the therapist tap into the energy of communion and assist even the most challenged individual progress toward individuation. Through that bond, the therapist can find a way into the most shadowed minds and hearts. 

Through analyzing these procedures following the methods of heuristic study, I seek consciously to objectify what must always remain a subjective and individual experience for both the therapist and patient. Regardless of our capacities, through alternative means of creative expression, the unusual therapist gains a deeper understanding of the unreachable patient, so that each can be seen and heard for his or her authentic self.
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Using a thematic, hermeneutic approach my research attempts to understand Freud's notion of the death instinct (that is to say, entropy) in light of the findings of quantum mechanics and the effects of consciousness on matter. Consciousness is understood in this context to be the nexus, or gnomonic (fractal) flow of lived experience universally given in what Husserl (1905/1964) called internal time consciousness and Freud called the method of free association . To the extent that entropy is the decay of the body or winding down of material reality, it is also the growth of the collective unconscious, psychic space, and an integrated emotional reality. As such, this research turns upon the retrospective process of the unfolding of a personal dream around which a series of perspectives are woven. My contribution to the field of clinical psychology aspires, then, to a depth psychological perspective of epilepsy that takes seriously, like quantum physics, the unitary nature of reality with respect to the emotional body of mind and the physical matter of spirit. Symptomology seen in the office of the clinician would no longer be broken into the age-old, clear-cut distinctions of the emotional mood disorders versus the physical disorders. Rather symptomology, in sympathy with the findings of quantum physics, would view reality as unitary in nature—that is, both physically and emotionally continuous. This perspective is not fundamentally different from Henry Corbin's spiritual analysis of the mundus imaginalis in Islamic mysticism, its subsequent integration in the field of imaginal psychology, and attempts an inner, visionary recital of the in-between, mind/body phenomena of the seizure: sometimes diagnosed as the physical, neurological disorder of epilepsy, sometimes as the symptom of an emotional, psychological neurosis.
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The purpose of this phenomenological study has been an exploration of the essential characteristics of the lived experience of contemporary contemplative women. Its interest has focused on their "reports," the specific mystical encounters, meetings with God, prayer, and on their "narratives," the container of their contemplative lives. This exploration has elicited information about the nature of the spiritual experience of six professed women religious and has placed it within the context of their personal histories. The question being asked is: How do contemporary contemplative women perceive and describe their experience of God? A brief overview of the extensive literature in this field, aptly named "mystics," has included cursory considerations of the topics of mysticism, contemplation per se , solitude, monasticism, apophatic language and its depth psychological perspective, and the writings of mystical authors, past and present. The research participants are all women who have been formed within the western Christian monastic tradition. They range in age from 47 to 65 years with an average age of 56; their professed commitment to religious life has ranged from 21 to 46 years with the average number of years equaling 33. Three of the participants are monks living within the monastery, a coenobitic community of solitaries; two are professed contemplatives living in a house of prayer; and one has been missioned to an eremitical life, living in the anchoritic enclosure of a hermitage. Their portraits, including the creative work of some, form the text of the dissertation results. The richness, depth, and beauty in these monastic-contemplative lives have been vividly brought forth through their descriptions, through their language, their images and dreams, and their connections with nature, with solitude, and with their varied teachers. Their profound considerations of the flavor and meaning of their spiritual experience may, indeed, enrich us all.
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In Western society women traditionally have difficulty establishing any role other than wife and mother. With divorce rates increasing, women working, and economic expectations rising, the woman's role in society is shifting. Today, women in their middle to late 20s and early 30s are determined to find a space in society by working in their career. Once they have established themselves financially and socially, they are faced with the biological clock, and some of these women are trying to formulate an unknown identity with few role models. This study employs a participant-based, qualitative, phenomenological methodology to explore how contemporary women turning 30 are dealing with issues that concern balancing the pull to motherhood and the pull to individuation. This often involves balancing motherhood and work. Eight women between 27 and 31 years in age with undergraduate degrees or higher were selected from various regions in the United States. The data collection consisted of open-ended, face-to-face interviews and responses to the presentation of 10 photographic cards depicting aspects of the Persephone and Demeter myth modeled and based on the Thematic Apperception Test. Several phenomenological themes reflecting transition and identity formation were identified. The myth mirrored the beginning stages of transformation, the formulation of one's identity, and the ambivalent integration of one's "new identity" around career, motherhood, and balancing the life of a working mother. Analysis of the participants' responses found that seven cards related to the phenomenological themes.

The findings from the study indicate most women between the ages of 27 and 31 years old are experiencing identity formation. These findings are significant since more women in their middle to late 20s are developing the self through career and education and delaying reproduction until their 30s. For some women, the transition from the 20s to the 30s can be difficult, and feelings of depression, anxiety, guilt, and anger can manifest. With women's role in Western society continuing to shift, these symptoms must be acknowledged and recognized, not only in the field of psychology but also in the larger culture, in order to help decrease the symptoms and "normalize" the experience.

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This exploratory study investigated the therapeutic interaction at the heart of a psychospiritual, collaborative assessment model consisting of three 2-hour sessions and a written report. Designed to meet the needs of highly motivated, psychospiritually inclined clients, Dynamic Life Readings (DLR) utilize astrological and intuitive methods of assessment, generating insight congruent with Jungian perspectives. The literature revealed a dearth of qualitative research on collaborative, therapeutic methods of assessment, and a complete absence of relevant in-depth assessment approaches for the target population. A phenomenological study was conducted with four research informants who had received a DLR over 30 months prior to the research interview. An organic inquiry (OI) study tracked the current experience of four participants. Extensive data, gathered in part through ongoing written reflections and a final interview, was synthesized into stories verified by participants for accuracy in both spirit and detail. Analysis of the stories corroborated the aggregate themes generated by the phenomenological study and further amplified the core elements as derived from those themes: (1) inquiry process, (2) relationship, (3) instruction, and (4) written report. Study of the inquiry process revealed a method for rapidly establishing a therapeutic alliance through the facilitation of a visceral experience of desired outcomes, which clarified obstructions and stimulated forward-looking momentum. The construction of inquiries focused on the energetic potentiality created in the session was found to enhance client receptivity to feedback. Feedback that vividly and accurately verified clients' perceptions and early experiences was found to further reinforce the element of trust and receptivity to feedback directives and to aid in the release of blocked energy. Specific instructions, edification on relevant themes, and a written report were shown to be the means through which the short-term intervention potentially affects clients over the long-term. Participants from both studies specifically highlighted psychospiritual themes/tools of the feedback as useful in bringing about desired outcomes: (1) presence and turning attention inwards, (2) practicing awareness, and (3) making conscious choices. While illumining the qualitative nature of and useful strategies for collaborative assessment, the study also highlights the potential relevance of intuitive and astrological means of assessment for this target group.
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This is an art-based phenomenological study of boundaries available to four people being treated for schizophrenia, who participate as co-researchers by using active imagination to engage lines and edges, in two of their own drawings, in an imaginal dialogue. A portrait of the actual and imaginal experience is created to provide answers to the three research questions: What is the experience of lines and edges? Do lines and edges in art work relate to psychological boundaries? Is it possible for the person being treated for schizophrenia to integrate and use boundaries that appear as lines and edges in their drawings? The literature review explores schizophrenia, boundaries, lines, and edges from the perspectives of psychology, art, and art therapy. The relationship of schizophrenia to art, art to dialogue, and dialogue to active imagination establishes a base of understanding from which to proceed. Phenomenology recognizes art work as a form of lived experience and encourages subjects to participate as co-researchers. The co-researchers became the experts regarding their own experience. Reflecting on the dialogue transcript deepened the co-researchers' understanding of the lines input and their own experience. The co-researchers were lead into new realms and used different skills to get there. The portraits are a combination of dialogue and reflection session contents. The discussion of each portrait makes connections between the lines experience and the co-researcher. Relationships emerge indicating boundaries. The lines are found to be related to but independent of each co-researcher and as the lines role in the drawing changes, the boundaries change. Lines and edges in the drawings can be boundaries between self and other, separate internal from external experience, and distinguish reality from fantasy. The co-researchers' participation is a remarkable demonstration of their ability to have and use boundaries. During their participation the co-researchers gained new understanding of themselves and their art work that was frequently used immediately within the sessions.
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This dissertation sought, in the spirit of a psyche-centered depth psychology, to move beyond a personal investigation of the psyche to a broader understanding of the contemporary soul manifest within culture and world. It related the evolutionary advances in computer technology, culminating in the human-computer interface, to the pattern of psychic transformation associated with the alchemical subtle body and its energetic chakra system. Cyberspace and virtual reality imagined as subtle body embody the soul's desire for a place and form of expression which dissolves the boundaries delineated by Western dualities—those between real/not real, material/immaterial, sacred/profane, body/spirit, self-other—and which restores the mediatory soul, the Archetypcal Feminine. Whereas technology has historically played a predominant role in the banishment of soul from the natural world, contemporary computer technology demonstrates the potential to re-ensoul matter and heal the splits in Western consciousness. Utilizing a hermeneutic method, the nature of the archetype of the subtle body grounded the exploration of cyberspace and virtual reality through a variety of perspectives, including: the technology itself, hermeneutic phenomenology, Western philosophy, traditional psychoanalytic and object relations psychology, and Jungian/archetypal psychology. Analysis of electronic technologies found them to further the embodiment of soul when they function, in accordance with the characteristics of subtle body, to restore an intermediary place for the imaginal, reveal the eros and mythos of soul-making, and demonstrate a transformation of energy and consciousness leading to the emergence of a new self/creation. Conversely, they perpetuate disembodiment, and subsequent wounding to soul and subtle body when their purpose and design are restricted to the paradigms of metaphysical transcendence, information storage, and artificial reality. Immersion in the imaginatrix of cyberspace gives birth to the human-machine hybrid, the cyborg, whose shifting ontology potentially reunites psyche, soma, and logos, and engages the mythic imagination. Herein, Eros' desire for connection, Hermes' transgression of boundaries, and Ariadne's sense of the labyrinth lead to an awareness of the interdependence and co-creative nature of reality. Rediscovering soul's subtle body, we experience ourselves as a unified field of subtle energy centers distributed across the planet and affecting an evolution in consciousness of cosmic proportion.
<<link 1328075291>>

The purpose of this study was to explore the Dark Forces of the Feminine within the shadow material of the feminine psyche. Western culture has evolved to value a rational paradigm and has repressed and devalued certain aspects of the feminine, the innate qualities of earthy sensuality, sexuality, death, and transformation, which belong to the realm of the Dark Forces of the Feminine. Western culture is longing for a way to embrace the feminine darkness and to attend to forbidden emotions such as anger, despair, grief, abandonment, rage, hatred, and self-condemnation—with acceptance and grace. As C. Baker (1996) states, "We cannot restore our souls or reclaim the taproot of our creativity until we have grappled with the feminine side of evil and destruction" (p. 14). This dissertation, written from a theoretical, alchemical, and hermeneutic perspective, offers the creativity needed to encounter the seven dark mythological goddesses inherent within the framework of this study. In the amplification and exploration of the Dark Goddess myths, rituals, symbols, and images, the feminine qualities come to life, offering a greater connectedness and meaning to our human psychological processes. Heuristics is woven into this research as a way to honor and value a feminine perspective or attitude, which is evident in the relational approach to the material studied and the importance placed on the reality of the unconscious realm. Several significant psychodynamic theories are inherent within the lens of this study; each address how the seven dark archetypal goddesses provide integration within the inner Self. Character composites were used to suggest a therapeutic process; using client material and archetypal Dark Goddess stories enriched the learning process for use in psychotherapy practices. The unconscious is a powerful reality, and because of this, using symbolic interpretation, a language the unconscious is familiar with, has been incorporated within this research. The material suggests the unconscious is a dynamic force that demands our utmost attention and respect. The Dark Goddess brought forth myths and images, which, through symbolic interpretation, uncovered and elucidated the understanding of how the dark forces toil within the human psyche.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the depths of the complex symbolism contained within the archetype, the anxiety of death. This dissertation written from a theoretical and hermeneutic perspective engaged contributors from the disciplines of philosophy, psychology, sociology, and spirituality. The process of dialogue opened a space for the appearance of the sacred and an encounter of the archetype. These are contained within the creative and repressive tensions inherent in our human strivings for bath individual expression and separation and the connective state of oneness and interrelationship. The engagement with ancient mythologies of life and death as well as modern myths of science also spoke to this blending of physicality and spirit in the ongoing development of Self. An increase in clinical awareness of the pervasive presence of this archetype is of great importance, as is an expanded knowledge and integration of the various existing psychological perspectives. The material suggests that the awareness of death within life and the respect for its presence in society helps to maintain a balance which leads to a more sacred way of living and allows a space for compassion and peace. The work also indicated we are culturally in need of new personal and collective paradigms of death. We do not recognize the presence of death anxieties as an indication of psychic instability nor do we appreciate the emotional importance of stabilizing myths and paradigms. Culturally, our unaddressed fears and disintegrating, sense of community are projected onto external enemies. Above all we are unable to honor death and to integrate the experience of it in our lives.
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Throughout the course of human history, no phenomenon has so inspired and so threatened the imagination as that of death. Death is perhaps the most repressed phenomenon in our culture yet it is the most certain fact of our existence. 

This theoretical study utilized a dialogical hermeneutic method which placed two thinkers, Freud and Jung, in a critical conversation about death. The purpose of this study was to return to these two sources of depth psychology, to recover and reanimate death as a dialogue between them. The study involved analyzing the texts of The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Words of Sigmund Freud and The Collected Works of C. G. Jung in order to extract the themes on death which emerged. In addition, the personal lives of Freud and Jung were examined by reading their biographies. 

Freud perceived death as a difficult problem for psychoanalysis since death is an abstract concept for which no unconscious correlative can be found. He argued that there cannot be a concept or a mental representation of death and therefore no direct experience of it. 

Freud was concerned with the literal aspects of death in his formulation of the death instinct, whereas Jung was concerned with the psychological aspects of death. Freud is to be admired for bringing death to depth psychology, yet he also confined and reduced death to biological determinism. As long as death is literalized in the body, it does not have to be confronted as a psychological problem. Unlike Freud, Jung believed that the psyche concerns itself directly, spontaneously, and naturally with death and with the process of dying. Jung speaks to the literal as well as the psychological experience of death. Jung utilized myth, alchemy, and metaphor to amplify his themes around death. For Jung death is a facilitator of profound and meaningful transformation. 

Death, both literally and psychologically, is important in the clinical setting. Most analyses come upon death in one form or another. Death comes into analysis in different ways—in the objective experience of death in terms of personal illness or loss of loved ones, in the symbolic experience in images arising from the psyche, in existential ways, as clients ponder their own existence and its meaning.
[[by Author]]
<<link 1003860741>>

This theoretical study is about the contribution of depth psychological theories of depression and their significance in the context of the medicalization of the human psyche. This study deals with the juxtaposition between the depth psychological/psychodynamic approach and the psychiatric/biological focus on brain chemistry, and the implications for therapy. As a result of mainstream psychology's focus on biology, the study argues that our understanding of depression in the twenty-first century has lost its psychic reality. Consequently, depression is diagnosed and treated from a biological stance, and therefore seen essentially as a disturbance of the brain's neuro-transmitters and is treated with antidepressants. This study explores how the medicalization of depression has affected the field of psychology, and inquires into how depth psychology can mitigate this inclination. The study asks three specific research questions: The first inquires into how psychologists can reclaim the psychic reality in approaching clients with depression. The second question asks what place depression has in revaluing our psychological nature. And the third asks, how have we, as psychologists, abdicated our understanding of depression? This dissertation is a theoretical study using the hermeneutic method. The study examines the cultural and historical influences on depression which include the dominant emphasis on scientific research. My basic premise is that psychologists are being seduced into the medical model, and that this model is limited in its ability to address the patient's inner experience. A medical stance restricts patients in their ability to understand their symptoms in terms of their lived experience. The model is also limiting psychotherapists in their repertoire of treatment possibilities by implying that there are no inner resources to be encouraged and enlivened in a patient's life. The study traces the historical implications of depression as well as looks at depression from three perspectives: Freud and psychoanalysis, Jung and analytical psychology, and Hillman and archetypal psychology. Even though Freud, Jung, and Hillman have differing perspectives on the human condition, they agree that people with depression suffer from a psychic conflict. The study concludes that the limitations of the medical model and the consequent neglect of the psyche lead to inadequate and incomplete care of the depressed patient. The need for a more diverse psychology of depression is explored, in other words, a psychology that would include not only an interdisciplinary approach, but also an appreciation for the diversity of the psychological life. This diversity would include non-rational as well as rational modes of thought. A more inclusive psychology would accept the depressed individual as suffering from more than a biological disturbance. A more inclusive psychology would also explore depression as a psychological symptom offering information about an individual's life. Listening to symptoms in this manner is aligned with more holistic medical approaches which emphasize mind/body interactions.
<<link 1481669271>>

This dissertation employs a thematic hermeneutic method to explore experiences of alienation and violence found within the school system. A depth psychological view is used to illuminate the phenomena of alienation and violence occurring in schools, their relationship to each other, and their impact on all levels of systemic functioning. The subject matter is approached through three perspectives, namely, Jungian, imaginal and psychodynamic, with the use of composite case studies to illustrate theoretical premises. 

The study suggests that expressions of school violence are linked to experiences of alienation inculcated by a variety of factors. A Jungian lens is used to study how repression of aggression and violence on cultural and socio-political levels may lead to individual violent expression. This often results in scapegoating of individuals, and loss of support for the individuation process. The study shows how individual and collective shadow material found in incidents of school aggression can become teleologically pertinent when transformed through conscious awareness. 

Imaginal ideas and methods are introduced through the use of image, myth, and fairy tales. Process-oriented approaches show how awareness of body experiences and form give rise to images useful in understanding experiences of alienation. Techniques of active imagination and the use of dream images are also used to illustrate group casework with violent impulses. 

In exploring antisocial tendencies, deprivation and achievement-based standards in the school system are seen to be factors linked to individual experiences of shame, revenge, hatred, and anger. In attempting to fulfill needs for recognition and inclusion, aggressive acts may be a cry of hope that the individual's longing for attention will be filled. Acts of violence temporarily bring the individual a sense of power and provide connection with others, breaking through the wall of isolation behind which the school avenger feels trapped. Intrapsychic factors such as grandiosity and envy are also explored. Implications for both depth psychology and clinical psychology are introduced.
<<link 1610718811>>

<<<
Research focused upon the question of what the anorexic's lived experience is of replacing restrictive behavior with dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) skills. Subquestions investigated were: (1) What was the anorexic's experience of using restrictive behavior to regulate emotion? (2) What was the anorexic's experience of using dialectical behavior therapy skills? (3) When during the course of recovery did emotions seem the most overwhelming? (4) How was using DBT skills different from using restrictive behavior to regulate emotion?

Using Giorgi's (1989b) phenomenological method, interviews with four recovering anorexics were analyzed to determine their situation structure as well as the general structure of meaning with regard to their lived experience. Co-participants described the experience of using restrictive behavior to "numb" feelings. Though none of them realized it at the time, these women were using restrictive behavior to regulate emotion: the less they ate, the less they felt. The more the women obsessed about calories and weight, the less they had to think about or feel the complicated (and to them overwhelming) emotions that come with being human. Co-participants were able to describe their experience of using all four modules of DBT skills training: interpersonal effectiveness skills, emotion regulation skills, distress tolerance skills, and mindfulness skills. As they slowly applied the skills, they struggled with many issues, including an inability to put their own needs ahead of other's needs, critical internalized voices, negative secondary reactions to primary emotions, and confusion about how to be present in the moment.

Ultimately the co-participants' experiences reveal that it was challenging yet possible to replace restrictive behavior with dialectical behavior therapy skills. At the end of their recovery process, all of the women experienced a newfound ability to assert themselves, to accept their emotions, and to tolerate distress. They also experienced a shift in how they viewed themselves and their world. They became more accepting of themselves and their world became more full of possibility and meaning.

<<<
/***
|Name|DisableWikiLinksPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#DisableWikiLinksPlugin|
|Version|1.5.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman - ELS Design Studios|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements <br>and [[Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.5 License|http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5/]]|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Requires||
|Overrides|Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords, 'wikiLink' formatter|
|Description|selectively disable TiddlyWiki's automatic ~WikiWord linking behavior|
This plugin allows you to disable TiddlyWiki's automatic ~WikiWord linking behavior, so that WikiWords embedded in tiddler content will be rendered as regular text, instead of being automatically converted to tiddler links.  To create a tiddler link when automatic linking is disabled, you must enclose the link text within {{{[[...]]}}}.
!!!!!Usage
<<<
You can block automatic WikiWord linking behavior for any specific tiddler by ''tagging it with<<tag excludeWikiWords>>'' (see configuration below) or, check a plugin option to disable automatic WikiWord links to non-existing tiddler titles, while still linking WikiWords that correspond to existing tiddlers titles or shadow tiddler titles.  You can also block specific selected WikiWords from being automatically linked by listing them in [[DisableWikiLinksList]] (see configuration below), separated by whitespace.  This tiddler is optional and, when present, causes the listed words to always be excluded, even if automatic linking of other WikiWords is being permitted.  

Note: WikiWords contained in default ''shadow'' tiddlers will be automatically linked unless you select an additional checkbox option lets you disable these automatic links as well, though this is not recommended, since it can make it more difficult to access some TiddlyWiki standard default content (such as AdvancedOptions or SideBarTabs)
<<<
!!!!!Configuration
<<<
Self-contained control panel:
<<option chkDisableWikiLinks>> Disable ALL automatic WikiWord tiddler links
<<option chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers>> ... except for WikiWords //contained in// shadow tiddlers
<<option chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks>> Disable automatic WikiWord links for non-existing tiddlers
Disable automatic WikiWord links for words listed in: <<option txtDisableWikiLinksList>>
Disable automatic WikiWord links for tiddlers tagged with: <<option txtDisableWikiLinksTag>>
<<<
!!!!!Installation
<<<
import (or copy/paste) the following tiddlers into your document:
''DisableWikiLinksPlugin'' (tagged with <<tag systemConfig>>)
<<<
!!!!!Revision History
<<<
''2006.06.09 [1.5.0]'' added configurable txtDisableWikiLinksTag (default value: "excludeWikiWords") to allows selective disabling of automatic WikiWord links for any tiddler tagged with that value.
''2006.12.31 [1.4.0]'' in formatter, test for chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks
''2006.12.09 [1.3.0]'' in formatter, test for excluded wiki words specified in DisableWikiLinksList
''2006.12.09 [1.2.2]'' fix logic in autoLinkWikiWords() (was allowing links TO shadow tiddlers, even when chkDisableWikiLinks is TRUE).  
''2006.12.09 [1.2.1]'' revised logic for handling links in shadow content
''2006.12.08 [1.2.0]'' added hijack of Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords so regular (non-bracketed) WikiWords won't be added to the missing list
''2006.05.24 [1.1.0]'' added option to NOT bypass automatic wikiword links when displaying default shadow content (default is to auto-link shadow content)
''2006.02.05 [1.0.1]'' wrapped wikifier hijack in init function to eliminate globals and avoid FireFox 1.5.0.1 crash bug when referencing globals
''2005.12.09 [1.0.0]'' initial release
<<<
!!!!!Credits
<<<
This feature was developed by EricShulman from [[ELS Design Studios|http:/www.elsdesign.com]]
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.disableWikiLinks= {major: 1, minor: 5, revision: 0, date: new Date(2007,6,9)};

if (config.options.chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks==undefined) config.options.chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks= false;
if (config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks==undefined) config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks=false;
if (config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksList==undefined) config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksList="DisableWikiLinksList";
if (config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers==undefined) config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers=true;
if (config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag==undefined) config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag="excludeWikiWords";

// find the formatter for wikiLink and replace handler with 'pass-thru' rendering
initDisableWikiLinksFormatter();
function initDisableWikiLinksFormatter() {
	for (var i=0; i<config.formatters.length && config.formatters[i].name!="wikiLink"; i++);
	config.formatters[i].coreHandler=config.formatters[i].handler;
	config.formatters[i].handler=function(w) {
		// supress any leading "~" (if present)
		var skip=(w.matchText.substr(0,1)==config.textPrimitives.unWikiLink)?1:0;
		var title=w.matchText.substr(skip);
		var exists=store.tiddlerExists(title);
		var inShadow=w.tiddler && store.isShadowTiddler(w.tiddler.title);

		// check for excluded Tiddler
		if (w.tiddler && w.tiddler.isTagged(config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksTag))
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }
		
		// check for specific excluded wiki words
		var t=store.getTiddlerText(config.options.txtDisableWikiLinksList)
		if (t && t.length && t.indexOf(w.matchText)!=-1)
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }

		// if not disabling links from shadows (default setting)
		if (config.options.chkAllowLinksFromShadowTiddlers && inShadow)
			return this.coreHandler(w);

		// check for non-existing non-shadow tiddler
		if (config.options.chkDisableNonExistingWikiLinks && !exists)
			{ w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch); return; }

		// if not enabled, just do standard WikiWord link formatting
		if (!config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks)
			return this.coreHandler(w);

		// just return text without linking
		w.outputText(w.output,w.matchStart+skip,w.nextMatch)
	}
}

Tiddler.prototype.coreAutoLinkWikiWords = Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords;
Tiddler.prototype.autoLinkWikiWords = function()
{
	// DEBUG alert("processing: "+this.title);
	// if all automatic links are not disabled, just return results from core function
	if (!config.options.chkDisableWikiLinks)
		return this.coreAutoLinkWikiWords.apply(this,arguments);
	return false;
}
//}}}
<<link 1251811401>>

This study is about the process of individuation and a psychospiritual process beyond individuation that occurs within an extrapsychic realm that is called psychoid. These processes are investigated from a depth psychological perspective. I employ a thematic hermeneutic approach that is heuristic and organic. The fundamental technique of organic research is uncovering personal myth from telling historical myth. In this study, individuation is considered a life-long process with three interconnected phases. In the initial phase of individuation, the ego is the central psychic structure. The ego's development and its psychopathology are explored reductively through an object relations lens (a psychoanalytic model). The second phase of individuation is a constructive process (a Jungian analytic model) that occurs when the ego is confronted by unconscious psychic processes. The constructive process describes how the ego yields to the Self, which emerges in consciousness as the central figure of the psyche. The Self is essential to the psychospiritual work that occurs during the third phase of individuation. The third phase of individuation occurs when the individual experiences inner or outer figures that are psychoidal. Psychoidal figures personify to the ego direct experience of divinity. The central figure of this phase is the Ally. To be able to interact with and to facilitate the maturation of inner and outer psychoidal figures and for the evolution of the Self, the Ally, and the ego, this study promotes the practice of active imagination. The container into which this study and the individuation processes are projected is the film Bram Stoker's Dracula (Coppola & Hart, 1992a). The character who carries the projection is the vampire, Dracula. This study demonstrates the subtlety of unconscious projection. When projection becomes conscious, it creates a dramatic change in the consciousness of the author of this study. The author's inclusion of dreams and psychoidal experiences demonstrate how one's way of seeing and understanding experience shifts from seeing inward to seeing from within. Seeing from within made possible a new interpretation of the teachings of Jesus and Mary Magdalene and the recognition of one's own personal deity.
<<link 727696381>>

In the dream theatre, dreams are re-enacted in the group context. The group members embody their dream images and the dream images of the other members to re-enact psyche's play. While embodying, one engages in imaginal or scripted dialogues, experiences the gestural field of the other players, and explores the landscape of the dream. The participants live in the active imagination. This work is concerned with exploring the dream theatre from a phenomenological approach. Moustakas' heuristic method is used to examine the experience of being a dream theatre participant. Six participants were ask the open-ended question: "What was your experience as you embodied the dream image and re-enacted your dream, as you re-enacted the dreams of the other members, and as you watched dreams being re-enacted?" These participants were members of a dream theatre group that was formed at Pacifica Graduate Institute for a 2-year period. The data derived was analysed to create a composite depiction of the experience—five individual portraits that exemplify the experience, and a creative synthesis of the experience. Throughout cultural history, the humans' proclivity towards re-enactment is exhibited. The origins of theatre in Greek civilization are derived from ritual and pageantry dedicated to the god Dionysus. Aspects of the theories of Freud, Jung, Klein, and Winnicott that are foundational to re-enactment of the dream are discussed. Also, contemporary imaginal psychology is presented as intrinsically supportive to dream re-enactment. A compilation of psychophysical techniques, which can be used to open up one's experience of the dream in the theatrical context, are presented including the unpublished work of dream theatre director Jon Lipsky and the sensory work of Stanislavski. This study indicates that embodiment of the dream image and re-enactment of the dream opened up the dream for most members in ways that they believed could not have been experienced in exclusively verbal therapy. The experience of living in the dream is collectively described as providing a feeling of wholeness, a coming together of body and soul. This study demonstrates that embodying the dream image in the theatre is an important means towards healing the mind/body split.
<<link 728842561>>

My deep fascination with mystical realms lured me into exploring the language of psyche in relation to near-death experiences. The research focused on symbols contained within dreams before and after near-death events as well as imaginings of one's conscious life. Using a qualitative method to conduct four interviews, I discovered the reality of a life unseen which is accompanied by many synchronistic events that beacon to one's intrinsic inner life. This study offers insights into the field of depth psychology concerning work with individuals who are experiencing traumatic events, significant symptomatology, or any developmental stage that activates a transformative process. The perspective of suffering offered by individuals who have experienced other realities reinforces the importance of going through the anguish, not around it. The process of suffering amplifies one's sensitivity to meaning. The imagery of the light at the end of the dark tunnel is applicable to the chaotic excursions we all encounter. This research reminds us, as therapists, to broaden our sensitivities to patients' resistance to affliction and to develop a therapeutic atmosphere that allows for a deeper understanding as well as acceptance of the transformative process. The trauma experienced by the participants allowed them to reclaim and rework untended realities; the resulting transformation was redeeming.
<<link 1677843391>>

<<<
This phenomenological study looked at the experiences of five school counselors who came together as a group to share, discuss, and reflect on their dreams for what the dreams could reveal about the social, political, and cultural aspects of truancy. In this study, the dream and the information it reveals about one's environment and culture is the valued currency not the personal meaning for the dreamer. Understanding dreams for this purpose is generally referred to as socio-cultural dreaming, and one discovers the socio-cultural meaning of dreams through dialogue.

Informing this study are the theories of C. G. Jung and psychoanalysts Joseph Henderson, Thomas Singer, Samuel Kimbles, and Samuel Andrews. The ideas of dream investigator Montague Ullman, organizational consultant W. Gordon Lawrence, and analytical psychologist James Hillman are also considered. The theoretical assumptions applied to this study are: (a) Dreams not only have a personal domain but a transpersonal realm that moves away from the private world of the dreamer and into a larger encompassing field of culture and history; and (b) knowledge of these realms is constructed by talking, listening, and reflecting on dream images that have captured the social, cultural, and historical experiences of a community of people.

This research was guided by three central questions: (a) How do school counselors describe their experiences in Culture Dreaming? (b) How do school counselors describe the social meaning of their dreams? and (c) How does participating in Culture Dreaming change, if at all, their understanding of truancy? Research data was gathered and organized by utilizing the phenomenological research interview.

From their experiences in Culture Dreaming, the participants were able to conceive a series of hypotheses about the school environment and truant behavior. Their hypotheses became instruments for thinking critically about the school environment and the cultural messages students are given. Their hypotheses are: (a) Truancy is meaningful and adaptive; (b) the soul of education has been injured due to the almost exclusive emphasis on achievement and test results; and (c) outside the infrastructure of school is where truant students may be seeking direction in life.

<<<
<<link 765932841>>

This dissertation explores how dreams in late adulthood inform us about the dying and death process. The research design integrates the phenomenological interview, grounded theory data analysis, and theoretical constructs. The primary research question examines the relationship of dreams to mature development of the elderly during the final phase of life. This study includes eight elder participants between 82 and 94 years. A total of 88 dreams were collected that investigate the relationship of dream content and themes to developmental tasks, using subject level interpretation. Data triangulation was used to corroborate findings using external readers to identify themes and perspectives. Two developmental theories were used to investigate human development and transformation in the final phase of life; namely, Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and Bowlby's attachment theory. These two paradigms, together with Jungian psychology, were used to research elder development and relatedness. Dreams provide pathways into our own hidden depths and insight into developmental transitions. The argument of this dissertation is that dreams are inherently meaningful and essential to an introspective inner search for meaning in the last phase of life. Five important dream categories were found as central to last phase-of-life transitions. First, loss, sadness, and grief are associated with letting go of attachment and cessation of life. Second, travel in dreams relates to preparation for dying. Third, nurture-related dreams suggest a more individuated state in late life than generativity during mid-life. Fourth, power and mastery versus powerlessness and incapacity emerged as the elder searched for meaning in the face of approaching death. Fifth, interpersonal relatedness versus unrelatedness was identified as a process that continues throughout the life span. The biographies and dreams collected augment the study of human consciousness through the end of a long life. Elders hold a wealth of untapped knowledge and wisdom that is beneficial in understanding human development in clinical psychology. Dreams activate emotional memories and recollections of other life experiences, thereby becoming a complementary device to use in clinical settings. Using dreams to understand elder emotional, spiritual, and developmental changes has implications for creating a new transitional space in depth psychology.
<<link 1273132451>>

Carl Jung proposed that the numinosum manifests itself through archetypes that make their essence known through sacred images. He believed the God-image within speaks to us in dreams, and referred to such dreams as somnia a Deo missa ("dreams sent by God"). Jung believed that somnia a Deo missa carry transforming and healing power. This dissertation is a phenomenological study which examines the lived experience of individuals having such spiritual dreams—-referred to in this study as numinous dreams. It supports Jung's beliefs. This phenomenological study was undertaken to analyze—-in depth—-the numinous dream experience of six people who reported having such dreams. Participants were asked two questions: (1)&nbsp;Would you please tell me your numinous dream? (2)&nbsp;What was your lived experience of the dream? The data from the interviews was organized into meaning units and themes for each dreamer, then into specific categories of numinous dreams elements. The common characteristics that ran through all the reported dreams were physical light and spiritual ecstasy. The major affects of the dreams were psychological healing and spiritual transformation. The research suggests that having a numinous dream can become a milestone in a person's individuation process. All of the participants in the study changed their theological beliefs as a result; which indicates that the Self may manifest in numinous dreams to inform the ego that its spiritual beliefs are too confining. The research indicates that numinous dreams not only address archetypal issues, but also address personal issues such as childhood problems, therefore it has several implications for clinical practice: (1)&nbsp;the healing power of numinous dreams with their capacity to induce transformative experience must be validated in clinical practice, (2)&nbsp;numinous dreams can release us from our pathology, (3)&nbsp;not all psychological healing is the result of transference or counter-transference, (4)&nbsp;numinous dreams have developmental implications, and (5)&nbsp;numinous dreams are psychologically beneficial. This study supports Jung's belief that numinous experience can release individuals from the curse of pathology and nourish spiritual desire. The essence of numinous dreaming is spiritual transformation.
<<link 728368961>>

This inquiry used heuristic design and methodology to research how seven female psychotherapists personally experienced group dreamwork, and of how they planned to introduce dreamwork to their patients. Data was collected from two main sources. First, data was collected from the group through audiotape recordings made during the group dreamwork sessions. Second, data was collected from the individual women through audiotape recordings made during post-group interviews. The design of this inquiry focused on the questions: "How did you experience the group dreamwork?" and, "How will you take this experience back into your practice by introducing dreamwork to your clients?" These are the perspectives from which the group dreamwork experience were addressed. Seven women, ages 41 to 57, were interviewed regarding their experience of the group dreamwork. Two of the participants were new to group dreamwork, two had experienced a few sessions, and three had 1 or more years experience. No one had used the Dream Interview Method of Gayle Delaney, PhD, to understand and interpret her own dreams. The post-group interviews were audiotape recorded. The interviews were open-ended, informal, and interactive. They took place within 4 weeks of the completion of the dreamwork group. The participants were co-researchers and as such, they were asked to speak, in as much detail as they chose, to the fundamental questions. The interview was followed by transcription and study of the group and individual tapes. From this data, a portrait was written depicting each woman's experience of the group dreamwork, both personally and as a group member. A copy of her portrait was delivered to each participant. She was asked to make any modifications that she wished to the portrait. These changes were incorporated into her portrait. Excerpts from transcriptions of the participants' taped interviews were included in the study to substantiate the portrayals and to indicate the meaning of the experience for each of the female psychotherapists.
<<link 1562580541>>

<<<
The migration experience of Chinese American immigrants is distinguished by dwelling within-and-between two worlds: the Chinese/Eastern and American/Western. Chinese American immigrants who uproot themselves from their home country and migrate to the United States straddle old and new, familiar and strange, belonging and alienation, but the unsettlement also enriches their psychic growth.

This dissertation investigates the psychological experience of Chinese American immigrants, specifically, their lived experience of dwelling within-and-between two worlds, to perceive their immigration experience as a psychic journey. The depth psychology of C. G. Jung, James Hillman, and Henry Corbin; Chinese Taoism; and the philosophical perspectives of Gaston Bachelard, Martin Heidegger, and Hans-Georg Gadamer provide the theoretical lens to see through this experience. It is argued that this lived experience of within-and-between worlds can be revealed via an imaginative and poetic knowing. Moustakas' (1990) heuristic method with a hermeneutic-phenomenological philosophical foundation is employed to understand and explicate Chinese American immigrants' lived experience of dwelling within-and-between two worlds.

From interviews with nine research participants in two metropolitan areas dense with Chinese American immigrants, three polar dimensions emerged: accommodating to American culture versus retaining a Chinese cultural self; loneliness and alienation versus creating a sacred space; and minority status and oppression versus striving to integrate both cultures. The accommodation/retention regarding minority status and the wish for integrating both cultures was viewed as part of the cultural identification process, and discussion focused on issues involved in this process. Loneliness and alienation versus the creation of a sacred space was seen as a psychological transformation by which the research participants moved toward the Self (or God-image), which occurred either via institutionalized religion or personal search. Within the personal spiritual search, the Chinese psyche was discussed as the heart of this individual self-transformation. The Chinese psyche is objectified with artistic methods, either filmmaking, poems, or other means, and is often projected onto the landscape.

<<<
<<link 726339781>>

Within depth psychological theory, growth often requires the letting go, giving up, or surrendering of underdeveloped or maladaptive ego functioning. However, the important and necessary concept of surrender within psychological development has been marginalized because of the paradoxical nature of the experience, as well as Western culture's antipathy toward any concepts even remotely sounding like defeat or failure. This dissertation is an attempt to address the neglect which surrender has historically experienced and to restore its rightful place within depth psychological theories of growth and development. Utilizing a thematic hermeneutical methodology, a particular type of letting go or giving up, termed transformative surrender , was identified as a meta concept under which both sacrifice and submission can be understood. The definition of transformative surrender is the letting go or giving up of real or symbolic aspects of one's self through either a voluntary or non-volitional process in order to maintain or re-establish a transpersonal relationship but without foreknowledge of the actual outcome. A review of transformative surrender within Eastern, Western, and mystical spiritual traditions demonstrated the ubiquitous archetypal nature of this event in the spiritual development of religious members. Applying transformative surrender to depth psychological schools showed that only analytical psychology incorporates this concept, because it alone is based upon establishing and maintaining a relationship with a transpersonal Other greater than one's own ego consciousness. Transformative surrender episodes within analytical psychology are serial experiences initiating times of psychological development during the individuation process. A re-imagining of transformative surrender within analytical psychology, utilizing the concepts of liminality, emptiness, unknowing, and the Buddhist image of sunyata , was offered to better conceptualize and illustrate the role of the ego with the Self. This revisioning of the ego's experience, while not ignoring the change that it must undergo in relativizing its previous beliefs, is more congruent with the reciprocal dependence that Jung envisioned for both the ego and Self within the individuation process. Clinical case material illustrating this re-imagining of transformative surrender, as well as therapeutic implications and future research considerations, were also presented.
<<link 764915801>>

The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenological experiences of dyslexic individuals. This study also addressed the dyslexic's natural cognitive process. It was hypothesized that there is an inherent tendency to utilize intuition, creativity, and elements of chaos to function in the world. No previous qualitative phenomenological studies have explored such correlations. The open-ended interviews explored the lives of five dyslexic individuals. The study showed that states that these dyslexic individuals are inductive by nature and use creativity, intuition, and chaos to interpret information. This study also demonstrated that these dyslexic individuals phenomenologically develop a chameleon presentation, to hide the shame or stigma attached to being dyslexic in this society. Some of the dyslexics subjects, in addition, also appear to have a higher regard of "self" if their parents were involved in their early years of the educational process, validated their inherent gifts, and showed accepted their dyslexia. From the most organized to the most unorganized, dyslexics have a talent for making sense of chaotic situations. Dyslexic subjects are also gifted with the ability to react to information before it has actually occurred. This presentation can proved difficult for the dyslexic subjects because they are flooded with a lot of information at a given moment. Responding to such a wealth of information requires a lot of physical energy. When several of the dyslexic subjects figured out this process, they appeared to utilize their imagination and creativity more effectively to navigate successfully in the world.
<<link 828443671>>

This dissertation is an exploration of what happens in the child's mind when disillusioned early in life by a mother who is oblivious to the child's inner life. How does it affect the child's ability to trust himself, herself, and others? This work examines the sophisticated theories of Wilfred Bion and Andre Green, which build upon the framework established by Donald W. Winnicott, who described the necessity for a "good-enough" holding environment for the child's mind to develop in health. There is careful inquiry into how neurosis develops in the child: how it evolves interpersonally and intrapsychically; how it manifests in the treatment later in life as hidden depression, precocious sublimation, intellectualization, idealization, and the difficulty to separate from the internalized identification with the abandoning mother; as well as the complications encountered in forming a couple. Attachment theory is outlined vis-a-vis shame and depression, as well as the complex way in which what has potential to be good is turned into something bad in the child's mind. Thus a pattern of concentrating on absence rather than presence affects all future relationships. Andre Green's advanced notion of moral narcissism, which deprives the child from the inside, is explored in depth. The necessity for catastrophic change, as described by Bion, is examined, especially related to how the "lie" presents in treatment. The unconscious power of the moral position of superiority/inferiority, as an avoidance of truth, is also elaborated. Building upon research that has been done, the combined heuristic and phenomenological approach weaves personal discovery, insight from the author's work with patients and her own dreams, and inner exploration to elucidate this topic.
<<link 731855381>>

In this paper, we explore the Greek mythology of Echo as an archetypal manifestation of the dependent personality disorder. In previous scholarship Echo has most often been used as a means of understanding the character of Narcissus and his corresponding narcissistic personality disorder. The current paper does the reverse, attempting to build our understanding of Echo and dependency through Narcissus and the concept of narcissism. By drawing parallels between the mythology and the clinical presentation of dependent personality disorders, we then apply a number of different psychological theories of human development which, when combined, provide a fuller understanding not only of the clinical presentation of dependency, but also of narcissism. The works of Bowlby, Mahler, and Jung help us to understand the characterological development and presentation of the dependent individual, and Kohut's bipolar self provides a link between the mythic couple of Echo and Narcissus. This link allows us better to understand the attraction which dependent and narcissistic individuals have towards one another, as well as why these relationships infrequently work out. More than this, however, our explorations also reveal not only dependent personality aspects which lie hidden within the narcissistic individual, but perhaps more surprisingly, narcissistic elements which lie hidden within the dependent person. Extensions into the cultural arena, in particular the loathing which a culture described as narcissistic has of dependency, Allows us to make excursions into feminist analyses of patriarchy. Finally, in a summary, we explore therapeutic implications for working with dependent-personality-disordered individuals.
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<<link 736613481>>

This dissertation examined the image of the angel in the 20th century. Current angelic images were investigated through clinical examples and the work of well-known artists. Issues of perfection, resistance, and transformation were addressed in the clinical examples. Angelic forms were shown to reflect the client's ability to experience paradox and compassion. Twentieth-century works of art provided current angelic forms, as well as insight into how society envisions empathy and mercy. The formation of angelic images was also investigated through interviews with three artists: a painter, a sculptor, and a poet. The phenomenological method was used to research the experience of creating angelic images. Five pre-arranged questions structured the interviews. These questions also stated the interviewer's prejudice. Verification of the experience was obtained through the artists correcting their own transcripts. Direct involvement with the formation of angelic images was shown to deepen the experience of paradox and the concept of the angel.
<<link 1941974811>>

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This dissertation examines individuals' psychological relationship to money and how it impact their development and concept of a sense of Self. In this phenomenological study, interview participants of various socio-economic status provided narratives of their experience with money through family of origin influence and present-day relational issues. The narratives from these open-ended interviews were analyzed thematically and condensed into central themes shared by all participants. The results indicate not only the enduring influence of early relational experiences with present-day money behavior, but also the emotionally charged nature of money beliefs and behaviors.

The historical, cultural, societal meanings, and symbols of money are examined within the context of the individuals' relational expectations and needs. Underlying archetypal representations are discussed in regard to their power to exert influence and meaning in money's conscious and unconscious symbolism in individual lives and collective culture.

Money behavior and experience reveal many psychological aspects that are relevant to clients in therapeutic settings, including: basic transactional expectations in relationship, valuation of Self and others as influenced by monetary transactions, and the coherence of values and identity as expressed by spending behavior. The cultural context and societal representations within which these behaviors are embedded provide a holistic view of the client within his or her realm of interaction and belief. The discussion of money addresses fundamental fears of existence, belonging, survival, and the reality of clients' everyday life experiences.

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<<link 765171681>>

There is a growing interest in, and a paucity of research about, the understanding of everyday emotions within the corporate landscape. This phenomenological study examined the experience of empathy within the air-transportation domain. Six ticket-counter service workers from three major air-transportation companies located at the Detroit-Metro International Airport participated in open-ended interviews to discuss their experience of empathy during a passenger service encounter. During the audio-taped interviews the attitudes, feelings, values, conflicts, and associations that ticket-counter service workers experience as a part of their everyday work and how it affects the capacity to feel empathy and the ability to communicate empathy to the passenger during a service encounter was revealed. The present study found that empathy is a basic component of the passenger-service encounter and contributes significantly to the depth and complexity of communication between service provider and consumer. The study examined how cognitive and affective perspective taking has effects on empathic arousal, while simultaneously performing work-related tasks, and explored a continuum of empathic responses. The individual descriptions of this experience point to the synergistic dimensions of body, mind, and spirit and how empathy and emotions are integral and inseparable in organizational life.
<<link 726045171>>

Western culture, as a result of our scientific, rational paradigm, has repressed and devalued certain aspects of nature and matter, sensuality, sexuality, death, and transformation, which belong to the realm of the dark feminine principle. Both men and women have suffered because of this devaluation, creating a sense of dis-ease and feelings of emptiness, which are often expressed through addiction, consumerism, depression, and long work days. The focus of this study addresses women's struggles to recognize and redeem these repressed and devalued parts within themselves and in their outer world. Using the hermeneutic method of interpretation, amplification, and reflection, this study will address "The Old Witch" from More English Fairy Tales by Jacobs (1968), and attend to what lessons are offered to women today in search of themselves. Any fairy tale, when viewed as a series of symbolic expressions of the unconscious, offers many possible responses to the vagaries of life's experiences. Amplification of the motifs of "The Old Witch" are enhanced by attention to myths of goddesses, views of woman and of the phenomenon of the witch hunts, theories from Self and analytical psychologies, and the use of clinical vignettes. The Old Witch offers a woman a roadmap to the unconscious with markers helping her to prepare for her encounter with the witch and to hold onto the treasure she finds. This inner work, which the tale describes, eventually leads a woman back into the everyday, mundane life better able to be of service to her Self, her family, and her community with renewed vitality, a sense of meaning and purpose, confidence, and self-love.
<<link 828435931>>

This dissertation reflects upon the nature of family therapy and what the zeitgeist asks of it. The purpose of this hermeneutically framed thematic study is to investigate the need to tend soul within family therapy. Soul is seen as secular, the feminine function of empathy and beingness, and as sacred, an image, beyond time and space linking matter to Spirit. When family therapy was born in the 1940s, soulfulness was embedded within the culture. It was not needed in family therapy. Working to improve family relationships and increase maturity was enough. Sixty years later, family therapy responding to a youth-culture, emphasizes brief, goal-oriented therapy. The contemporary family, situated within a culture of shifting mythologies, needs more than traditional family therapy can offer, With the exception of a few theorists, it does not help families, especially the young and immature, to cope with overwhelming emotions stemming from the collective unconscious and the emergence of new mythologies. This thesis asserts that the theories and practices of Jungian and archetypal psychology solve this problem when partnered with family therapy. The marriage provides therapists with five levels of interventions: the personal family, the personal unconscious, the collective unconscious, the world soul, and a spiritual level, and with multiple means of soul-making. Family system theory expands to include archetypal networks. By tending soul, family therapy transforms into a transpersonal psychology, capable of dealing with non-ego material. The search for meaning, purpose, and Joy, and the enrichment of experience, changes the tone and texture. Two case studies, of a shamed son and a family with a disorder of nurturance, illustrate the complexity and helpfulness of tending two sides of one coin, the concrete family and their household gods. The premise is that any healing is more stable. The overall conclusion is that soul-tending is vitally needed to help families temper a mythic culture, build stamina to meet numinous forces, and cultivate a more soulful future. The youth culture's problem with splitting good and evil and a transgenerational projection of cultural shadows necessitates not only tending soul but healing shame. Ensouling family therapy becomes an art form of Love.
<<link 1436350101>>

The media tells us that tragically young women disappear at the hands of dangerous men regularly. Still, we cannot ignore the reality that some young women are drawn toward men that may appear overtly dangerous. Dangerous male figures are frequently portrayed in myth and fairytale with a young woman potentially suggesting a form of archetypal rite-of-passage for young women with potential wisdom achieved by the experience. "Enticing the Dark" is a theoretical work that utilizes a hermeneutic method and draws material from case examples as well as literature, lectures, and films and examines the experience of young women and their encounter with dangerous male figures. 

This dissertation offers an extensive literature review including forensic research, developmental theories, and Jungian perspectives on women's experience. Then in the body of the work, the dissertation examines evolutionary psychology and the Maiden's tolerance of violence, the experience of becoming woman and the problems she faces with the mother, the father, and the world, and the important role of archetypes, specifically: the trickster, Dionysus, and Descent Journeys. 

In "Enticing the Dark," the developmental process of young women is examined by highlighting factors that contribute to young women and their vulnerability to male aggression and violence. Through the lens of Jungian theory, this dissertation helps to explain the experience of young women as they begin their necessary development of their inner masculine traits (animus development). The animus when unexamined is most often projected outside of the woman, leaving her vulnerable to victimization. However to make this process conscious, a woman is able to utilize the strength of her inner masculine, integrate this figure, and use it in positive ways that creates an inner form of hero that will protect her from danger. 

"Enticing the Dark" hopes to bring about insight into the young woman's experience in order to help clinicians and young women understand the vulnerabilities present in young adulthood and help prevent potential violent situations.
<<link 885713361>>

This study is a theoretical one that makes use of an hermeneutic method. The intent of the study is to amplify the psychological construct of death and consider new theoretical connections between death, or Thanatos, and love, or Eros. The perspective through which the texts are engaged is an imaginal one, used in this study as the interpretive lens through which death is viewed. A figuration of Thanatos, or Death, and its relationship with love, or Eros, appears as a constellation of events, symptoms, images, dreams, and conversations. The figuration is an experience of how death appears, how it figures , in mind, heart, and body, on personal, clinical, collective-cultural, and imaginal-cosmological levels. The implications of this figuration are discussed on each of these levels. On the personal level, the theme of death and its relationship with love that appear in the study imply an approach to and attitude toward psychology and psychotherapy that operates within a synchronistic field. Three clinical implications are discussed: hosting Dark Eros and Dark Self in the psychotherapeutic process, conducting psychotherapy within an imaginal or synchronistic field, and psychotherapy as griefwork. Collective-cultural implications are considered, suggesting a relation to death as a metaphorical presence in life that points to a feminine, or receptive, relationship to the appearance of Death. Finally, the implications of this study considered on an imaginal-cosmological level suggest a conscious participation and receptivity to an imaginal presence of Thanatos, experienced as a receptivity to an increasing sense of grace. Figuratively, Thanatos as grace is a movement from a sense of world, universe, and soul that belong to us, toward a sense of world, universe, and soul in which we belong. The author concludes that the figure of Thanatos, in its relationship to Eros, reveals aspects of death that offer an interpretive approach to and an heuristic value for depth psychological theory and practice.
<<link 731678761>>

In the West, chaos is typically linked with order, from the Genesis story, through our psychological fictions, to contemporary theories of chaos in the physical sciences. The intention of this dissertation is to show that chaos is to be viewed rather as the guardian and the intimate companion of eros and not the matrix out of which order is created. When chaos and eros are twinned in this fashion, they challenge our reigning paradigms of control and domination over the world. This hermeneutic study attempts to illustrate how from the point of view of the archetypal field of soul and its mythologies, chaos linked with eros invites us into the epiphanies of love and its shadows, invites us into reverie on the mysteries of, and obstacles to, our loving and being loved. Such a coupling resituates us within the larger fabric of creation. Love is first and foremost a cosmic mystery that fuels the integrity of the universe. All of us in one way or another struggle with love, or suffer its absence. This "difficult work," as Rilke (1954) calls love (p. 54), is often the orienting star of analytic work, and arguably the one experience we would rather not leave this life without having known. This study addresses suffering as a shadow of love through the image of the Orphan, and chaos as that Other that links with the marginalised feminine and especially women's experience in Western traditions. In my reflections and examples, I try to show that our attempts to become more conscious continue to remain inadequate unless resituated within a devotion to the complexities and refinements of love and its shadows. This task is perhaps one of the most demanding and difficult of all human efforts. A key point in this thesis is to show that in our contemporary world, chaos is a vocation, calling us into the unus mundus , into a world of synchronicities where the desire of spirit for matter is witnessed. Here new syntheses emerge that resituate human life as merely one expression of a divinely created cosmo-psychic realm that glistens and ripples with life both subtle and manifest. This work is linked intentionally and soulfully to theoria in its original sense as a contemplation, and to the hermetic tradition as that school in the early centuries of the first millennium AD that valued immediate experience as a source of revelatory gnosis, as much as book learning. Depth psychology is perhaps the contemporary emergence of these ancient streams. Thus in my dissertation what is important is the style of writing as much as the content. Hence the format is a blend of experiences and reflections including dream, vision, and clinical material.
<<link 764776551>>

The silence surrounding sexual violation in therapy has been broken. Lawsuits and published narratives speak of these rampant abuses of power. But a strange pocket of silence surrounds this phenomenon when the violation occurs between female therapists and female clients. The assumption that it is so rare or happens not at all has filled in the spaces of silence. However, statistics reveal that approximately 4% of female therapists sexually exploit their clients. Society's homophobia makes it shameful for victims of same-sex abuse to give voice to their wounds, thus generating even more silence. Does this homophobia obscure the ability to detect same-sex abuses of power in therapy? This study's purpose was to bring voice to this silence, and to better understand the complex experience of women who have been sexually exploited by their female therapists. This intentionality was one of making conscious what has been largely banished into the cultural shadow, where the idealization of motherhood and the legacy of Freud's assignment of women as sexually passive, rather than as sexual agents, creates difficulty in accepting the reality of women as sexual perpetrators. This study examined the tremendous power of the transference and the sacred element of eros in the therapeutic relationship, making visible the asymmetrical relationship created in therapy. Further research examines homophobia, and culturally sanctioned heterosexist beliefs that render survivors of same-sex sexual abuse further stigmatized and shamed. Four women were interviewed, ranging in age from 41 to 52. Individual portraits were then created from these open-ended, informal interviews, revealing singular and shared themes. The women's articulation of longings misused and eros defiled, as well as the reenactment of previous wounds, attest to the powerful effect of sexual-boundary violations. Equally powerful was the tug towards wholeness that all of these women exhibited as they reclaimed their own selves after enormous betrayal and loss. Through art, further therapy, and spirituality, these women have continued the path of healing that was derailed by their offending female therapists. Only through breaking silence around such misuses of power can we better learn to respond to those who have suffered this violation.
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There is a perceivable gap between the theory and practice of Archetypal psychotherapy concerning language. A significant body of literature, which begins with Carl Jung's early work, draws attention to the dialectical and plural nature of the psyche. The goal of Jungian and Archetypal practice has been to enter into dialogue with this plural psyche and yet we are limited by a language which is structured in response to the singular attitude of the ego as a monolithic figure. A new way of seeing the dialectical nature of psyche, particularly with regard to language, is presented here in the form of a perceived tension between consensual eros and imaginal eros. This notion is anchored in the Jungian idea that language is produced in the interplay of two kinds of thinking. Prominent among those who have written on the problems of language in the practice of Archetypal therapy have been James Hillman, Mary Watkins, Russell Lockhart and Thomas Moore. Interviews with these four people have been part of a hermeneutic inquiry which initiates a discourse on the rectification of therapeutic language in the service of a plural psyche. In addition, these interviews have been analyzed phenomenologically as examples of therapeutic dialogue in their own right, producing lively examples of many of the points which are made in theory.
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<<link 1328047911>>

This dissertation reports a phenomenological, psychological study analyzing and explicating the psychoanalytic phenomenon known as evenly suspended attention (ESA). Prior to this study, ESA, frequently explicated as a theoretical construct, had not been systematically examined experientially, that is, as it is experienced by practicing psychoanalysts. The researcher employed a phenomenological methodology with the intention of examining the actual lived experience of ESA as described by five psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapists and two psychoanalysts. The researcher reached these results by employing the descriptive phenomenological methods of American phenomenological psychologists Amadeo Giorgi and Fred Wertz. These complementary methods maximize the researcher's ability to examine ESA by establishing a precise analytical procedure for entering into an intimate empathically interactive examination of the experientially derived data. This study identifies seven experientially derived essential constituents of ESA. The first three constituents, called predispositional constituents, precede and inform the analyst's practice of ESA as the unique result of psychoanalytic training and education. These constituents are: (a)&nbsp;attunement to emotion, (b)&nbsp;attunement to hidden meanings, and (c)&nbsp;attunement to history. The last four constituents, called structural constituents, were determined to be the fundamental and universal components of ESA. These constituents are: (d)&nbsp;initial attunement to manifest content, (e)&nbsp;searching for understanding, (f)&nbsp;surrendering to the analytic process, and (g)&nbsp;recognizing the emergence of thematic unities. This report then proposes a general psychological structure of the experience of ESA before providing a detailed and explicit exposition on how the above results were methodologically derived. The dissertation then presents the implications to clinical psychology of both the method and the results of the research. The phenomenological method enabled the researcher to systematically examine a critical analytical phenomenon, opening the door to more such examinations of other clinical phenomena. Regarding the implications to clinical psychology of the results, the research illuminated with experiential immediacy the living qualities of ESA, and revealed it to be the actual foundation of the analytic process itself, based as it is in the quality of the analyst's presence to the analytic process.
<<link 728852661>>

The last 20 years has seen progress in the study of emotion from many different theoretical orientations, especially in infant development and the neuro-physiology of negative emotions. Psychodynamic theorists have also made progress in loosening the ties of instinct theory and the drives as the primary motivators in man. However, until recently, less attention has been given to the particular role and function of the positive affects. Using the multidisciplinary perspective of Silvan Tomkins, whose work lay unnoticed for many years and upon whose shoulders some of the current affect research stands, this study synthesizes a better understanding of the positive affects. Tomkins' theory identifies two innate, positive affects, namely "interest-excitement" and "enjoyment joy." This study first looks at the function of the positive affects that the newborn infant uses in making sense of the world, particularly in the areas of attachment (Bowlby), the development of internal objects (Klein), thinking capacity (Bion), and aesthetic capacity (Stern, Meltzer). Second, it explores examples of the shadow side of positive affects: how they may become out of balance within the individual personality and the culture. Third, this study considers the vicissitudes that positive affects undergo in the course of development. Finally, it examines the relationship between joy and a sense of well-being in our adult lives. Broadly, the study's findings are as follows: First, there is a continuing need to investigate the positive affects more fully and to consider them as phenomena distinct from negative affects. Second, the positive affects are agents of the innate, unconscious psyche: interest-excitement is the object-seeking affect and enjoyment-joy is the object-finding affect. Third, clinical problems arise when excitement is given pre-eminence over joy in our culture, resulting in a rift in the natural tension arc between excitement and joy. Finally, excitement and joy are essential both to mental development in infants and the individuation process throughout adult life.
<<link 728843251>>

This heuristic study uses qualitative interviewing to listen for the presence of Jungian archetypes in the narratives of nine male executives. The question is, "How do present and former mid-life corporate executives see work and work relationships?" A largely hermeneutic inquiry into the literature—enlivened by the executives' narratives—attempts to bridge organizational and analytical psychologies in the transition from an industrial to an information age. The study posits an American self-made man confronting a changed universe without visible leaders. In the science of management, a creative senex as mentor or coach, often outside the corporation, emerges as an art-form to many of these executives. These modern heretics to the old order—in rejecting the corporate downsizing of their predecessors—deal now with a dearth of talented intellectual capital. This suggests a sense of community as the stirrings of the collective soul are felt. Cold masculinities are confronted. Fear of Eros, shadow to the dominant work ethic is explored as unconscious homophobia, a fear of the self, and, by inference, the Self. In the portraits of the nine executives, the author attempts to reveal and recover male Eros in the typological patterns of Athena, Zeus, Prometheus, and Dionysos. Striving for creative expression, the complex game that work is challenges the executive to master it, to make meaning of the work. Living between the gods of strife and relatedness, of separations and conjunctions, other meanings are found in time. Male identification with work—in its mental excess and compensatory physicality—is seen as a metaphor for working-through personal and collective myths; the victory of western capitalism is one myth, feminism another, so too the fear of other males, existing as shadows within male gender roles. This has clinical import both in psychology's ethical responsibility to assist patients increase the number and quality of their options, particularly the male encultured to avoid an emotional and soulful life; and also in addressing negative senex attitudes found in Jungian analysis of the mother-bound puer .
<<link 727696421>>

This phenomenological research endeavor attempts to capture in narrative form the lived experience of six women who believe they are Earth-living alien-human hybrids; that is, they claim their parentage to be partially human, partially extraterrestrial. The ensuing investigation is not an attempt to prove this phenomenon as an objective, consensus reality truth, but intends to construct a foundation from which this topic can be brought to light and studied from a variety of methods and fields of specialty. The saga of alien-human contact has been contained in human folklore, legend, and myth since the beginning of history (Thompson, K., 1991). The modern chapter of these interactions (from the 1940s to present) can be studied directly and analyzed with our most up-to-date methods, knowledge, and technology. Perhaps eventually, what has always been a mystery to humanity may prove to be knowable...or may continue to elude our best efforts and remain a cosmic mystery. This study has gathered answers to the following questions using a structured yet open-ended format: What are alien-human hybrids living here on Earth in human society like? How do they look, act, think, feel? How are they the same as us, different from us? How do they live their lives with this belief about themselves? How does it affect their choices, relationships, careers, their friends and relatives? Whether alien-human hybrids are an actual biological evolutionary upgrade produced by extraterrestrial beings (ETs) aboard their spacecraft (to us, "Unidentified Flying Objects," or "UFOs"), or they are a product of world soul, or the collective unconscious, it is important to give this phenomenon legitimacy by studying it seriously and objectively with an open mind (Pritchard et al., 1994). Hundreds of thousands of reports from all over the world have been made by sincere, respected, credible people about UFO/ET sightings, contact, abduction, and presentation of alien-human hybrid offspring. Research has repeatedly shown these people to be no different psychologically than the general population (Parnell, 1988; Parnell & Sprinkle, 1990). Since science has proven experiencers are not crazy (they do not fit the criteria for any mental illness), it behooves us all the more to search out what this phenomenon is, and what it is not. The analysis of interviews culled by this study is a beginning step on that journey.
<<link 727914381>>

The purpose of this study is to enrich the process of bringing dream images to life. This work explores the convergent depth foundations of dream-work and acting technique. It offers ways to deepen dream interpretation through the use of an actors craft. Stanislavski, Brecht, Grotowski and Chaikin are significant theatre directors and acting technique innovators. Their contributions to the actors' craft are examined for their connections to the unconscious upon which they built their creative frameworks. Specific acting exercises marking the corner stones of their systems are enumerated. Freud's, Jung's, Hillman's and Gendlin's psychological theories are investigated particularly in relation to their beliefs regarding dreams. They are further explored for specific techniques related to dream-work. The study concludes with applications to psychotherapy. Procedures employed by an actor to decode a playwright's script in order to understand the meaning of a character, are specifically applied to dream-work. An approach is offered to derive more meaning from dreams through a progression of steps corresponding to the actors' craft.
<<link 1793192961>>

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Empathic attunement is one of the key components for effecting change in clients through clinical work in the psychotherapeutic setting. Recent research across various disciplines including neuroscience, developmental psychology, and neuropsychoanalysis has suggested the importance of redefining clinical efficacy in terms of empathic attunement that is bodily-based, that is, a connection between the unconscious bodily-based systems of the psychotherapist and client that includes the brain, mind, and body. In light of this work, this investigation hypothesized that bodily-based practices which utilize and emphasize bodily awareness, such as yoga and meditation, would increase the level of empathic attunement in psychotherapists. In this quasi-experimental study, 121 psychotherapists were administered the Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES) and a questionnaire designed to measure the level of bodily-based practices in their lives. Results showed that psychotherapists who engaged in yoga, meditation, or other bodily-based practices currently, but not in the past, had higher empathy scores than those psychotherapists who did not engage in such practices. Findings suggest that engaging in a bodily-based practice may contribute to the development of empathy, and that maintaining a current practice may play a role in retaining higher levels of empathy. Results showed no significant correlation between length of practice time and empathy scores.

Additionally, previously feeling understood as a client in psychotherapy was found to be a significant predictor of empathy scores in psychotherapists. Findings suggest the importance of experiencing a relationship with an empathic other in developing one's own level of empathy. This investigation was unique in its attempt to study the relationship between yoga and empathy, as no previous research was found linking yoga practice to the cultivation of empathy. Future research in this area is suggested. Finally, the importance of educating and training psychotherapists in bodily-based practices due to the resulting potential for the development of empathy is also discussed.
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<<link 727914451>>

A phenomenological study was undertaken which analyzed in depth the descriptions of humorous experiences in the everyday life of five adult subjects, three men and two women. Several themes emerged from the research. Humor in everyday life enhances the relationship between individuals; through humor, individuals form informal clubs, bringing those who know each other into closer connection. Humor in everyday life accesses a world of play for the adult, providing freedom to expand one's "Self" and become creative. Humor in everyday life is an experience which is always accompanied by surprise and suddenness. This surprise was either discovered by the subject, or it was sprung on the subject by a trusted but mischievous other, who took considerable delight in her/his role of instigator. Humor in everyday life affects the body of the subject, but differs in its manifestation in each case. Humor in everyday life changed the subjects' perspectives in a number of ways—a particular type of perspective was achieved through seeing one's alternate, less flattering side in an acceptable, lighter frame of reference. Humor in everyday life is a complex and highly rewarding experience which may be remembered through the years and recalled with good feeling.
<<link 727791041>>

In order to found and ground oneself, people need to examine their own stories, telling them repeatedly until the pieces fall together in significant forms so transformation, understanding, and epiphanies can occur. In telling their stories, people often discover connections to classical myths against which they compare and contrast their experiences and beliefs. The Greek myth of Demeter and Persephone can be read as representative of an exceptionally loving and close relationship between mother and daughter. It can also be perceived as a relationship where the mother's love is dangerously smothering and potentially vampiric in that Demeter appears to be fed through her relationship with her daughter rather than through her role as goddess of the fertile and cultivated earth. Although Persephone is stolen from her mother and pulled into the underworld, her emotional connection to her mother is never severed, but in the underworld Persephone begins to differentiate herself from her mother and find her purpose in life. The myth serves as a vehicle by which traditional theories of the development of the self which emphasize the necessity of separation from the mother are contrasted with theories supporting differentiation and mutually empathic relationships between mothers and daughters. Demeter's experience of being entombed in the belly of her father emphasizes the importance of acknowledging one's own painful experiences so they are not projected onto others as Demeter projected her grief at the loss of her daughter onto mortals. Images of being fed by the life-blood of an other person are examined in vampire lore, Christianity, and the lives of mothers and daughters. The Thesmophoria, Lesser Mysteries, and Eleusinian Mysteries are described as they lead to Demeter's gifts to humans of agriculture and hope for a death that is free of fear. The myth of Demeter and Persephone is examined as it relates to the stories of mothers and daughters and my own lived experience as a daughter of a Motherline that knows deeply Demeter's gift of agriculture and hope.
<<link 1793589821>>

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This dissertation examines a Japanese culture-bound syndrome called hikikomori , a growing psychiatric problem that affects approximately 1% of the Japanese population, or over one million people. The term hikikomori , which literarily means "to be confined to the inside," has been applied to a subset of people who exhibit a certain set of withdrawing behaviors, most notably seclusion or hiding within one's bedroom for years at a time. These individuals withdraw from participation in normal activities of life, such as going to school, working, and socializing with friends. If a hikikomori has any close relationships at all, it is with family members, and even then the relationships are usually strained or distant.

Five recovered male hikikomori were interviewed, and their narratives about their lives are presented for illustrative purposes. This dissertation investigates factors that may contribute to the development of hikikomori, including child development as well as cultural and historical factors. The development and maintenance of hikikomori is also explained from a depth psychological perspective. A combination of hermeneutic, phenomenological, and heuristic approaches is used to review literature and develop an over-arching theory about the development of hikikomori. Archetypal themes are explored, as well as aspects of the Japanese cultural unconscious. The purpose of the study is to contribute to a psychological and archetypal understanding of the underlying causes of hikikomori in Japan.

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|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|interactively select/export tiddlers to a separate file|
!!!!!Documentation
>see [[ExportTiddlersPluginInfo]]
!!!!!Inline control panel (live):
><<exportTiddlers inline>>
!!!!!Revisions
<<<
2011.02.14 2.9.6 fix OSX error: use picker.file.path
2010.02.25 2.9.5 added merge checkbox option and improved 'merge' status message
|please see [[ExportTiddlersPluginInfo]] for additional revision details|
2005.10.09 0.0.0 development started
<<<
!!!!!Code
***/
//{{{
// version
version.extensions.ExportTiddlersPlugin= {major: 2, minor: 9, revision: 6, date: new Date(2011,2,14)};

// default shadow definition
config.shadowTiddlers.ExportTiddlers='<<exportTiddlers inline>>';

// add 'export' backstage task (following built-in import task)
if (config.tasks) { // TW2.2 or above
	config.tasks.exportTask = {
		text:'export',
		tooltip:'Export selected tiddlers to another file',
		content:'<<exportTiddlers inline>>'
	}
	config.backstageTasks.splice(config.backstageTasks.indexOf('importTask')+1,0,'exportTask');
}

config.macros.exportTiddlers = {
	$: function(id) { return document.getElementById(id); }, // abbreviation
	label: 'export tiddlers',
	prompt: 'Copy selected tiddlers to an export document',
	okmsg: '%0 tiddler%1 written to %2',
	failmsg: 'An error occurred while creating %1',
	overwriteprompt: '%0\ncontains %1 tiddler%2 that will be discarded or replaced',
	mergestatus: '%0 tiddler%1 added, %2 tiddler%3 updated, %4 tiddler%5 unchanged',
	statusmsg: '%0 tiddler%1 - %2 selected for export',
	newdefault: 'export.html',
	datetimefmt: '0MM/0DD/YYYY 0hh:0mm:0ss',  // for 'filter date/time' edit fields
	type_TW: "tw", type_PS: "ps", type_TX: "tx", type_CS: "cs", type_NF: "nf", // file type tokens
	type_map: { // maps type param to token values
		tiddlywiki:"tw", tw:"tw", wiki: "tw",
		purestore: "ps", ps:"ps", store:"ps",
		plaintext: "tx", tx:"tx", text: "tx",
		comma:     "cs", cs:"cs", csv:  "cs",
		newsfeed:  "nf", nf:"nf", xml:  "nf", rss:"nf"
	},
	handler: function(place,macroName,params) {
		if (params[0]!='inline')
			{ createTiddlyButton(place,this.label,this.prompt,this.togglePanel); return; }
		var panel=this.createPanel(place);
		panel.style.position='static';
		panel.style.display='block';
	},
	createPanel: function(place) {
		var panel=this.$('exportPanel');
		if (panel) { panel.parentNode.removeChild(panel); }
		setStylesheet(store.getTiddlerText('ExportTiddlersPlugin##css',''),'exportTiddlers');
		panel=createTiddlyElement(place,'span','exportPanel',null,null)
		panel.innerHTML=store.getTiddlerText('ExportTiddlersPlugin##html','');
		this.initFilter();
		this.refreshList(0);
		var fn=this.$('exportFilename');
		if (window.location.protocol=='file:' && !fn.value.length) {
			// get new target path/filename
			var newPath=getLocalPath(window.location.href);
			var slashpos=newPath.lastIndexOf('/'); if (slashpos==-1) slashpos=newPath.lastIndexOf('\\'); 
			if (slashpos!=-1) newPath=newPath.substr(0,slashpos+1); // trim filename
			fn.value=newPath+this.newdefault;
		}
		return panel;
	},
	togglePanel: function(e) { var e=e||window.event;
		var cme=config.macros.exportTiddlers; // abbrev
		var parent=resolveTarget(e).parentNode;
		var panel=cme.$('exportPanel');
		if (panel==undefined || panel.parentNode!=parent)
			panel=cme.createPanel(parent);
		var isOpen=panel.style.display=='block';
		if(config.options.chkAnimate)
			anim.startAnimating(new Slider(panel,!isOpen,e.shiftKey || e.altKey,'none'));
		else
			panel.style.display=isOpen?'none':'block' ;
		if (panel.style.display!='none') {
			cme.refreshList(0);
			cme.$('exportFilename').focus(); 
			cme.$('exportFilename').select();
		}
		e.cancelBubble = true; if (e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation(); return(false);
	},
	process: function(which) { // process panel control interactions
		var theList=this.$('exportList'); if (!theList) return false;
		var count = 0;
		var total = store.getTiddlers('title').length;
		switch (which.id) {
			case 'exportFilter':
				count=this.filterExportList();
				var panel=this.$('exportFilterPanel');
				if (count==-1) { panel.style.display='block'; break; }
				this.$('exportStart').disabled=(count==0);
				this.$('exportDelete').disabled=(count==0);
				this.displayStatus(count,total);
				if (count==0) { alert('No tiddlers were selected'); panel.style.display='block'; }
				break;
			case 'exportStart':
				this.go();
				break;
			case 'exportDelete':
				this.deleteTiddlers();
				break;
			case 'exportHideFilter':
			case 'exportToggleFilter':
				var panel=this.$('exportFilterPanel')
				panel.style.display=(panel.style.display=='block')?'none':'block';
				break;
			case 'exportSelectChanges':
				var lastmod=new Date(document.lastModified);
				for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
					if (theList.options[t].value=='') continue;
					var tiddler=store.getTiddler(theList.options[t].value); if (!tiddler) continue;
					theList.options[t].selected=(tiddler.modified>lastmod);
					count += (tiddler.modified>lastmod)?1:0;
				}
				this.$('exportStart').disabled=(count==0);
				this.$('exportDelete').disabled=(count==0);
				this.displayStatus(count,total);
				if (count==0) alert('There are no unsaved changes');
				break;
			case 'exportSelectAll':
				for (var t = 0; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
					if (theList.options[t].value=='') continue;
					theList.options[t].selected=true;
					count += 1;
				}
				this.$('exportStart').disabled=(count==0);
				this.$('exportDelete').disabled=(count==0);
				this.displayStatus(count,count);
				break;
			case 'exportSelectOpened':
				for (var t=0; t<theList.options.length; t++) theList.options[t].selected=false;
				var tiddlerDisplay=this.$('tiddlerDisplay');
				for (var t=0; t<tiddlerDisplay.childNodes.length;t++) {
					var tiddler=tiddlerDisplay.childNodes[t].id.substr(7);
					for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
						if (theList.options[i].value!=tiddler) continue;
						theList.options[i].selected=true; count++; break;
					}
				}
				this.$('exportStart').disabled=(count==0);
				this.$('exportDelete').disabled=(count==0);
				this.displayStatus(count,total);
				if (count==0) alert('There are no tiddlers currently opened');
				break;
			case 'exportSelectRelated':
				// recursively build list of related tiddlers
				function getRelatedTiddlers(tid,tids) {
					var t=store.getTiddler(tid); if (!t || tids.contains(tid)) return tids;
					tids.push(t.title);
					if (!t.linksUpdated) t.changed();
					for (var i=0; i<t.links.length; i++)
						if (t.links[i]!=tid) tids=getRelatedTiddlers(t.links[i],tids);
					return tids;
				}
				// for all currently selected tiddlers, gather up the related tiddlers (including self) and select them as well
				var tids=[];
				for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++)
					if (theList.options[i].selected) tids=getRelatedTiddlers(theList.options[i].value,tids);
				// select related tiddlers (includes original selected tiddlers)
				for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++)
					theList.options[i].selected=tids.contains(theList.options[i].value);
				this.displayStatus(tids.length,total);
				break;
			case 'exportListSmaller':	// decrease current listbox size
				var min=5;
				theList.size-=(theList.size>min)?1:0;
				break;
			case 'exportListLarger':	// increase current listbox size
				var max=(theList.options.length>25)?theList.options.length:25;
				theList.size+=(theList.size<max)?1:0;
				break;
			case 'exportClose':
				this.$('exportPanel').style.display='none';
				break;
		}
		return false;
	},
	displayStatus: function(count,total) {
		var txt=this.statusmsg.format([total,total!=1?'s':'',!count?'none':count==total?'all':count]);
		clearMessage();	displayMessage(txt);
		return txt;
	},
	refreshList: function(selectedIndex) {
		var theList = this.$('exportList'); if (!theList) return;
		// get the sort order
		var sort;
		if (!selectedIndex)   selectedIndex=0;
		if (selectedIndex==0) sort='modified';
		if (selectedIndex==1) sort='title';
		if (selectedIndex==2) sort='modified';
		if (selectedIndex==3) sort='modifier';
		if (selectedIndex==4) sort='tags';

		// unselect headings and count number of tiddlers actually selected
		var count=0;
		for (var t=5; t < theList.options.length; t++) {
			if (!theList.options[t].selected) continue;
			if (theList.options[t].value!='')
				count++;
			else { // if heading is selected, deselect it, and then select and count all in section
				theList.options[t].selected=false;
				for ( t++; t<theList.options.length && theList.options[t].value!=''; t++) {
					theList.options[t].selected=true;
					count++;
				}
			}
		}

		// disable 'export' and 'delete' buttons if no tiddlers selected
		this.$('exportStart').disabled=(count==0);
		this.$('exportDelete').disabled=(count==0);

		// show selection count
		var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers('title');
		if (theList.options.length) this.displayStatus(count,tiddlers.length);

		// if a [command] item, reload list... otherwise, no further refresh needed
		if (selectedIndex>4) return;

		// clear current list contents
		while (theList.length > 0) { theList.options[0] = null; }
		// add heading and control items to list
		var i=0;
		var indent=String.fromCharCode(160)+String.fromCharCode(160);
		theList.options[i++]=
			new Option(tiddlers.length+' tiddlers in document', '',false,false);
		theList.options[i++]=
			new Option(((sort=='title'   )?'>':indent)+' [by title]', '',false,false);
		theList.options[i++]=
			new Option(((sort=='modified')?'>':indent)+' [by date]', '',false,false);
		theList.options[i++]=
			new Option(((sort=='modifier')?'>':indent)+' [by author]', '',false,false);
		theList.options[i++]=
			new Option(((sort=='tags'    )?'>':indent)+' [by tags]', '',false,false);

		// output the tiddler list
		switch(sort) {
			case 'title':
				for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++)
					theList.options[i++] = new Option(tiddlers[t].title,tiddlers[t].title,false,false);
				break;
			case 'modifier':
			case 'modified':
				var tiddlers = store.getTiddlers(sort);
				// sort descending for newest date first
				tiddlers.sort(function (a,b) {if(a[sort] == b[sort]) return(0); else return (a[sort] > b[sort]) ? -1 : +1; });
				var lastSection = '';
				for(var t = 0; t < tiddlers.length; t++) {
					var tiddler = tiddlers[t];
					var theSection = '';
					if (sort=='modified') theSection=tiddler.modified.toLocaleDateString();
					if (sort=='modifier') theSection=tiddler.modifier;
					if (theSection != lastSection) {
						theList.options[i++] = new Option(theSection,'',false,false);
						lastSection = theSection;
					}
					theList.options[i++] = new Option(indent+indent+tiddler.title,tiddler.title,false,false);
				}
				break;
			case 'tags':
				var theTitles = {}; // all tiddler titles, hash indexed by tag value
				var theTags = new Array();
				for(var t=0; t<tiddlers.length; t++) {
					var title=tiddlers[t].title;
					var tags=tiddlers[t].tags;
					if (!tags || !tags.length) {
						if (theTitles['untagged']==undefined) { theTags.push('untagged'); theTitles['untagged']=new Array(); }
						theTitles['untagged'].push(title);
					}
					else for(var s=0; s<tags.length; s++) {
						if (theTitles[tags[s]]==undefined) { theTags.push(tags[s]); theTitles[tags[s]]=new Array(); }
						theTitles[tags[s]].push(title);
					}
				}
				theTags.sort();
				for(var tagindex=0; tagindex<theTags.length; tagindex++) {
					var theTag=theTags[tagindex];
					theList.options[i++]=new Option(theTag,'',false,false);
					for(var t=0; t<theTitles[theTag].length; t++)
						theList.options[i++]=new Option(indent+indent+theTitles[theTag][t],theTitles[theTag][t],false,false);
				}
				break;
			}
		theList.selectedIndex=selectedIndex; // select current control item
		this.$('exportStart').disabled=true;
		this.$('exportDelete').disabled=true;
		this.displayStatus(0,tiddlers.length);
	},
	askForFilename: function(here) {
		var msg=here.title; // use tooltip as dialog box message
		var path=getLocalPath(document.location.href);
		var slashpos=path.lastIndexOf('/'); if (slashpos==-1) slashpos=path.lastIndexOf('\\'); 
		if (slashpos!=-1) path = path.substr(0,slashpos+1); // remove filename from path, leave the trailing slash
		var filetype=this.$('exportFormat').value.toLowerCase();
		var defext='html';
		if (filetype==this.type_TX) defext='txt';
		if (filetype==this.type_CS) defext='csv';
		if (filetype==this.type_NF) defext='xml';
		var file=this.newdefault.replace(/html$/,defext);
		var result='';
		if(window.Components) { // moz
			try {
				netscape.security.PrivilegeManager.enablePrivilege('UniversalXPConnect');
				var nsIFilePicker = window.Components.interfaces.nsIFilePicker;
				var picker = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/filepicker;1'].createInstance(nsIFilePicker);
				picker.init(window, msg, nsIFilePicker.modeSave);
				var thispath = Components.classes['@mozilla.org/file/local;1'].createInstance(Components.interfaces.nsILocalFile);
				thispath.initWithPath(path);
				picker.displayDirectory=thispath;
				picker.defaultExtension=defext;
				picker.defaultString=file;
				picker.appendFilters(nsIFilePicker.filterAll|nsIFilePicker.filterText|nsIFilePicker.filterHTML);
				if (picker.show()!=nsIFilePicker.returnCancel) var result=picker.file.path;
			}
			catch(e) { alert('error during local file access: '+e.toString()) }
		}
		else { // IE
			try { // XPSP2 IE only
				var s = new ActiveXObject('UserAccounts.CommonDialog');
				s.Filter='All files|*.*|Text files|*.txt|HTML files|*.htm;*.html|XML files|*.xml|';
				s.FilterIndex=defext=='txt'?2:'html'?3:'xml'?4:1;
				s.InitialDir=path;
				s.FileName=file;
				if (s.showOpen()) var result=s.FileName;
			}
			catch(e) {  // fallback
				var result=prompt(msg,path+file);
			}
		}
		return result;
	},
	initFilter: function() {
		this.$('exportFilterStart').checked=false; this.$('exportStartDate').value='';
		this.$('exportFilterEnd').checked=false;  this.$('exportEndDate').value='';
		this.$('exportFilterTags').checked=false; this.$('exportTags').value='';
		this.$('exportFilterText').checked=false; this.$('exportText').value='';
		this.showFilterFields();
	},
	showFilterFields: function(which) {
		var show=this.$('exportFilterStart').checked;
		this.$('exportFilterStartBy').style.display=show?'block':'none';
		this.$('exportStartDate').style.display=show?'block':'none';
		var val=this.$('exportFilterStartBy').value;
		this.$('exportStartDate').value
			=this.getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate').formatString(this.datetimefmt);
		if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterStartBy') && (val=='other'))
			this.$('exportStartDate').focus();

		var show=this.$('exportFilterEnd').checked;
		this.$('exportFilterEndBy').style.display=show?'block':'none';
		this.$('exportEndDate').style.display=show?'block':'none';
		var val=this.$('exportFilterEndBy').value;
		this.$('exportEndDate').value
			=this.getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate').formatString(this.datetimefmt);
		 if (which && (which.id=='exportFilterEndBy') && (val=='other'))
			this.$('exportEndDate').focus();

		var show=this.$('exportFilterTags').checked;
		this.$('exportTags').style.display=show?'block':'none';

		var show=this.$('exportFilterText').checked;
		this.$('exportText').style.display=show?'block':'none';
	},
	getFilterDate: function(val,id) {
		var result=0;
		switch (val) {
			case 'file':
				result=new Date(document.lastModified);
				break;
			case 'other':
				result=new Date(this.$(id).value);
				break;
			default: // today=0, yesterday=1, one week=7, two weeks=14, a month=31
				var now=new Date(); var tz=now.getTimezoneOffset()*60000; now-=tz;
				var oneday=86400000;
				if (id=='exportStartDate')
					result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val)*oneday+tz);
				else
					result=new Date((Math.floor(now/oneday)-val+1)*oneday+tz-1);
				break;
		}
		return result;
	},
	filterExportList: function() {
		var theList  = this.$('exportList'); if (!theList) return -1;
		var filterStart=this.$('exportFilterStart').checked;
		var val=this.$('exportFilterStartBy').value;
		var startDate=config.macros.exportTiddlers.getFilterDate(val,'exportStartDate');
		var filterEnd=this.$('exportFilterEnd').checked;
		var val=this.$('exportFilterEndBy').value;
		var endDate=config.macros.exportTiddlers.getFilterDate(val,'exportEndDate');
		var filterTags=this.$('exportFilterTags').checked;
		var tags=this.$('exportTags').value;
		var filterText=this.$('exportFilterText').checked;
		var text=this.$('exportText').value;
		if (!(filterStart||filterEnd||filterTags||filterText)) {
			alert('Please set the selection filter');
			this.$('exportFilterPanel').style.display='block';
			return -1;
		}
		if (filterStart&&filterEnd&&(startDate>endDate)) {
			var msg='starting date/time:\n'
			msg+=startDate.toLocaleString()+'\n';
			msg+='is later than ending date/time:\n'
			msg+=endDate.toLocaleString()
			alert(msg);
			return -1;
		}
		// if filter by tags, get list of matching tiddlers
		// use getMatchingTiddlers() (if MatchTagsPlugin is installed) for full boolean expressions
		// otherwise use getTaggedTiddlers() for simple tag matching
		if (filterTags) {
			var fn=store.getMatchingTiddlers||store.getTaggedTiddlers;
			var t=fn.apply(store,[tags]);
			var tagged=[];
			for (var i=0; i<t.length; i++) tagged.push(t[i].title);
		}
		// scan list and select tiddlers that match all applicable criteria
		var total=0;
		var count=0;
		for (var i=0; i<theList.options.length; i++) {
			// get item, skip non-tiddler list items (section headings)
			var opt=theList.options[i]; if (opt.value=='') continue;
			// get tiddler, skip missing tiddlers (this should NOT happen)
			var tiddler=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!tiddler) continue; 
			var sel=true;
			if ( (filterStart && tiddler.modified<startDate)
			|| (filterEnd && tiddler.modified>endDate)
			|| (filterTags && !tagged.contains(tiddler.title))
			|| (filterText && (tiddler.text.indexOf(text)==-1) && (tiddler.title.indexOf(text)==-1)))
				sel=false;
			opt.selected=sel;
			count+=sel?1:0;
			total++;
		}
		return count;
	},
	deleteTiddlers: function() {
		var list=this.$('exportList'); if (!list) return;
		var tids=[];
		for (i=0;i<list.length;i++)
			if (list.options[i].selected && list.options[i].value.length)
				tids.push(list.options[i].value);
		if (!confirm('Are you sure you want to delete these tiddlers:\n\n'+tids.join(', '))) return;
		store.suspendNotifications();
		for (t=0;t<tids.length;t++) {
			var tid=store.getTiddler(tids[t]); if (!tid) continue;
			var msg="'"+tid.title+"' is tagged with 'systemConfig'.\n\n";
			msg+='Removing this tiddler may cause unexpected results.  Are you sure?'
			if (tid.tags.contains('systemConfig') && !confirm(msg)) continue;
			store.removeTiddler(tid.title);
			story.closeTiddler(tid.title);
		}
		store.resumeNotifications();
		alert(tids.length+' tiddlers deleted');
		this.refreshList(0); // reload listbox
		store.notifyAll(); // update page display
	},
	go: function() {
		if (window.location.protocol!='file:') // make sure we are local
			{ displayMessage(config.messages.notFileUrlError); return; }
		// get selected tidders, target filename, target type, and notes
		var list=this.$('exportList'); if (!list) return;
		var tids=[]; for (var i=0; i<list.options.length; i++) {
			var opt=list.options[i]; if (!opt.selected||!opt.value.length) continue;
			var tid=store.getTiddler(opt.value); if (!tid) continue;
			tids.push(tid);
		}
		if (!tids.length) return; // no tiddlers selected
		var target=this.$('exportFilename').value.trim();
		if (!target.length) {
			displayMessage('A local target path/filename is required',target);
			return;
		}
		var merge=this.$('exportMerge').checked;
		var filetype=this.$('exportFormat').value.toLowerCase();
		var notes=this.$('exportNotes').value.replace(/\n/g,'<br>');
		var total={val:0};
		var out=this.assembleFile(target,filetype,tids,notes,total,merge);
		if (!total.val) return; // cancelled file overwrite
		var link='file:///'+target.replace(/\\/g,'/');
		var samefile=link==decodeURIComponent(window.location.href);
		var p=getLocalPath(document.location.href);
		if (samefile) {
			if (config.options.chkSaveBackups) { var t=loadOriginal(p);if(t)saveBackup(p,t); }
			if (config.options.chkGenerateAnRssFeed && saveRss instanceof Function) saveRss(p);
		}
		var ok=saveFile(target,out);
		displayMessage((ok?this.okmsg:this.failmsg).format([total.val,total.val!=1?'s':'',target]),link);
	},
	plainTextHeader:
		 'Source:\n\t%0\n'
		+'Title:\n\t%1\n'
		+'Subtitle:\n\t%2\n'
		+'Created:\n\t%3 by %4\n'
		+'Application:\n\tTiddlyWiki %5 / %6 %7\n\n',
	plainTextTiddler:
		'- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -\n'
		+'|     title: %0\n'
		+'|   created: %1\n'
		+'|  modified: %2\n'
		+'| edited by: %3\n'
		+'|      tags: %4\n'
		+'- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -\n'
		+'%5\n',
	plainTextFooter:
		'',
	newsFeedHeader:
		 '<'+'?xml version="1.0"?'+'>\n'
		+'<rss version="2.0">\n'
		+'<channel>\n'
		+'<title>%1</title>\n'
		+'<link>%0</link>\n'
		+'<description>%2</description>\n'
		+'<language>en-us</language>\n'
		+'<copyright>Copyright '+(new Date().getFullYear())+' %4</copyright>\n'
		+'<pubDate>%3</pubDate>\n'
		+'<lastBuildDate>%3</lastBuildDate>\n'
		+'<docs>http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss</docs>\n'
		+'<generator>TiddlyWiki %5 / %6 %7</generator>\n',
	newsFeedTiddler:
		'\n%0\n',
	newsFeedFooter:
		'</channel></rss>',
	pureStoreHeader:
		 '<html><body>'
		+'<style type="text/css">'
		+'	#storeArea {display:block;margin:1em;}'
		+'	#storeArea div {padding:0.5em;margin:1em;border:2px solid black;height:10em;overflow:auto;}'
		+'	#pureStoreHeading {width:100%;text-align:left;background-color:#eeeeee;padding:1em;}'
		+'</style>'
		+'<div id="pureStoreHeading">'
		+'	TiddlyWiki "PureStore" export file<br>'
		+'	Source'+': <b>%0</b><br>'
		+'	Title: <b>%1</b><br>'
		+'	Subtitle: <b>%2</b><br>'
		+'	Created: <b>%3</b> by <b>%4</b><br>'
		+'	TiddlyWiki %5 / %6 %7<br>'
		+'	Notes:<hr><pre>%8</pre>'
		+'</div>'
		+'<div id="storeArea">',
	pureStoreTiddler:
		'%0\n%1',
	pureStoreFooter:
		'</div><!--POST-BODY-START-->\n<!--POST-BODY-END--></body></html>',
	assembleFile: function(target,filetype,tids,notes,total,merge) {
		var revised='';
		var now = new Date().toLocaleString();
		var src=convertUnicodeToUTF8(document.location.href);
		var title = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain('SiteTitle').htmlEncode());
		var subtitle = convertUnicodeToUTF8(wikifyPlain('SiteSubtitle').htmlEncode());
		var user = convertUnicodeToUTF8(config.options.txtUserName.htmlEncode());
		var twver = version.major+'.'+version.minor+'.'+version.revision;
		var v=version.extensions.ExportTiddlersPlugin; var pver = v.major+'.'+v.minor+'.'+v.revision;
		var headerargs=[src,title,subtitle,now,user,twver,'ExportTiddlersPlugin',pver,notes];
		switch (filetype) {
			case this.type_TX: // plain text
				var header=this.plainTextHeader.format(headerargs);
				var footer=this.plainTextFooter;
				break;
			case this.type_CS: // comma-separated
				var fields={};
				for (var i=0; i<tids.length; i++) for (var f in tids[i].fields) fields[f]=f;
				var names=['title','created','modified','modifier','tags','text'];
				for (var f in fields) names.push(f);
				var header=names.join(',')+'\n';
				var footer='';
				break;
			case this.type_NF: // news feed (XML)
				headerargs[0]=store.getTiddlerText('SiteUrl','');
				var header=this.newsFeedHeader.format(headerargs);
				var footer=this.newsFeedFooter;
				break;
			case this.type_PS: // PureStore (no code)
				var header=this.pureStoreHeader.format(headerargs);
				var footer=this.pureStoreFooter;
				break;
			case this.type_TW: // full TiddlyWiki
			default:
				var currPath=getLocalPath(window.location.href);
				var original=loadFile(currPath);
				if (!original) { displayMessage(config.messages.cantSaveError); return; }
				var posDiv = locateStoreArea(original);
				if (!posDiv) { displayMessage(config.messages.invalidFileError.format([currPath])); return; }
				var header = original.substr(0,posDiv[0]+startSaveArea.length)+'\n';
				var footer = '\n'+original.substr(posDiv[1]);
				break;
		}
		var out=this.getData(target,filetype,tids,fields,merge);
		var revised = header+convertUnicodeToUTF8(out.join('\n'))+footer;
		// if full TW, insert page title and language attr, and reset all MARKUP blocks...
		if (filetype==this.type_TW) {
			var newSiteTitle=convertUnicodeToUTF8(getPageTitle()).htmlEncode();
			revised=revised.replaceChunk('<title'+'>','</title'+'>',' ' + newSiteTitle + ' ');
			revised=updateLanguageAttribute(revised);
			var titles=[]; for (var i=0; i<tids.length; i++) titles.push(tids[i].title);
			revised=updateMarkupBlock(revised,'PRE-HEAD',
				titles.contains('MarkupPreHead')? 'MarkupPreHead' :null);
			revised=updateMarkupBlock(revised,'POST-HEAD',
				titles.contains('MarkupPostHead')?'MarkupPostHead':null);
			revised=updateMarkupBlock(revised,'PRE-BODY',
				titles.contains('MarkupPreBody')? 'MarkupPreBody' :null);
			revised=updateMarkupBlock(revised,'POST-SCRIPT',
				titles.contains('MarkupPostBody')?'MarkupPostBody':null);
		}
		total.val=out.length;
		return revised;
	},
	getData: function(target,filetype,tids,fields,merge) {
		// output selected tiddlers and gather list of titles (for use with merge)
		var out=[]; var titles=[];
		var url=store.getTiddlerText('SiteUrl','');
		for (var i=0; i<tids.length; i++) {
			out.push(this.formatItem(store,filetype,tids[i],url,fields));
			titles.push(tids[i].title);
		}
		// if TW or PureStore format, ask to merge with existing tiddlers (if any)
		if (filetype==this.type_TW || filetype==this.type_PS) {
			var txt=loadFile(target);
			if (txt && txt.length) {
				var remoteStore=new TiddlyWiki();
				if (version.major+version.minor*.1+version.revision*.01<2.52) txt=convertUTF8ToUnicode(txt);
				if (remoteStore.importTiddlyWiki(txt)) {
					var existing=remoteStore.getTiddlers('title');
					var msg=this.overwriteprompt.format([target,existing.length,existing.length!=1?'s':'']);
					if (merge) {
						var added=titles.length; var updated=0; var kept=0;
						for (var i=0; i<existing.length; i++)
							if (titles.contains(existing[i].title)) {
								added--; updated++;
							} else {
								out.push(this.formatItem(remoteStore,filetype,existing[i],url));
								kept++;
							}
						displayMessage(this.mergestatus.format(
							[added,added!=1?'s':'',updated,updated!=1?'s':'',kept,kept!=1?'s':'',]));
					}
					else if (!confirm(msg)) out=[]; // empty the list = don't write file
				}
			}
		}
		return out;
	},
	formatItem: function(s,f,t,u,fields) {
		if (f==this.type_TW)
			var r=s.getSaver().externalizeTiddler(s,t);
		if (f==this.type_PS)
			var r=this.pureStoreTiddler.format([t.title,s.getSaver().externalizeTiddler(s,t)]);
		if (f==this.type_NF)
			var r=this.newsFeedTiddler.format([t.saveToRss(u)]);
		if (f==this.type_TX)
			var r=this.plainTextTiddler.format([t.title, t.created.toLocaleString(), t.modified.toLocaleString(),
				t.modifier, String.encodeTiddlyLinkList(t.tags), t.text]);
		if (f==this.type_CS) {
			function toCSV(t) { return '"'+t.replace(/"/g,'""')+'"'; } // always encode CSV
			var out=[ toCSV(t.title), toCSV(t.created.toLocaleString()), toCSV(t.modified.toLocaleString()),
				toCSV(t.modifier), toCSV(String.encodeTiddlyLinkList(t.tags)), toCSV(t.text) ];
			for (var f in fields) out.push(toCSV(t.fields[f]||''));
			var r=out.join(',');
		}
		return r||"";
	}
}
//}}}
/***
!!!Control panel CSS
//{{{
!css
#exportPanel {
	display: none; position:absolute; z-index:12; width:35em; right:105%; top:6em;
	background-color: #eee; color:#000; font-size: 8pt; line-height:110%;
	border:1px solid black; border-bottom-width: 3px; border-right-width: 3px;
	padding: 0.5em; margin:0em; -moz-border-radius:1em;-webkit-border-radius:1em;
}
#exportPanel a, #exportPanel td a { color:#009; display:inline; margin:0px; padding:1px; }
#exportPanel table {
	width:100%; border:0px; padding:0px; margin:0px;
	font-size:8pt; line-height:110%; background:transparent;
}
#exportPanel tr { border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }
#exportPanel td { color:#000; border:0px;padding:0px;margin:0px; background:transparent; }
#exportPanel select { width:98%;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%;}
#exportPanel input  { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;font-size:8pt;line-height:110%; }
#exportPanel textarea  { width:98%;padding:0px;margin:0px;overflow:auto;font-size:8pt; }
#exportPanel .box {
	border:1px solid black; padding:3px; margin-bottom:5px;
	background:#f8f8f8; -moz-border-radius:5px;-webkit-border-radius:5px; }
#exportPanel .topline { border-top:2px solid black; padding-top:3px; margin-bottom:5px; }
#exportPanel .rad { width:auto;border:0 }
#exportPanel .chk { width:auto;border:0 }
#exportPanel .btn { width:auto; }
#exportPanel .btn1 { width:98%; }
#exportPanel .btn2 { width:48%; }
#exportPanel .btn3 { width:32%; }
#exportPanel .btn4 { width:24%; }
#exportPanel .btn5 { width:19%; }
!end
//}}}
!!!Control panel HTML
//{{{
!html
<!-- target path/file  -->
<div>
<div style="float:right;padding-right:.5em">
<input type="checkbox" style="width:auto" id="exportMerge" CHECKED
	title="combine selected tiddlers with existing tiddlers (if any) in export file"> merge
</div>
export to:<br>
<input type="text" id="exportFilename" size=40 style="width:93%"><input 
	type="button" id="exportBrowse" value="..." title="select or enter a local folder/file..." style="width:5%" 
	onclick="var fn=config.macros.exportTiddlers.askForFilename(this); if (fn.length) this.previousSibling.value=fn; ">
</div>

<!-- output format -->
<div>
format:
<select id="exportFormat" size=1>
	<option value="TW">TiddlyWiki HTML document (includes core code)</option>
	<option value="PS">TiddlyWiki "PureStore" HTML file (tiddler data only)</option>
	<option value="TX">TiddlyWiki plain text TXT file (tiddler source listing)</option>
	<option value="CS">Comma-Separated Value (CSV) data file</option>
	<option value="NF">RSS NewsFeed XML file</option>
</select>
</div>

<!-- notes -->
<div>
notes:<br>
<textarea id="exportNotes" rows=3 cols=40 style="height:4em;margin-bottom:5px;" onfocus="this.select()"></textarea> 
</div>

<!-- list of tiddlers -->
<table><tr align="left"><td>
	select:
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectAll"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="select all tiddlers">
		&nbsp;all&nbsp;</a>
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectChanges"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="select tiddlers changed since last save">
		&nbsp;changes&nbsp;</a>
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectOpened"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="select tiddlers currently being displayed">
		&nbsp;opened&nbsp;</a>
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportSelectRelated"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="select tiddlers related to the currently selected tiddlers">
		&nbsp;related&nbsp;</a>
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportToggleFilter"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="show/hide selection filter">
		&nbsp;filter&nbsp;</a>
</td><td align="right">
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListSmaller"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="reduce list size">
		&nbsp;&#150;&nbsp;</a>
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportListLarger"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="increase list size">
		&nbsp;+&nbsp;</a>
</td></tr></table>
<select id="exportList" multiple size="10" style="margin-bottom:5px;"
	onchange="config.macros.exportTiddlers.refreshList(this.selectedIndex)">
</select><br>

<!-- selection filter -->
<div id="exportFilterPanel" style="display:none">
<table><tr align="left"><td>
	selection filter
</td><td align="right">
	<a href="JavaScript:;" id="exportHideFilter"
		onclick="return config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)" title="hide selection filter">hide</a>
</td></tr></table>
<div class="box">

<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterStart" value="1"
	onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this)"> starting date/time<br>
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">
	<select size=1 id="exportFilterStartBy"
		onchange="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this);">
		<option value="0">today</option>
		<option value="1">yesterday</option>
		<option value="7">a week ago</option>
		<option value="30">a month ago</option>
		<option value="file">file date</option>
		<option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>
	</select>
</td><td width="50%">
	<input type="text" id="exportStartDate" onfocus="this.select()"
		onchange="config.macros.exportTiddlers.$('exportFilterStartBy').value='other';">
</td></tr></table>

<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id="exportFilterEnd" value="1"
	onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this)"> ending date/time<br>
<table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tr valign="center"><td width="50%">
	<select size=1 id="exportFilterEndBy"
		onchange="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this);">
		<option value="0">today</option>
		<option value="1">yesterday</option>
		<option value="7">a week ago</option>
		<option value="30">a month ago</option>
		<option value="file">file date</option>
		<option value="other">other (mm/dd/yyyy hh:mm)</option>
	</select>
</td><td width="50%">
	<input type="text" id="exportEndDate" onfocus="this.select()"
		onchange="config.macros.exportTiddlers.$('exportFilterEndBy').value='other';">
</td></tr></table>

<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterTags value="1"
	onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this)"> match tags<br>
<input type="text" id="exportTags" onfocus="this.select()">

<input type="checkbox" class="chk" id=exportFilterText value="1"
	onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.showFilterFields(this)"> match titles/tiddler text<br>
<input type="text" id="exportText" onfocus="this.select()">

</div> <!--box-->
</div> <!--panel-->

<!-- action buttons -->
<div style="text-align:center">
<input type=button class="btn4" onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)"
	id="exportFilter" value="apply filter">
<input type=button class="btn4" onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)"
	id="exportStart" value="export tiddlers">
<input type=button class="btn4" onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)"
	id="exportDelete" value="delete tiddlers">
<input type=button class="btn4" onclick="config.macros.exportTiddlers.process(this)"
	id="exportClose" value="close">
</div><!--center-->
!end
//}}}
***/
 
<<link 1677843401>>

<<<
This dissertation focuses on moral development and whether it is associated with those who are at the greatest risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among armed forces combat deployed personnel. The hypothesis has been drawn from a theory that among war veterans the higher one's stage of moral development, the greater the risk for psychological distress. Dual methods of research have been utilized in this research study. The Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) developed by the Center for the Study of Ethical Development (University of Minnesota), has been used as the quantitative instrument to assess the significance of difference that ought to exist between a criterion group who have been diagnosed with PTSD and a control group who have not. For the second phase of the research a qualitative phenomenological method has been selected, which consists of interviews with 5 members of the criterion group and centered on the participants' lived experiences in the war zone. It was found in the quantitative phase that the difference between groups was significant, and that the level of moral judgment of the criterion group was higher than that of the control group. The phenomenological method interviews revealed recurring moral themes of guilt, shame, self-betrayal, and loss of soul, which underlie the veterans' symptoms of psychological distress. The results of this research should be of particular significance to mental health providers who work with military personnel diagnosed with PTSD.
<<<
<<link 738156651>>
<<<
This thesis traced one of the roots of archetypal psychology to Persian theosophy and to its earliest origins in Mazdaism (Zoroastrianism). James Hillman has stated that one of the fathers of archetypal psychology is Henry Corbin who was a scholar of the form of Islamic mysticism that appeared in Shi'ite Iran. In his writings Corbin noted the connection between the Mazdean teachings of ancient Persia (1400-1200 B.C.) and the resurgence of similar themes in the poetry of Shi'ite Iran in the post-Islamic era (+12th century A.D.). This paper made those connections explicit. The central focus was a series of three Persian poems dating from the twelfth, eighteenth and twentieth centuries A.D., together with their more ancient precursors in Mazdean angelology dating from 1400 B.C. A translation into English was made and the poems were viewed from a post-Cartesian, phenomenological perspective. This author, through her translation of the poetry, demonstrated the gap between Cartesian consciousness and the cultural reality which produced this poetry. Relevant connections were made with archetypal and Jungian psychology. Through this author's translation and commentaries. the modern reader is brought closer to an ancient, non-Cartesian encounter with the imaginal, the numinous and the mystical. Archetypal psychology was shown to have deep historical antecedents which are not only Greek and Western—but Persian.
<<<
<<link 1068207311>>

This study explores the relationship between the objective and subjective in writing that connects theory with experience. The dissertation argues that when the tropes of literary genres, particularly biography and autobiography, are applied to modes of psychological self-reflection, the interplay between objective and subjective create a fruitful hermeneutic interdependence between subject and object. Further, the dissertation seeks to illustrate how this dialectic between subject and object opens up an imaginary in-between space between the conscious and unconscious minds. This study considers styles of narration, use of personal voice, the validity of imaginary realities, and the importance of art and aesthetics in biography and autobiography. The study incorporates elements of an art-based approach to blend aspects of both empirical and introspective types of research. Thus, the study attempts to illuminate how theory and personal narrative might provide different but equally valid perspectives on the topic. The investigation considers how narratives are constructed, how fiction can be a truthful recreation of fact, and how aesthetics is important to the stories we hear and tell. The theoretical and personal narrative perspectives mirror and reflect the topic from the objective and subjective, respectively. An art-based approach to research was chosen since such an approach emphasizes the relationships between the researcher and topic, between observation and introspection, and between theory and practice. Within the context of the art-based approach, a hermeneutic method is used to describe and delineate the relationship between the objective and subjective, the use of story and narrative, the nature and application of voice, the relationship between fact and fiction, and the power of the imaginal. The study draws entirely on material written from a Jungian analytical perspective.
<<link 728970241>>

This phenomenological study examines the lived experiences of six women and four men of an Intentional Family Group (IFG), nuclear and extended family members and significant friends, that held meetings for 30 years. Co-researchers discussed the meetings, their overall impressions, how meetings affected their psychological development, how they integrated their experiences into their lives, and how they would instruct others to create meetings. The author interviewed each co-researcher for 1½ hours, constructed a thick description, and analyzed themes. All co-researchers scored the Self-Report Family Inventory (Beavers & Hampson, 1990). The co-researchers experienced characteristics of group therapy when developing empathic connections, practicing interpersonal skills, learning conflict-resolution, and exploring unconscious conflicts with their family of origin; family therapy when renegotiating hierarchical boundaries with parents and siblings; and encounter group when identifying goals, dissolving obstacles, and developing strategies. The research suggests members became better parents and problem-solvers, more empathic to family and friends, and more successful leaders in their workplace. The Self-Report Family Inventory revealed optimal family functioning. Feminist theorists (Gilligan, 1993; Miller, 1987) stated socialization causes men to be autonomous without developing empathic skills and women to maintain relationships without developing autonomy. The current study suggests that gender conditioning can be altered. The men learned how to empathize with and be influenced by women. The women learned to speak their truth, to refrain from giving in to despair, and to actualize their creative vision. This research supports family therapists' ideas (Minuchin, 1993; Madanes, 1990) that family functioning is enriched by social networking and mentoring by extended family and significant friends. The study includes a manual describing two meeting formats: Weekend Meetings, where each member has an hour of group time to explore personal issues, and Task Groups, where several people meet for several hours offering expertise and creative ideas about one person's dilemma.
<<link 728365261>>

This dissertation explores the phenomena of fate, suffering and transformation. The work is motivated by the following observations. When life goes well, we feel good, powerful, trusting in what the universe is about. For the most part, as a culture, we attribute success to our own hard work, cleverness, intelligence, good timing, luck, and if we have a spiritual orientation, to Divine Providence as well. When we experience reversals, failures, loss, or tragedy we wonder why, questioning ourselves or our God, wondering at the unseen forces affecting our lives. We are likely to ask: Why me? What have I done to deserve this? Is this a punishment from God? In the tension between self-blame and the search for an other on whom to place responsibility, the awareness grows of a third, an unseen mover of sorts, which I have come to recognize as fate. Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology informed by a heuristic sensibility, this dissertation investigates the phenomena of fate, suffering, and transformation, looking at fate, in relationship to suffering and transformation, through a metaphorical prism. It weaves together lived experience with the exploration of etymology, history, depth psychology, in particular the work of C. G. Jung, and the stories of Joseph and Job, the former through both Thomas Mann's Joseph and his brothers and the Hebrew Bible, and the latter through the biblical Book of Job and Jung's Answer to Job . My research has led to the following original contributions: (a)&nbsp;a rigorous etymological analysis of the words "fate," "destiny," "necessity," "providence," and "karma" which reveals subtle differences between and among these words as well as their inter-relatedness; (b)&nbsp;for the first time bringing together Jung's ideas and thoughts about fate for reflection, interpretation, and critical analysis in relationship to the work of Freud and some of the neo-Freudians; (c)&nbsp;the interpretation of the biblical stories of Joseph and Job from the perspective of fate, suffering, and transformation. This work reveals a major paradox in the relationship between God and fate, and challenges the dominant Jewish and Christian paradigms.
<<link 727914511>>

This dissertation examines mindful fathering, a process in which a father assumes a relational identity that allows him to be both experient and observer, neither absorbed nor withdrawn, yet present for and related to events with his son as they unfold in a natural way. Drawing on the teachings of Theravada Buddhism, the practice of Insight Meditation, and the traditions of depth and archetypal psychology, this research employs a hermeneutic methodology to explore relevant literature, the author's fathering journal, and other fathers' reports of fathering, in order to establish a foundation for the theoretical study of mindful fathering. When the mindful father cultivates an awareness of the dialectic nature of fathering as a moment-to-moment unfolding of relational identity, he enters a process of participatory communication with his son. Focused attention by the father, both intrapsychic and within the father-son relationship, has perceptual consequences that can greatly expand the fathers capacity to stay present and related. Through these consequences, such as compassion, empathy, interest and mindful participation, a process of loving attention unfolds that deepens the father's involvement encourages his presence and connection yet allows for his absence and disconnection. When a mindful father interacts with his son he enters the child's world. Physical presence alone, however, does not suggest the complex psychological, emotional, behavioral, and relational posturing that is involved in truly being with his son. For a father to be with his son and make the connections that are indicative of mindful fathering, the father must surrender all notion of existing as a separate self and allow for any suffering this entails. A mindful father maintains an awareness of the son, a child-centered awareness, while suspending and mediating intrusions, such as conflicting thoughts, desires, and personal needs as well as competing demands for his time and attention. Through the father's mindful relationship with his son, self is revealed in the context of involvement with the other. This relational positioning is sustained without diminishment of either self or other. While fostering the father's and son's separate realities and nourishing their joint interactions, this position of equanimity allows a father to stay present and related. In turn, this dual positioning encourages a transformational potential within the father, the son, and their relationship. It is through these moment-to-moment relational dynamics that a man's fatherhood is revealed to him.
<<link 727791031>>

There is very little in the way of contemporary ritual and myth to support women in Western culture who are experiencing midlife transitions. The psychological myths our culture employs to conceptualize midlife are often not informed by or reflective of women's sensibilities or their lived experience. In spite of numerous social, political, and economic advances, women's development continues to be understood in terms of the white, heterosexual, masculine experience. As a result, midlife tends to be understood as a chronological and biological event rather than as a psychological and spiritual process. This contributes to a very linear, lock-step heroic view of development that fails to mirror, or adequately to describe, female development. Employing both pre- and postmodern sensibilities, the writer explores and challenges how tacit conceptions about gender and age intersect to create models of female midlife development. Philosophy, feminism, postmodernism, and mythology inform the study's hermeneutic methodology and heuristic attitude. The influence of Christian and psychoanalytic myths on the way female midlife transitions are characterized and understood is explored together with the adult development theories on which many of our present notions of midlife rest. The author reviews several female midlife studies, which reveal a significant gap between the way female midlife is conceptualized by mainstream culture and the way many women experience this transition. In an effort to find more appropriate mirroring and a ritualistic container that is more reflective of women's midlife experiences, the writer looks to the myths of the ancient Sumerian Goddess Inanna. The stories, symbols, and images of Inanna invite us out of Western culture's linear dualistic paradigms and into a world that embraces multiplicity. In this world, biological and psychological cyclicity are seen as restorative and essential rather than as an aberration. It is the writer's hope that in providing a container for a radical revisioning of female development, the reader will feel invited to trust her or his own mythic imagination, and create new narratives about women's lived experience at midlife.
<<link 727306041>>

This dissertation sought to advance understanding of the extent to which full expression of the feminine is promoted in community. The primary question asked was, "Which goddesses are at work in an intentional community, and are their qualities given expression any differently in such a community than they are in nuclear families?" The more neglected aspects of the feminine are given particular attention. It was suggested that women seeking intentional community are searching for "home." Guided interviews of six women, ages 49 and over, living in six different Sonoma County intentional communities, are included in this study. They report on the dynamics contained in the experience of living in an alternative community, seen here as another form of family system. Both a depth psychology background and the perspective of a family systems orientation were brought to the findings. Certain myths were evoked by the interviews, and interpretation of these myths provided the principal analytic tool for examination of interview data. Through study of the patterns presented in these stories, archetypes of women in traditional families were compared to those lived by women in intentional communities. Several stories evoked by reports of co-researchers were from indigenous cultures, including Native American, Aztec, and African traditions. They provided valuable images, abundant in expression of archetypal feminine figures. Cybele is among the Goddesses originating in the earlier Greek traditions, and for this reason she is presented in this study. The Mahabharata , from the Hindu culture, represents an early tradition in which a feminine figure, Draupadi, is a central emotional force behind a community. The feminine gifts in each of the myths represent the link of community to numinous powers. Feminine archetypal patterns in communities affect women's lives differently than they do women in traditional families, findings of this study suggest. Although intentional communities do not appear to substitute for blood relationships in their significance to our culture, they can provide valuable augmentation to biological ties. This study concludes that even more than the family, the community can retain the ancestral lineage of its membership, preserving its cultural legacy as well as assuring revitalization of its members.
<<link 728840771>>

In our radically changing age, we are in the throes of a major paradigm shift that can be simply defined as a move from the Newtonian worldview to a quantum worldview. Psychotherapy is not immune to this radical shift. Through an in-depth exploration of the nature of the quantum worldview, this study will discuss how the "field" concept is reshaping the theories and clinical practices of contemporary psychotherapy. This study is concerned with a method of understanding by means of which specific texts are subjected to investigation, like all other objects of experience. It is not focused on accruing verified knowledge in any kind of scientific sense. However, the study takes as its starting point findings within the domain of science, namely quantum physics. It explores how such discoveries evince their effect within the arena of psychological dialogue. The emerging worldview of quantum physics challenges the very foundations of classical scientific inquiry. So it is with this study as it probes into the ways we subjectively structure how we interpret a given text, worldview, or clinical encounter. This inquiry focuses on interpreting existing texts, in this case research findings from quantum physics, infant development, psychoanalytic theory, and the intersubjective perspective. The hermeneutical slant of this study understands and interprets the above-mentioned material through the lens of a "field" reality which exists between, in, and amongst relating subjects. The purpose of this investigation is not merely to offer yet another interpretation of the analytic encounter. The thrust of the study is to explode, augment, and enlarge our existing views of the analytic relationship and indeed the psychotherapeutic enterprise itself. The image of exploding the transference/countertransference field is not employed here strictly for its evocative impact. It is, however, deliberately chosen to convey the kind of energy and intent with which this study will examine the existing psychological data. This study is attempting to break out of an existing worldview that conceives of the psyche as mechanistic in nature. The perspective of a field reality, which encompasses both the intrapsychic and the intersubjective, leads to a deeper as well as broader understanding of the complexity, mystery, and multifaceted nature of both the analytic encounter and of psychic reality itself.
<<link 1251887421>>
<<<
Color plays a powerful role in human experience, yet little attention has been paid to its archetypal aspects and implications. Although it is a phenomenon that utilizes&mdash;and, indeed, requires&mdash;both the physical process of sensation and the psychological process of perception, color most often is studied and understood from a perspective that emphasizes a single aspect of its unified complexity. Depth psychology&mdash;with an emphasis on the dialogue between consciousness and the unconscious, Jung's theory of psychoid archetypes, and Hillmans archetypal imaginal perspective&mdash;offers a unique framework that can unify, rather than separate, different aspects of a phenomenon such as color. 

Red is explored across disciplines and cultures as a universally primary color associated with the strong emotions of an experiential image, symbol, and archetype. Utilizing hermeneutic methodology and imaginal approaches, my research engages with manifestations of red as textual data found in ritual, myth, alchemy, literature, theater, opera, film, and graphic art. 

The major themes of this research indicate that red frequently appears related to transition and change, and more specifically, to the embodied tensions of ambivalent and often conflictual emotional extremes. In its liminal aspects, red often is related to the threshold between the literal and symbolic realms of life and death. This color is not entirely of the physical world and not entirely of the realm of psychoid archetypes, yet has qualities of both, connecting the two realms of psyche and matter. 

Red expresses various emotional aspects of the primordial powers associated with the mysteries of life and death. Although one aspect may be emphasized more than another in a particular red image, the color contains both the creative life-preserving energies of Eros and the aggressive, destructive energies of Thanatos described by Freud. Red's strong physical and psychological qualities can unify opposing forces and contradictions related to these energies and thus can indicate the opportunity for transformation. Through the intensity of red, we are drawn to experience and express the mysteries of Eros and Thanatos more fully.
<<<
/***
|''Name:''|ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Version:''|1.0.8 (2007-04-12)|
|''Source:''|http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin|
|''Author:''|UdoBorkowski (ub [at] abego-software [dot] de)|
|''Licence:''|[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]|
|''Copyright:''|&copy; 2005-2007 [[abego Software|http://www.abego-software.de]]|
|''TiddlyWiki:''|1.2.38+, 2.0|
|''Browser:''|Firefox 1.0.4+; Firefox 1.5; InternetExplorer 6.0|


!Code
***/
//{{{

	
//============================================================================
//============================================================================
//		   ForEachTiddlerPlugin
//============================================================================
//============================================================================

// Only install once
if (!version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin) {

if (!window.abego) window.abego = {};

version.extensions.ForEachTiddlerPlugin = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, 
	date: new Date(2007,3,12), 
	source: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de/#ForEachTiddlerPlugin",
	licence: "[[BSD open source license (abego Software)|http://www.abego-software.de/legal/apl-v10.html]]",
	copyright: "Copyright (c) abego Software GmbH, 2005-2007 (www.abego-software.de)"
};

// For backward compatibility with TW 1.2.x
//
if (!TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler) {
	TiddlyWiki.prototype.forEachTiddler = function(callback) {
		for(var t in this.tiddlers) {
			callback.call(this,t,this.tiddlers[t]);
		}
	};
}

//============================================================================
// forEachTiddler Macro
//============================================================================

version.extensions.forEachTiddler = {
	major: 1, minor: 0, revision: 8, date: new Date(2007,3,12), provider: "http://tiddlywiki.abego-software.de"};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
// Configurations and constants 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler = {
	 // Standard Properties
	 label: "forEachTiddler",
	 prompt: "Perform actions on a (sorted) selection of tiddlers",

	 // actions
	 actions: {
		 addToList: {},
		 write: {}
	 }
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The forEachTiddler Macro Handler 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler = function(e) {
	while(e && !hasClass(e,"tiddler"))
		e = e.parentNode;
	var title = e ? e.getAttribute("tiddler") : null; 
	return title ? store.getTiddler(title) : null;
};

config.macros.forEachTiddler.handler = function(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler) {
	// config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall(place,macroName,params,wikifier,paramString,tiddler);

	if (!tiddler) tiddler = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(place);
	// --- Parsing ------------------------------------------

	var i = 0; // index running over the params
	// Parse the "in" clause
	var tiddlyWikiPath = undefined;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "in") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "TiddlyWiki path expected behind 'in'.");
			return;
		}
		tiddlyWikiPath = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the where clause
	var whereClause ="true";
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "where") {
		i++;
		whereClause = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the sort stuff
	var sortClause = null;
	var sortAscending = true; 
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "sortBy") {
		i++;
		if (i >= params.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "sortClause missing behind 'sortBy'.");
			return;
		}
		sortClause = this.paramEncode(params[i]);
		i++;

		if ((i < params.length) && (params[i] == "ascending" || params[i] == "descending")) {
			 sortAscending = params[i] == "ascending";
			 i++;
		}
	}

	// Parse the script
	var scriptText = null;
	if ((i < params.length) && params[i] == "script") {
		i++;
		scriptText = this.paramEncode((i < params.length) ? params[i] : "");
		i++;
	}

	// Parse the action. 
	// When we are already at the end use the default action
	var actionName = "addToList";
	if (i < params.length) {
	   if (!config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[params[i]]) {
			this.handleError(place, "Unknown action '"+params[i]+"'.");
			return;
		} else {
			actionName = params[i]; 
			i++;
		}
	} 
	
	// Get the action parameter
	// (the parsing is done inside the individual action implementation.)
	var actionParameter = params.slice(i);


	// --- Processing ------------------------------------------
	try {
		this.performMacro({
				place: place, 
				inTiddler: tiddler,
				whereClause: whereClause, 
				sortClause: sortClause, 
				sortAscending: sortAscending, 
				actionName: actionName, 
				actionParameter: actionParameter, 
				scriptText: scriptText, 
				tiddlyWikiPath: tiddlyWikiPath});

	} catch (e) {
		this.handleError(place, e);
	}
};

// Returns an object with properties "tiddlers" and "context".
// tiddlers holds the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter,
// context the context of the execution of the macro.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlersAndContext = function(parameter) {

	var context = config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext(parameter.place, parameter.whereClause, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, parameter.actionName, parameter.actionParameter, parameter.scriptText, parameter.tiddlyWikiPath, parameter.inTiddler);

	var tiddlyWiki = parameter.tiddlyWikiPath ? this.loadTiddlyWiki(parameter.tiddlyWikiPath) : store;
	context["tiddlyWiki"] = tiddlyWiki;
	
	// Get the tiddlers, as defined by the whereClause
	var tiddlers = this.findTiddlers(parameter.whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki);
	context["tiddlers"] = tiddlers;

	// Sort the tiddlers, when sorting is required.
	if (parameter.sortClause) {
		this.sortTiddlers(tiddlers, parameter.sortClause, parameter.sortAscending, context);
	}

	return {tiddlers: tiddlers, context: context};
};

// Returns the (sorted) tiddlers selected by the parameter.
//
// The action is not yet performed.
//
// @parameter see performMacro
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getTiddlers = function(parameter) {
	return this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter).tiddlers;
};

// Performs the macros with the given parameter.
//
// @param parameter holds the parameter of the macro as separate properties.
//				  The following properties are supported:
//
//						place
//						whereClause
//						sortClause
//						sortAscending
//						actionName
//						actionParameter
//						scriptText
//						tiddlyWikiPath
//
//					All properties are optional. 
//					For most actions the place property must be defined.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.performMacro = function(parameter) {
	var tiddlersAndContext = this.getTiddlersAndContext(parameter);

	// Perform the action
	var actionName = parameter.actionName ? parameter.actionName : "addToList";
	var action = config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions[actionName];
	if (!action) {
		this.handleError(parameter.place, "Unknown action '"+actionName+"'.");
		return;
	}

	var actionHandler = action.handler;
	actionHandler(parameter.place, tiddlersAndContext.tiddlers, parameter.actionParameter, tiddlersAndContext.context);
};

// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  The actions 
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
// --- The addToList Action -----------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.addToList.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;

	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "addToList", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var list = document.createElement("ul");
	place.appendChild(list);
	for (var i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		var listItem = document.createElement("li");
		list.appendChild(listItem);
		createTiddlyLink(listItem, tiddler.title, true);
	}
};

abego.parseNamedParameter = function(name, parameter, i) {
	var beginExpression = null;
	if ((i < parameter.length) && parameter[i] == name) {
		i++;
		if (i >= parameter.length) {
			throw "Missing text behind '%0'".format([name]);
		}
		
		return config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[i]);
	}
	return null;
}

// Internal.
//
// --- The write Action ---------------------------------------------------
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.actions.write.handler = function(place, tiddlers, parameter, context) {
	// Parse the parameter
	var p = 0;
	if (p >= parameter.length) {
		this.handleError(place, "Missing expression behind 'write'.");
		return;
	}

	var textExpression = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
	p++;

	// Parse the "begin" option
	var beginExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("begin", parameter, p);
	if (beginExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var endExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("end", parameter, p);
	if (endExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;
	var noneExpression = abego.parseNamedParameter("none", parameter, p);
	if (noneExpression !== null) 
		p += 2;

	// Parse the "toFile" option
	var filename = null;
	var lineSeparator = undefined;
	if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "toFile") {
		p++;
		if (p >= parameter.length) {
			this.handleError(place, "Filename expected behind 'toFile' of 'write' action.");
			return;
		}
		
		filename = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getLocalPath(config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]));
		p++;
		if ((p < parameter.length) && parameter[p] == "withLineSeparator") {
			p++;
			if (p >= parameter.length) {
				this.handleError(place, "Line separator text expected behind 'withLineSeparator' of 'write' action.");
				return;
			}
			lineSeparator = config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode(parameter[p]);
			p++;
		}
	}
	
	// Check for extra parameters
	if (parameter.length > p) {
		config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement(place, "write", parameter, p);
		return;
	}

	// Perform the action.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(textExpression, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var text = "";
	if (count > 0 && beginExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(beginExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
	
	for (var i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		text += func(tiddler, context, count, i);
	}
	
	if (count > 0 && endExpression)
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(endExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);

	if (count == 0 && noneExpression) 
		text += config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(noneExpression, context)(undefined, context, count, undefined);
		

	if (filename) {
		if (lineSeparator !== undefined) {
			lineSeparator = lineSeparator.replace(/\\n/mg, "\n").replace(/\\r/mg, "\r");
			text = text.replace(/\n/mg,lineSeparator);
		}
		saveFile(filename, convertUnicodeToUTF8(text));
	} else {
		var wrapper = createTiddlyElement(place, "span");
		wikify(text, wrapper, null/* highlightRegExp */, context.inTiddler);
	}
};


// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
//  Helpers
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createContext = function(placeParam, whereClauseParam, sortClauseParam, sortAscendingParam, actionNameParam, actionParameterParam, scriptText, tiddlyWikiPathParam, inTiddlerParam) {
	return {
		place : placeParam, 
		whereClause : whereClauseParam, 
		sortClause : sortClauseParam, 
		sortAscending : sortAscendingParam, 
		script : scriptText,
		actionName : actionNameParam, 
		actionParameter : actionParameterParam,
		tiddlyWikiPath : tiddlyWikiPathParam,
		inTiddler : inTiddlerParam, // the tiddler containing the <<forEachTiddler ...>> macro call.
		viewerTiddler : config.macros.forEachTiddler.getContainingTiddler(placeParam) // the tiddler showing the forEachTiddler result
	};
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns a TiddlyWiki with the tiddlers loaded from the TiddlyWiki of 
// the given path.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.loadTiddlyWiki = function(path, idPrefix) {
	if (!idPrefix) {
		idPrefix = "store";
	}
	var lenPrefix = idPrefix.length;
	
	// Read the content of the given file
	var content = loadFile(this.getLocalPath(path));
	if(content === null) {
		throw "TiddlyWiki '"+path+"' not found.";
	}
	
	var tiddlyWiki = new TiddlyWiki();

	// Starting with TW 2.2 there is a helper function to import the tiddlers
	if (tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki) {
		if (!tiddlyWiki.importTiddlyWiki(content))
			throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
		tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;
		return tiddlyWiki;
	}
	
	// The legacy code, for TW < 2.2
	
	// Locate the storeArea div's
	var posOpeningDiv = content.indexOf(startSaveArea);
	var posClosingDiv = content.lastIndexOf(endSaveArea);
	if((posOpeningDiv == -1) || (posClosingDiv == -1)) {
		throw "File '"+path+"' is not a TiddlyWiki.";
	}
	var storageText = content.substr(posOpeningDiv + startSaveArea.length, posClosingDiv);
	
	// Create a "div" element that contains the storage text
	var myStorageDiv = document.createElement("div");
	myStorageDiv.innerHTML = storageText;
	myStorageDiv.normalize();
	
	// Create all tiddlers in a new TiddlyWiki
	// (following code is modified copy of TiddlyWiki.prototype.loadFromDiv)
	var store = myStorageDiv.childNodes;
	for(var t = 0; t < store.length; t++) {
		var e = store[t];
		var title = null;
		if(e.getAttribute)
			title = e.getAttribute("tiddler");
		if(!title && e.id && e.id.substr(0,lenPrefix) == idPrefix)
			title = e.id.substr(lenPrefix);
		if(title && title !== "") {
			var tiddler = tiddlyWiki.createTiddler(title);
			tiddler.loadFromDiv(e,title);
		}
	}
	tiddlyWiki.dirty = false;

	return tiddlyWiki;
};


	
// Internal.
//
// Returns a function that has a function body returning the given javaScriptExpression.
// The function has the parameters:
// 
//	 (tiddler, context, count, index)
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction = function (javaScriptExpression, context) {
	var script = context["script"];
	var functionText = "var theFunction = function(tiddler, context, count, index) { return "+javaScriptExpression+"}";
	var fullText = (script ? script+";" : "")+functionText+";theFunction;";
	return eval(fullText);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.findTiddlers = function(whereClause, context, tiddlyWiki) {
	var result = [];
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(whereClause, context);
	tiddlyWiki.forEachTiddler(function(title,tiddler) {
		if (func(tiddler, context, undefined, undefined)) {
			result.push(tiddler);
		}
	});
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createExtraParameterErrorElement = function(place, actionName, parameter, firstUnusedIndex) {
	var message = "Extra parameter behind '"+actionName+"':";
	for (var i = firstUnusedIndex; i < parameter.length; i++) {
		message += " "+parameter[i];
	}
	this.handleError(place, message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortAscending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? -1 
			   : +1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortDescending = function(tiddlerA, tiddlerB) {
	var result = 
		(tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue == tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue) 
			? 0
			: (tiddlerA.forEachTiddlerSortValue < tiddlerB.forEachTiddlerSortValue)
			   ? +1 
			   : -1; 
	return result;
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.sortTiddlers = function(tiddlers, sortClause, ascending, context) {
	// To avoid evaluating the sortClause whenever two items are compared 
	// we pre-calculate the sortValue for every item in the array and store it in a 
	// temporary property ("forEachTiddlerSortValue") of the tiddlers.
	var func = config.macros.forEachTiddler.getEvalTiddlerFunction(sortClause, context);
	var count = tiddlers.length;
	var i;
	for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
		var tiddler = tiddlers[i];
		tiddler.forEachTiddlerSortValue = func(tiddler,context, undefined, undefined);
	}

	// Do the sorting
	tiddlers.sort(ascending ? this.sortAscending : this.sortDescending);

	// Delete the temporary property that holds the sortValue.	
	for (i = 0; i < tiddlers.length; i++) {
		delete tiddlers[i].forEachTiddlerSortValue;
	}
};


// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.trace = function(message) {
	displayMessage(message);
};

// Internal.
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.traceMacroCall = function(place,macroName,params) {
	var message ="<<"+macroName;
	for (var i = 0; i < params.length; i++) {
		message += " "+params[i];
	}
	message += ">>";
	displayMessage(message);
};


// Internal.
//
// Creates an element that holds an error message
// 
config.macros.forEachTiddler.createErrorElement = function(place, exception) {
	var message = (exception.description) ? exception.description : exception.toString();
	return createTiddlyElement(place,"span",null,"forEachTiddlerError","<<forEachTiddler ...>>: "+message);
};

// Internal.
//
// @param place [may be null]
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.handleError = function(place, exception) {
	if (place) {
		this.createErrorElement(place, exception);
	} else {
		throw exception;
	}
};

// Internal.
//
// Encodes the given string.
//
// Replaces 
//	 "$))" to ">>"
//	 "$)" to ">"
//
config.macros.forEachTiddler.paramEncode = function(s) {
	var reGTGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)\\)","mg");
	var reGT = new RegExp("\\$\\)","mg");
	return s.replace(reGTGT, ">>").replace(reGT, ">");
};

// Internal.
//
// Returns the given original path (that is a file path, starting with "file:")
// as a path to a local file, in the systems native file format.
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/***
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<<link 828454441>>

One way that depth psychological theory proceeds is by taking some category of human experience and making it key to understanding the experience of the divine. This study, which is an exploration of the experience of abandonment by God, as well as a study of the relationship of abandonment to individuation and narcissism, re-emphasizes the intimate relationship between depth psychology, religion, and culture. This interdisciplinary approach provides a cultural frame through which to consider the impact of the patriarchy, religious beliefs, and religious oppression on the psyche, especially the female psyche, and on the creation of scientific theory, especially the theory base of the mental health profession. This dissertation is based on depth psychological texts and the writings of scholars who have explored the strengths and weaknesses of the Christian myth in terms of men and women's religious and psychological search for meaning. And finally, this dissertation is based on works, both psychological and nonpsychological, which explore the hubristic character of modern life and the experience of abandonment within the context of a society in transition. This study is a theoretical work, employing a hermeneutic method. The chapters circumambulate the theme of Job's experience of abandonment by God as they provide possible meanings from different perspectives. Carl Jung's Answer to job lays the groundwork for a new myth for modern man that connects him to the transpersonal psyche in a new way. This new dispensation is a psychological one, and it is centered in experience where man finds his relationship to God in his relationship to the unconscious. It is through the child in us that we make a connection with the Self and heal our state of abandonment. A patient's history of abandonment can be seen as a replay of experiences of the first 3 years of life, just as it can be seen as a part of the process of the incarnation of the numinosum which may be better expressed as the fear of abandonment if the patient dares to own the effectiveness of the numinosum . Psychotherapy as it is usually practiced prevents numinous experiences. This study demonstrates the importance of taking an individual's numinous experiences and religious beliefs seriously, both as another royal road to the unconscious and as an indicator of psychic health. It also argues that therapy is love of soul and that this is the via regia to the unconscious psyche. Eros both teaches and heals. It is the creator and Mother-Father of all higher consciousness.
<<link 1610718821>>

<<<
This dissertation explored by means of an artistic project the complex factors leading to the dissolution of the relationship between Sigmund Freud and Carl G. Jung. It focused on their fateful trip to America in 1909 in which many of the factors which ultimately led to the breakup of their relationship came into view.

These two towering figures were involved in a complex, collaborative re1ationship that profoundly influenced the field of clinical psychology. Jung's emphasis on the soul and spirituality has never been integrated with Freud's more empirical and secular concerns. The lack of a deep understanding of the reasons for their split has made it difficult for a unified vision or a healing of this wound to occur.

A screenplay for a short film was chosen as the depth investigative technique to explore their relationship during this historic trip. Cinema, with its supreme ability to deal with the border between dream and reality, between reason and emotion, between word and image, was uniquely suited to bring these characters and concerns fully to life.

This research project revealed deep tensions between Freud and Jung related to mythic Oedipal father-and-son conflicts. Homoerotic tensions, anti-Semitism and professional rivalry, as well as theoretical differences intrinsically bound to each man's personality contributed to their difficulties.

Overall, the primary reason for their split that emerged from this study was both naturally and ironically, psychological. Freud's adamant faith in his views conflicted with Jung's powerful need to resist a dogmatic father-figure and forge an independent path of his own. The findings also point to the subjective nature of psychological theories and how an understanding of the personal dynamics of a theorist's life deepens an understanding of the theories themselves.

<<<
<<link 728852511>>

This study examines the Dionysian influence of Nietzsche's life and writings on the psychology of Jung. It combines a traditional method of historical research into the writings and biographies of both men, and a newer one of psychologizing or "seeing through" into the archetypal factors at work within these data as developed by archetypal psychologist James Hillman. It traces the origin of Jung's approach to his desire to avoid a psychological inflation by Dionysus or Wotan, as he believed had occurred to Nietzsche. It also considers whether Nietzsche truly became insane in his later years as is often thought, and how Jung's belief that Nietzsche had been possessed by one or both archetypal factors led him to develop a psychology that would protect him and others from a similar fate. The study focuses mainly on the years of Jung's midlife journey into the unconscious, and argues that his fear of Dionysus was based on Nietzsche's early view of the god shown in The Birth of Tragedy . It asserts that Jung was unaware of the shift in Nietzsche's view of Dionysus whereby the god's name became a symbol for his tragic worldview and came to represent a synthesis of Dionysus and Apollo. The confusion between Dionysus and Wotan in the Germanic psyche is also examined, and its roots are traced to the growth of viticulture in Southern Germany in the fourth century. Jung's fear of schizophrenia and its roots in the psychic dismemberment and disintegration associated with these archetypes is discussed, as is the link between this fear and the similarities he perceived between himself and Nietzsche. Special attention is given to Symbols of Transformation and Psychological Types , the books Jung wrote at the beginning and the end of his midlife journey. His analysis of the Miller fantasies is discussed in relation to his fear of schizophrenia, and his use of mandalas is seen as a defense against psychic fragmentation as first suggested by Hillman. The mythological significance of Dionysus and Wotan is examined, as is Jung's view that millions of Germans were possessed by Wotan in two world wars. Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle is used to amplify Jung's journey.
<<link 732927111>>

Midlife women finding their voice is an emerging issue in our culture today. This theoretical dissertation is my unique contribution, based on myth and my personal journey to find my voice. Through the perspective of depth psychology, images of Echo are explored in myth, personal experience, metaphor, dreams, psychotherapy, psychopathology, and creative imagination. A heuristic approach is used as methodology for the study of personal experience, and hermeneutics is used to interpret the myths. By not having a voice and remaining silent, women are devalued by others and themselves. The call of Echo is here presented as a metaphor for the human need to be reflected. The figure of Echo in Ovid's Echo and Narcissus points to the desire to be seen and heard and to echoing as psychopathology, shame, and abandonment. Winnicott's concept of the true self hidden by the false self is explored in this context. In Amor and Psyche by Apuleius, the nature of Echo being possessed by Pan and her desire to be is compared to Psyche and to a midlife woman's experience. This discussion includes echoing as a complex, the psychotherapeutic issue of mirroring, and women's circles experienced as a temenos. Women's spirituality is reappearing in our culture; thus the search for the feminine in the Godhead is examined as a critical element in recognizing the voice of women. The function of echo is perceived to serve a deeper purpose for a woman: to reflect her authentic nature in an inner relationship with herself. The effect of reflection on persona, an issue in the first half of life as defined by Jung, is examined, along with Jung's concept of the search for the self in the second half of life, which is found to correspond to a need for voice.
<<link 727381031>>

This study explored the disparity between the styles and values of four accomplished women, and those of the corporate and academic environments in which they worked. The study was based on twenty-five years of research explicating the traits, styles and values that women exhibit more than men. These traits are dissonant to those masculinist characteristics upon which this culture's major economic structures are based. The resulting conflict of styles and values causes distinct difficulty, deep pain and stunted growth for women making their way in the economic world. This study used extended interviews to explore these difficulties and distress, and their consequences for the lives and inner worlds of women. A second purpose of the study was to search for and understand from within individual women's experiences, situations in which women's ways of being and doing meshed beneficially and were effective within prevailing workplace structures. The study examined the depth of distress that caring, nurturing, community focused people endured within hierarchical, status valuing organizations. For one woman this result was breast cancer. Another dynamic woman became extremely fragmented after years of being squelched. A third powerful woman became disillusioned with the alien way that corporations affect people. While several of these women learned to function in the prescribed linear, hierarchical, goal directed manner, most of them lost their dynamism, their personal power, the joy in their work and their health. In the process they moved from the center of workplace activity to the periphery. These women were highly relational in the skills they brought to their work, and in their needs and expectations from the workplace. Their primary valued way of connecting with their professional community was to be effective, especially relationally effective, in contrast to the more masculine focal value of seeking status within hierarchy. The women suffered when their effective relational ways remained hidden and unacknowledged, or were even deprecated. The understandings gained in this study will contribute to health-care professionals' abilities to care for women as well as men who are suffering in abusive work environments, and also to beneficial changes in prevailing workplace paradigms.
<<link 1127197411>>

Cults are part of 21 st -century reality. Much has been written about how a cult comes to be, the key ingredients that make it thrive, and societal considerations explaining the prevalence of cults both past and present. This study looks at the phenomenon of a cult from a depth psychological perspective, specifically focusing on the themes of initiation, exile, escape, and transgressive relationships as they emerge in a wider context. In this study I hope to answer questions regarding the existential occurrence of a cult and its nature. More specifically, throughout the dissertation I try to answer the following: what necessity does a cult serve? If a cult, in general, is symbolic of some essential granule of the human evolution, then what purpose—-aside from the pathology and afflictions ensnared in its anatomy—-does its manifestation in our society serve? What are we being called to awaken to through the cultic experience? And what, if anything, does the phenomenon of a cult say about the human development? The method used in this dissertation is heuristic. The process of the investigation into the cult phenomenon begins with my own experience in a therapy cult—-The Company—-as the beginning data. Even though the heuristic process is autobiographical, with the initial questions focusing on personal matters, there is an investigative eye on the collective significance. The six phases of the heuristic research methodology include initial engagement, immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis. Starting with an internal journey of discovery and understanding, I began to piece together fragments of my own experience as a frame of reference, and connected these with what was happening out there as it appeared in reality. The goal was not about separating out experiences as exclusive to cultic experience; rather, the goal was about seeing the hidden unity of human experience. Throughout the subsequent phases, the intense focus allowed for the seeds of knowledge to undergo a quiet transformation, which helped to feed the creative process during the more external phase of the research. Eventually, the process guided me towards a creative synthesis, whereby the components and themes of a cultic experience emerge and are put into a narrative depiction that moves beyond just story-telling in such a way that a comprehensive investigation of the phenomenon is realized. In moving away from the literal meaning and message of the phenomenon of a cult to the metaphorical, we see a whole different side of its incarnation. The themes that have emerged, as mentioned above, provide a more universal and mythical intelligence behind the reason for a cult to materialize at the forefront of the collective unconscious. These themes imply the necessity for the incarnated presence of a cult as a forum for soul making. Stated in another way, the interior and exterior design of a cult are brutally and fatally creative in the service of soul, helping to make life matter through death.
<<link 733014471>>

This dissertation explores the relationship between the typologies of gay men and eating disorders (EDs). The literature review suggested that EDs comprised a group of symptoms that affected young women whose mothers were overly close, and who were perfectionistic (Bruch, 1973). Recently it was reported that men with EDs were disproportionately gay (Herzog et al., 1984). Six gay men with a diagnosed ED were interviewed and portraits were created. Each man also completed a Myers Briggs Type Inventory (Briggs, 1993). Common themes showed that they tended to have better relationships with their mothers than their fathers, who were physically or emotionally absent. Surprisingly, only one recalled sexual abuse. In general the findings support the literature on EDs in young women, especially those of Rizzuto (1988) and Kreiger (1989) who emphasize developmental issues, such as shaming. The typology scores showed that five of the men were introverts and four were intuitives, but also that feeling was an important superior or auxiliary function. This extends the work of Woodman (1982) who found women with EDs to be introverted intuitive types. The discussion focuses on the issues of how typology might contribute to the turning away from a culture that, in Jungian terms, was more thinking and sensation orientated. Shame is strongly associated with these typologies, and both the "different" sexual and typological orientation from the mainstream preferences may rise to a feeling of hopelessness that in turn activates the Thanatos drive. Food is seen as essential to life, and yet comparatively young gay men were turning away from this, and perhaps from physical and emotional closeness to others. They yearned for community or spirituality, but food and its sharing are fundamental in relationships.
<<link 1172082081>>

Utilizing Jungian dream work this study investigates and applies Gay-centered depth psychological theory with an emphasis on Gay male individuation. A Gay-centered psychological perspective, joining Jungian and psychoanalytic theory with Gay liberation ideology, posits a distinct homosexual archetypal constellation that informs and guides the developing Gay personality and serves a purposive function for society. Gay psychic reality, of which dreams are one aspect, is understood as the subjective experience of homosexual libido and its archetypal center and source—-Gay Self. This study is comprised of essays based on the author's amplification of a dream. In Part One the cultural, mythic, historic, and theoretical context of the dream imagery is taken up through an investigation into the Jungian idea of the archetypal Self, thought to be the source and author/director of dream imagery. A Gay Self imago, differentiated from a heterocentric idea of Self, provides a Gay-centered psychological lens through which Gay men's dream imagery and symptom formation can be seen and interpreted. This study specifically researches the borderline personality configuration and intends to help shed some light on both the diagnosis and the aspects of Gay psychic reality that it highlights. Part Two of this study is comprised of essays based on the author's working of his dream imagery and a discussion of a Gay-centered psychotherapy session in which the dream is examined. Through theoretical discourse and mythological amplification, psychopathological elements symbolized in the dream, namely borderline personality traits, are examined as windows onto an evolving homosexual ego-Self relation. The dream work looks into the relevance and psychological function of a Gay myth of meaning at both a personal level in the author's individuation process and at a collective level for a society in desperate need of a Gay vision of psychological procreativity.
<<link 765916081>>

This dissertation explores the necessity and function of a present, understanding other for psychological healing after the experience of loss. We need a witness to our grief. In order to integrate the experience of loss, no matter what the nature of our loss, we want a caring other to see, understand, and help us to make sense our of our experience. The witnessing other comes in many and varied forms, addressing us on the personal level, as in helpful individuals around us, and on the numinous level, as in dreams and intuitions. The study applies a hermeneutic method of research, gathering and interpreting clinical and theoretical material from analytic psychology, self psychology, religious mythology, and contemporary culture. My efforts focus on the practical application of witnessing in psychotherapy. The psychotherapeutic relationship facilitates healing through the use of empathy toward the patient and understanding the nature of each particular loss, whether it involves early childhood trauma, physical or psychological injury or illness, or death of a loved one. This psychotherapeutic relationship also facilitates healing through acknowledging and tapping into the Self connection. The therapist and the patient study together the dreams and other creative and imaginative expressions brought into the clinical work. There are several factors that contribute to the curative power of being witnessed. I discovered that feeling seen and understood is critical at the initial stage in facing grief. There is a containing or soothing function performed by the witnessing other at this point. The witnessed one is able to tolerate the experience of loss as a result of feeling joined rather than being isolated and alone. Once painful affect is met and support has been accepted, the witness can help the witnessed in the process of meaning making. Giving meaning to the experience of grief is essential in its resolution. Resolution of grief is not the same as making it go away. The experience of grief is devalued if we treat our losses as if they had never happened. Integrating loss in a meaningful way can be the job of a lifetime. Grief can be a powerful teacher and valuable mentor if accompanied by the empathic witness. The witness appears predictably in the loved one and in the person who is in the role of helper. But the witness also appears in dreams, creative expression, numinous experience, and in other surprising places that may be unbidden. For some people whose lives seem void of a caring personal witness, the archetypal Witness intervenes out of necessity to protect the fragile self from destruction. And sometimes this type of intervention leads to a resiliency of spirit or character in the witnessed, who goes on to achieve great things.
<<link 1172077161>>

This dissertation is about ways in which humans consciously accept or unconsciously avoid or deny experience of external and internal realities. Wilfred Bion (1897-1979) coined the term "hallucinosis" to characterize ways in which all people, in subtle or exaggerated fashion, avoid or deny realities because we unconsciously conclude that to openly acknowledge these realities, i.e., to think about them, would involve unbearable anxiety. Hallucinosis is the disintegration of thought itself for the purpose of avoiding or denying experience. Paradoxically, it is also a "preparatory state for intuition or creativity" (Panajian, 2001). In this context, hallucinations are the contents of the extreme pathological end of a continuum of a mental process called hallucinosis, while at the positive end they include intuition and creativity. The concept of hallucinosis is extremely difficult to describe in a concise manner because it is based on Bion's complex theoretical positions, and because of his cryptic, enigmatic style of writing. This dissertation includes theoretical critiques of hallucinosis and the underlying object relations theory on which it is based, with special attention to the paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions. Bion bases much of his theory on the work of Melanie Klein. Therefore, the dissertation includes an in-depth exploration of her psychological concepts. A large part of this dissertation summarizes and integrates ideas of different psychoanalytic theorists with regard to the dynamic qualities of hallucinations as primitive defense mechanisms, as well as possible healthy functions of hallucinations. A central purpose of the dissertation is to explore theoretical perspectives and clinical technique to aid the clinician to detect and work with hallucinosis in psychotherapy. Drawing from a wide array of theoretical treatments of neurotic and psychotic processes, the study will show how hallucinatory processes are not only present in actively psychotic processes, but will also consider Bion's claim that hallucinosis is a universal unconscious process. The purpose of the study is to contribute a deeper understanding of hallucinosis in order to assist therapists to more effectively address core intrapsychic and intersubjective therapeutic perspectives.
<<link 731678831>>

This dissertation attempts to delineate a clearer understanding of the relationship between early narcissistic wounding, shame, and the primitive rage responses found in individuals involved in intimate partner abuse, many of whom as infants and young children either witnessed domestic violence or were physically abused, or both. The study demonstrates how the therapeutic use of empathy can increase self-esteem and reduce the dependence on compensatory dysfunctional abusive behavior. This study uses myth as a legitimate method of investigation and as a research tool that can inform clinical theory and practice when working with perpetrators of spousal abuse. The method involved both a hermeneutic and phenomenological approach, incorporating a depth psychological perspective, and explored not only the cognitive but also the emotional or affective dimension of psyche. Both Jungian and self-psychology frameworks were utilized in order to understand more clearly and emphasize the impact of empathy as a transformative element in adult life. The myth of Hephaestus was incorporated as an extended metaphor for an archetypal, interpersonal, and intrapersonal understanding of early narcissistic wounding. Hephaestus' healing and restoration were possible only through empathic and nurturing experiences, which released him from the bondage of humiliation, low self-esteem, and narcissistic rage. The case study included depicts the story of an individual who was both witness to domestic abuse as a child and a perpetrator of spousal abuse as an adult. The treatment focused on the use of compassion and empathic responsiveness to help overcome the effects of early childhood trauma, which contribute to the wound of shame, a major source of narcissistic rage. As demonstrated both in the myth and case study, Hephaestus and the client were left crippled and incomplete, narcissistically injured, and psychologically groomed to perpetuate the shame-rage cycle of abuse. Through their respective corrective empathic, nurturing, and soothing selfobjects, they were able to meet with the disowned repressed positive side of the masculine, incorporate the feminine, and thereby confirm a cohesive self, bolster self-esteem, and develop a more harmonious self-structure, allowing the journey of further growth and individuation to continue, releasing them from the shame-rage cycle of abuse.
<<link 764988941>>

This dissertation uses a hermeneutic template to examine the healing that occurs at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The experiences at the Wall and the offerings left at the Wall are analyzed from the depth psychological, particularly Jungian, viewpoint. In this research, letters left by visitors to the Wall are examined for evidence of healing. Other offerings that have been collected by the National Park Service are looked at for the indications of healing they contain. First hand experiences of visitors are used to provide further evidence for the healing and to allow examination of what causes the healing. Many visitors report that a pilgrimage to the Wall resembles a mythical journey to the underworld. The Wall represents a journey into an underworld realm because the Vietnam War was notorious for darkness, the Wall itself; s made of black granite, and the pathway to the apex of the memorial leads the visitor downward into the earth. Because of the underworld direction, the visitor is able to face the pain caused by the war in a more conscious manner. The alchemical images of the experience at the Wall are also analyzed. The visitor approaches the Wall feeling heavy with the darkness of the war. This experience is compared to the alchemical process in which the dark, raw material is processed in the nigredo, expelled in the mortificatio and putrefactio processes, and brought to wholeness and healing in the coniunctio. The collective and individual experience of the American people is interpreted psychologically from cultural, historical, and sociological viewpoints. The backdrop of other wars, the political need for a war, and the cultural and spiritual poverty during the Vietnam War years provide a lens through which Jungian psychological concepts examine the themes. Carl Jung's writing about World War II Germany is used to further understand the extraordinary repression and shadow projections activated by the Vietnam War. The healing power of the Wall is based largely on its ability to contain the shadow projections. As it provides containment, the healing of wounded individuals and a divided country occur.
<<link 1798971251>>

<<<
In recent years, popular interest in spiritual practices such as reincarnation has grown. Texts have been published describing the healing potential available through past life therapy. Three major therapies have emerged, including past life regression, life-between-life regression, and future life progression. Most studies offer therapeutic validity without grounding regression theory within a scientific framework. With the focus of healing being that of a patient's soul, quantitative study is limited. As such, regression therapies are viewed as spiritual practices instead of clinical interventions.

This study seeks to rectify the paucity of material engaging regression therapies with depth psychology in order to discover the healing potentiality for clinical practice. A thematic hermeneutic approach was utilized to reveal cultural/historic attitudes regarding the treatment of soul as well as the progressive removal of soul from psychology. Depth psychology, with an emphasis on Jungian and post-Jungian theory, became the focus of dialogue in which soul, as the subject of healing, might be invited back into clinical consulting rooms.

An alchemical hermeneutic method offered soul an independent voice in the data analysis. The researcher underwent regression therapies and engaged heuristic insights with the thematic dialogue to deepen understanding of the phenomenon in question. Soul was allowed to speak through transference dialogues with the researcher as to supplement insights regarding her treatment within psychology, particularly between the merging of depth psychology and regression therapies.

Research suggests that regression therapies engage the patient in the process of individuation. The patient becomes aware of ego complexes in opposition with the soul-as-Self. Balance is restored as archetypes emerge in past life memories, and patients integrate aspects of their personalities from previous incarnations. The collective unconscious, as the mundus imaginalis , is experienced as an active realm where healing is available to all. In essence, treating the soul through regression therapies affords a short-term analysis where the client is able to experience the numinous within a clinical, spiritual environment. In utilizing regression therapies within depth psychology, soul heals psyche heals soul. It is in this alchemical spiral where psychology and theology become one in the same.

An alchemical hermeneutic method offered soul an independent voice in the data analysis. The researcher underwent regression therapies and engaged heuristic insights with the thematic dialogue to deepen understanding of the phenomenon in question. Soul was allowed to speak through transference dialogues with the researcher as to supplement insights regarding her treatment within psychology, particularly between the merging of depth psychology and regression therapies.

Research suggests that regression therapies engage the patient in the process of individuation. The patient becomes aware of ego complexes in opposition with the soul-as-Self. Balance is restored as archetypes emerge in past life memories, and patients integrate aspects of their personalities from previous incarnations. The collective unconscious, as the mundus imaginalis , is experienced as an active realm where healing is available to all. In essence, treating the soul through regression therapies affords a short-term analysis where the client is able to experience the numinous within a clinical, spiritual environment. In utilizing regression therapies within depth psychology, soul heals psyche heals soul. It is in this alchemical spiral where psychology and theology become one in the same.
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<<link 728093141>>
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This dissertation explores authentic Being-toward-death and its psychotherapeutic implications in Heidegger's Being and Time ( Sein und Zeit ) and the Chuang Tzu , the early classic of philosophical Taoism. This dissertation shows a remarkable affinity between Being and Time 's and the Chuang Tzu 's conception of inauthentic existence. Specifically, this affinity is seen in Heidegger's phenomenon of Dasein 's fall into the "they" ( das Man ) as inauthentic everyday Self-understanding and Chuang Tzu's phenomenon of the person's loss of te (potency) as small understanding ( hsiao chih ). A major theme in Being and Time is that everyday Self-understanding suffers from "loss of Self" ( Selbstverlorenheit ) through absorption in its everyday concernful comportments in the world and falls into inauthentic ways of Being exemplified in everyday modes of understanding and interpretation. Dasein allows itself to be absorbed into the "they"—the impersonal, collective "one." This theme corresponds to Chuang Tzu's notion of the person's loss of te . For Chuang Tzu, the ontologico-existential fact of being born into a social-conventional world which stresses discriminative understanding results in the loss of the person's te . This has come about through the person's identification with the self ( chi; tzu ), by way of socially-conventionally shaped discriminations ( pien ) that are interpreted and adhered to by a heart-mind ( hsin ) that is absorbed and dispersed in socially-conventionally shaped desires ( yü ). In this way the person's Being forfeits its te , losing its authentic possibilities of understanding and interpreting. This dissertation shows that there is a crucial relation between authentic Being-toward-death in Being and Time and the Chuang Tzu . This can be seen in the parallel process of transforming the clearing ( Lichtung ) of Dasein 's inauthentic everyday Self-understanding into the openness of Being itself and forgetting ( wang ) the self with its small understanding so as to be open for te . The implications of authentic Being-toward-death for psychotherapy emerge from discussions of the relation of resoluteness ( Entschlossenheit ) to authentic Being-with the Other, psychotherapy as dwelling ( chu or wohnen ), and Medard Boss's understanding of psychotherapy with reference to Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology and Chuang Tzu's Taoist hermeneutics.
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<<link 727306021>>

This phenomenological dissertation examines the lived experience of women involved in committed relationships with men serving life sentences or sentenced to death row, meeting him for the first time after he has been incarcerated. By lived experience is meant the feelings, attitudes, thoughts, memories and other psychological events and associations that comprise the existential reality of the subjects. What psychological factors might predispose, invite or attract women to the prison environment—factors that are part and parcel of becoming involved with an incarcerated man? What psychological factors contribute to that initial attraction to a man who is already incarcerated? What psychological factors maintain the relationship and keep these women committed to the relationship for life, his and her own? The overall objective of this phenomenological study is to raise the level of consciousness about the occurrence and the nature of the relationships between women and the men who are imprisoned for life, which often culminates in marriage, despite the fact that these men will spend their lives behind prison bars or be executed. Whereas literature on the ever-increasing, over-crowded male prison population abounds, literature that specifically focuses on the women involved with these men is difficult to find. The secondary objective, therefore, is to make a contribution to the nearly non-existent, bare-bones literature on the lived experience of this unique population of women who become prisoner's wives, meeting their man for the first time after his incarceration. A qualitative research design is used to address these issues. Twenty-six subjects, all wives or girlfriends of inmates sentenced to life-terms or to death row, were recruited for this study via contact with various groups affiliated with prisons, colleagues, flyers posted in prison waiting rooms, and from the internet. To obtain in-depth descriptions of the subjects' lived experience, they were asked to complete the demographic and family history questionnaire and to participate in taped interview sessions (which were later transcribed and analyzed). Each participant's lived experience was then illustrated as an individual portrait. Participants' lived experiences were carefully analyzed individually from a depth perspective. In addition to each portrait, this dissertation uses a genogram-format as a way to diagram data about relationship patterns and familial dynamics into a visual portrait, and to display individual data reflecting critical life-cycle events that emerged from the questionnaires and the semi-structured, in-depth interviews. Individual data was grouped together in order to search for any common themes among the women's lived experiences. The results of this phenomenological study and the implications for future research and clinical work are discussed.
<<link 727914721>>
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The purpose of this theoretical dissertation has been to contribute to the unrepression of, to deepen a psychological imagination around, and to create conditions of encouragement for a radical revisioning of the topic, experience, and idea of woman's menopause, her change of life. Through hermeneutic and heuristic methods informed by philosophy, feminism, and postmodernism, the writer has read/written menopause from multiple perspectives, seeking to introduce menopause into the current cultural discourse on change. Whereas the modern construction of menopause is dominated by a scientific-medical epistemology, this work has also approached menopause from pre- and postmodern positions and sensibilities. Creative and critical language, including the semiotic, narrative, poetic, political, and metaphoric, have been engaged throughout the writing. The form of the dissertation has challenged conventional linear modes of organization, exposition, and analysis to demonstrate and open up other modes of arrangement and language, including écriture feminine. Menopause, the radical deconstruction of woman's reproductivity, has also been interpreted as a consciousness threshold. Analogies have been offered to illuminate a corollary between a mind-loosening menopause and shifts in late 20th-century consciousness evolution. The research models a way of thinking/reading/writing multiple-consciousness perspectives on one topic. One chapter has highlighted features of a menopause self-study group experience, Third Bend in the River, developed by the author. This in-depth group model underscores the value of interactive learning and the powerful role of imagination, in midlife, for reimagining desire.
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<<link 2032692341>> | <<library 17314>>
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The popular television series, //Buffy the Vampire Slayer//, has transformed the conventional hero myth from a depiction of a brawny, dominating loner to a more complex portrayal of a discerning and developing champion of the people. Despite being an often targeted scapegoat for social and interpersonal ills, television is a storytelling medium that plays a major role in influencing human consciousness by conveying mythic patterns. The popularity of certain mythic images and stories imparted by television signifies collective tendencies and needs. Female superhero images in media provide a heroic portrayal of women and herald the recognition of expressions and contributions of femininity.

Many traditional myths disappoint in their lack of relevance to contemporary culture, particularly in their portrayal of women. History has indirectly criticized accomplished women by leaving their stories untold. Social learning deficits regarding the interaction with and the development of powerful femininity have occurred due to disconnection from the lineage of women in history and myth. Potent feminine qualities have developed in isolation due to this insufficiency in stories.

Jungian dream, film, and fairytale interpretation techniques are used in this inquiry to analyze Buffy the Vampire Slayer as a dream of the collective. Mythological studies assist in discovering the role this television series plays as a modern myth that portrays the development of and relationships to powerful femininity. In the sense that "stories are medicine" (Estes, 1992), this study reveals what instructions&mdash;what medicines&mdash;are found in //Buffy the Vampire Slayer//.
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<<link 764762411>>

This study is an examination of electronic screen-based imagery as it is processed and experienced by young children during critical phases of early neuronal growth and developmental maturation. The primary focus of inquiry explores and investigates the effects and influences of electronic media images that are presented and processed through young children's visual anatomic system, rather than spontaneously created and experienced in the mind's eye imaginatively. The hermeneutic theoretical research method is employed in order to assist integration of broadly disparate theoretical and empirical orientations and results within the literature. Developmental influences and effects are found which interpenetrate neurobiological, archetypal, behavioral, and phenomenological standpoints. Theoretical and empirical review synthesis utilizing an evolutionary/archetypal psychiatric framework indicates that young children's spontaneous imaginative capabilities may be neurologically foreclosed and become increasingly impoverished as exposure to screen-based electronic entertainments rises. Additional effects and pathogenic etiology in relation to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder symptomatology, and childhood perpetrated aggression and violence are also advanced.
<<link 790279501>>

This theoretical/hermeneutic dissertation utilizes psychoanalytic and Jungian perspectives to explore psychological dynamics of holism and holistic trends in socio-cultural contexts. In particular, it focuses on similarities and differences of holistic movements in pre-Nazi Germany and post World War II United States. The study first surveys the history of holism, then continues on to explore connections between holistic thought and Nazi ideology, and psychology of holistic movements in general. Benevolent and shadow aspects of holism are investigated. Psychological mechanisms of splitting and projection at the individual and collective levels are examined as they relate to holism and holistic movements. Holism has a long history in humankind's effort to find greater connection and meaning in life. Holistic movements often develop in contrast to prevailing mechanistic, industrial culture. However, holism can carry a shadow side which involves splitting, projection, and in Nazi Germany, harm to others. When individual issues are not resolved, it is easy for answers to be sought outside oneself. Powerful unconscious forces can be triggered when these places in the individual psyche intersect with the energy of a collective movement. This can lead to extremism, irrational behaviors, or chaos and destruction. Typically, holism can imply a search for light. Ideally, it offers an excellent and useful model for individual, social, and environmental health. It is important that the shadow side also be acknowledged, however difficult this might be as it is usually out of awareness. The study also finds that holism as an integrative phenomena is emerging in many sectors of contemporary society, offering alternative and healthier ways of living, treating the planet, and developing relationships with fellow citizens. An appendix of holistic organizations is included.
<<link 1793095241>>

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Psychotherapists are searching for alternatives to psychotropic medications when the somatic realm needs to be addressed in therapy. Homeopathy is a viable option used extensively and successfully around the world for 200 years. The wholistic nature of homeopathy allows the expression of the essential essence of a person, in contrast to the suppressive action of allopathic medications.

There is limited literature on the interaction of homeopathy and psychotherapy, and there is no literature about the effect of homeopathic remedies on the psychotherapeutic relationship. Psychotherapists require more information to make critical clinical decisions.

This study is a qualitative, phenomenological investigation of the experience of psychotherapists who work with patients given homeopathic remedies. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven psychotherapists who refer patients to homeopaths and six psychotherapist-homeopaths. The results are presented in the form of individual portraits verified by the co-researchers, themes, and synthesis.

Analysis reveals that most co-researchers had significant personal experiences with homeopathy prior to recommending it to patients. Thirty-nine descriptions of improvements in patients are identified including the opening of heart energy, touching the life-force, and returning to essence. Patients are more able to disidentify with their problems, be open to feelings, experience the world as friendly, be decisive, report more dreams, move to deeper work, and stay connected. Medications can be reduced, and therapy is often shorter. These descriptions indicate a movement in the subtle body that is supportive of the individuation process.

Details to be considered by therapists are explored including transference implications, explaining homeopathy, consultation with homeopaths, effect on dreams, medications, and understanding remedy pictures. Complications with antidoting, difficulties finding remedies, dosages, serious mental illness, limits of practice, and legal issues are also discussed. Homeopathy provides a new perspective on therapy and introduces a wholistic, empathic energy into the therapeutic field. The metaphors and archetypal nature of homeopathic remedies are useful in depth psychotherapy.

This research indicates that homeopathy can work synergistically with psychotherapy to move patients towards greater awareness and wholistic functioning. Co-researchers emphasize the need for more education about this alchemical partnership that is in alliance with the natural world.

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<<link 728852371>>

Twenty-five years ago, the philosopher Colin Radford posed a philosophical riddle, which he considered insoluble: in order to feel emotions toward someone, it went, one has to believe in the existence of an object of these feelings. Because we know fictional characters not to exist, when we experience emotions toward them, we are caught in irrationality. Some responses to Radford's riddle have seen fictional characters as tools for make-believe which possess no ontological status ( de dicto ), and others have attributed some kind of ontological reality to characters ( de re ). The current study takes a de re position and is, above all, an argument for the centrality of the imaginal within psychology, literature, and life generally. It questions the assumptions of Radford's riddle by arguing that we are mistaken when we define imaginal creatures negatively in terms of actual people and that we may more profitably see actual people are fictions. We have habitually made a dualism of reality and fiction—including characters in novels, the people in dreams or medieval paintings, and images emerging in psychotherapeutic transference. However, as a historically unfolding species, we have, in other ways, begun to move out of the largely non-participating consciousness we have inhabited since the Enlightenment and into a consciousness of imaginal participation with phenomena. In so doing, we acknowledge the perspectival, en-storied nature of our lives, the way actual life rests upon a foundation of day-dreaming and imagination, and we sense the poverty of subject-object modes of thinking and of atomistic cosmology. As radical individualism is relativized, we see that we attain consciousness only within intersubjective fields, wherein actual people and imaginal creatures co-imagine and co-create one another. This study is in part an argument for seeing the imaginal as autonomous, and for the recognition that we participate in the imaginal directly, but perspectivally, and is an examination of foundations for finding the narrative voice of psychological research.
<<link 1674443541>>

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In this comparative study on how anger is displayed by clients in sandplay, the origins of anger are examined from the perspectives of the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud, the school of object relations formulated by Melanie Klein and furthered by Winnicott and Otto Kernberg, and the theory of self-psychology developed by Heinz Kohut. The affect of anger is also explored from the perspective of Carl G. Jung's "analytical psychology." Following Jung's theory of the archetypes of the collective unconscious, this study includes a hermeneutic analysis of the archetypes of Kali, Pele, Ares (war god), Achilles (warrior), and the crocodile, all known to be used in sandplay work that represents anger and its complexity. Post-Jungian theory on development drawn from Jungian theory by Erich Neumann and Michael Fordham is compared in relation to anger. Donald Kalsched's theory on trauma, the archetypal defenses, and aggression is explored in relation to anger. The writing of several sandplay practitioners is reviewed in relation to understanding how anger is displayed in sandplay through representations of symbols and archetypes of the collective unconscious, demonstrating how the psyche's symbolic language reveals anger, rage, and aggression in sandplay and allows its transformation.

A phenomenological approach was taken regarding the interviews on the emotion of anger conducted with four sandplay therapists in order to gain an understanding of the lived experience of their clients' display of anger in sandplay. The analysis of data from therapists' reports of their clients' use of the symbols, archetypes, and patterns in their sandplay work reveals a bridge between Freud's theories and defense mechanisms, Klein's object relations, and Jungian analytical psychology. A pillar of this bridge is the concept that the developmental phases of clients and their anger, rage, and aggression are displayed in the symbols, archetypes, and defense mechanisms they use in sandplay. These same symbols and archetypes of fairy tales, dreams, and myth are the original prototypes of human behavior.

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<<link 736656831>>

Michelangelo's painting of the Divine Patriarch transmitting creative authority to Adam is an icon which has affected Western consciousness for centuries. Made in God's image, programmed by political, religious, and cultural traditions to primacy, man is ordained co-creator. Women, limited to a submissive and sacrificial role, have supported male achievements. The literature documents damage done to women's self-esteem and creativity through the dominance of patriarchal concepts and God-images. Despite these handicaps, some women are brilliant in their creative achievements. In a phenomenological study of the relationship between God-concepts and personal authority, five exceptional women were interviewed in-depth. Emilie Conrad-Da'oud, Mary Vernon, Helen Palmer, Pauline Oliveros, and Lilias Folan agreed to be known by name and beliefs. Their accomplishments span the fields of dance and movement, painting, psychology, musical composition, and yoga. Four of the five are published authors, all are teachers of widespread reputation, all support themselves through their work. Each was asked questions about how her spirituality was shaped by early influences, how she envisions "God," whether she sees herself as an authority, and what connections she makes between authority and creativity. How each woman circumvented the impact of patriarchal God-concepts and wrestled with parental legacies to claim her own creative authority was the primary focus of this study. The God-images of these women are rich, varied, and non-traditional. Initial reactions to the notion of authority were primarily negative, relating to dominance or authoritarianism. However, dialogue during each interview clarified the intended use of the term "authority" as self-referential, resulting in agreement. All participants exude confidence in their own creative process and in their allegiance to inner guidance. Their spiritualities are so intertwined with their creative processes that the two can be said to be identical.
<<link 728970131>>

The purpose of this study is to research and reveal how women mentor. The prevailing literature on mentoring addresses this practice from the traditional patriarchal perspective and fails to acknowledge the unique qualities and practices that women bring to the mentoring relationship. This failure to specifically mention females represents mentoring as a male or gender-neutral experience. The presumption appears to be that mentoring is practiced the same by both genders. My research indicates otherwise. It is my intention with this work to make known some of the ways that women mentor so that these can be incorporated into the greater practice of mentoring for the benefit of all those involved. To this end, I interviewed five women, each of whom has approximately 20 years' experience as a mentor. The methodology used for this study is the phenomenological inquiry, a research method that seeks to understand the lived experience of those interviewed. A sample this small admittedly has it limitations. However, from my interviews with each woman, seven core themes that emerged were true for all the participants, and have validity as such. From the findings of my research with these five women, it appears that relationship is central; the primary function of the mentor is to provide support; most of the characteristics of the mentor are similar to those of the parent; at its core, mentoring is a spiritual activity; there exists a shadow side to mentoring; and the benefits derived are mutual for mentor and mentee. Since the literature does not adequately address this issue, I present a brief review of the role of relationship in female development as conceptualized by four major psychological theories—psychoanalytic, Jungian, self psychology, and feminist theories. Highlights from these theories are integrated into the discussion of the summaries of my interviews with each of the participants. The findings of this research and the implications they have for the practice of clinical psychology from a depth perspective are significant in that they indicate that these women experience mentoring in a substantially different way than it is conceptualized and reported in the literature and in society. To subject females to the standards and values that are represented by traditional psychological theories is to invalidate and deny females' lived experiences. Therefore, to avoid perpetuating the myth that male experience can legitimately stand for all experience, thus denying and devaluating female's experiences, it behooves the clinician, and all those working with females, to be aware of the values and standards that reflect the lived experience of females and to honor them as valuable, in and of themselves. This applies to mentoring and to life.
<<link 726339771>>

Despite the fact that marital dissolution has become increasingly common, our culture continues to exhibit a great deal of ambivalence about the phenomenon of divorce. This is particularly true with regard to the experience of grief. Consequently, there is little if any validation given to the need to mourn in the aftermath of divorce. Yet, despite this lack of societal recognition, and the concomitant pressures to disregard the grief process altogether, there are those individuals who are willing to enter the depths and allow themselves the full measure of their grief. Rather than circumventing the pain of their loss, these individuals choose the narrow road and go through a time of suffering. As a result, they would say their divorce was catalyst for personal transformation. This study seeks to illuminate the means by which this occurs and, more specifically, to answer the question, How does grief in divorce transform? Beginning with an examination of the historical context of divorce, this study also reviews the existing literature of divorce and its myriad facets: attachment, love, loss, and grief. This, in turn, sets the backdrop for the heart of this investigation: the detailed portraits of seven women who, as non-initiators, did not seek their divorce, but were nonetheless transformed by the experience. These stories, when combined with my reflections, serve to illuminate the process whereby grief can act as an alchemical process for lasting change. What these stories show is that the willingness fully to grieve the end of a marriage can result in a new experience of life, one that is deeper and richer in tone and texture. It is a process that begins with an intensive period of self-examination, followed by changes in relationships to self and others, and that finally culminates with a new understanding of oneself and one's place in the universe.
<<link 727914601>>
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The purpose of this dissertation was to examine in depth the lived experience of women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Six subjects were chosen who were very different personally and in their experience of the disease. The work was specifically concerned with the meaning they made of their illness and whether having it could ever be perceived as a gift. First, there is a general overview of the disease which includes information relative to occurrence, diagnosis, treatment, coping and assimilation. It is followed by a discussion of meaning and its relationship to illness, the breast, a cancer diagnosis and cancer of the breast. Narratives then tell the stories of the six subjects. The narratives, written following the transcription of taped interviews with the subjects, were shared with the subjects prior to inclusion in the dissertation making this an interactive approach consistent with its phenomenological premise. The dissertation suggested that the experience of breast cancer led to some measure of transformation. Subjects expressed attitudinal changes related to the meaningfulness of life. Transformational changes ranged from alterations in relationships to, in one case, a radical shift in how the subject dealt with anger. The work speaks to the depth psychological perspective that transformation occurs outside as well as inside the consulting room and to the relationship between life-threatening illness and meaningful life changes.
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<<link 765942161>>

It has been estimated that approximately 20% of Mexico's total population has emigrated to the U.S. in fewer than 100 years. This in turn has not only affected the changing demographics in the U.S.; it is slowly changing America's collective psyche. As more and more people from other countries are making the decision to come to work and live in the U.S., we in the U.S. are being exposed to new ways of perceiving and understanding. Exploring in an in-depth manner the experience of the "foreigner" is a vital step in the development of a space from which this new way of perceiving and understanding our world may be experienced. In so doing, it is this researcher's hope that our consciousness may be raised and that in the end we find the image of the "foreigner" imbedded in our own psyche, as simply another part of ourselves. The experience of someone who decides to cross a man-made boundary, was the focus of my study viewed from a depth psychological perspective. All of the participants had been living in the U.S. for fewer than 5 years and have been branded with the stigmas of being "undocumented" and "illegal." Given the fear of deportation, the participants demonstrated great courage in participating in this study and discussing their life-altering journeys across a man-made marker called the border. The material from the interviews was divided by themes shared among the participants' stories; a conclusion synthesized the material from a depth psychological perspective. The participants' process of individuation, a consequence of the journey taken, was also discussed.
<<link 1514958471>>

This dissertation is a theoretical study using a hermeneutic methodology. It has a chronological structure that begins with portraiture of melancholy in the time of ancient Greece, and moves with these images of melancholy as they change and alter through history, touching on medieval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, and images during the Industrial Revolution where melancholy was turned into depression, and ending with contemporary interpretations of depression. An historical penchant for both revering and abhorring depression and melancholy is revealed. 

In exploring the ambivalent and changing images of depression through history, we witness a sense of the fictions inherent in our current images of depression. The dissertation then argues that since depression and melancholy are indeed generalized historically and globally, they are imbued with the values of transformation and articulate profound human loss—a loss of an animated self in an animated world. The images of depression have a desire to be told. 

Depression, as we see throughout this discourse, can be viewed as multiple elements of human experience that are transforming through time. From this perspective this work attempts an amplification of depression and develops two main points: one is to articulate depression as a sense of absence of imagination, a poverty of images, while the other is to imagine depression as transformative in nature and belonging to the inherent natural core of human Beingness. Through our exploration we also find that depression is linked with our primordial sense of death and annihilation and discover that images of death and annihilation invade and thwart our experiences of therapeutic imagining of depression. Likewise, as we shall see, annihilation is deeply connected with the oneness experience. 

It is argued that depression is entirely relevant to human experience and that there is an urgent need for interpretation over intervention, especially in light of psychology concretizing affective states into the domain of the medical model and thus mental disease. Most notably, we will indicate that rather than concretize and pathologize depression, it is imperative that we imagine into depression, allowing it to imagine into us.
<<link 764773001>>

This study examines how crime scene analysts, or criminal profilers, tacitly apply a synthesis of Jungian interpretations of active imagination and countertransference. This work clarifies this construct, countertransferential active imagination or imaginal work , through the archetypalist concept of image . The first half of the study is an extensive review of Jungian writings and subsequent archetypalist formulations. This research also reviews autobiographical texts by two criminal profilers, John Douglas and Robert Ressler, proposing historical and literary antecedents for their practices. The second half examines several methodological questions. Beyond a fundamentally hermeneutic approach, a novel formulation is developed, rhizomic research , which values declaring over answering questions. Utilizing these methodologies, the author presents sexual homicide perpetrators as having disorders of imagination, imagopathy , seen through imaginal deficiencies such as failure of empathy, rigid fantasies, and unresolved projections. This research challenges assumptions that individuation is purely healthful. Individuation powers psychic activity and thus powers the dynamics of sexual homicide. Consciousness, in the transcendent function, transforms individuating images into ethical products. Imaginal work challenges practitioners to achieve transcendent functions to imagery. Perpetrators of sexual homicide are unable to form such insight after projecting untenable material onto victims. Therefore, criminal profilers are left to effect insight using active imagination on violent crime scene imagery. This work posits that sexual homicides are irrational shadow images in rationalistic modern culture. Consequently, profilers bridge conscious and unconscious for both inexorably splintered killers and the culture at large. This study details risks for profilers stemming from the unacknowledged imaginal nature of profilers' procedures. These dangers include pathological crime scenes imagery overlaying profilers' own individuating imagery. Furthermore, because neither theoretical cohesiveness nor a frame of practice supports profilers' imaginal efforts, vicarious traumatization and burnout may result. This study proposes several analytical practices to protect profilers from psychic infection. For imaginal practitioners, this work opens further vistas of application. For those less familiar with imaginal work, this study can be a primer of this rich area of clinical practice. Finally, this dissertation, which offers innovations to both analytical psychology and crime scene analysis, is designed to provoke further research into imaginal criminal profiling.
<<link 1481671781>>

Western culture is in the midst of a paradigm shift that encompasses all aspects of life, and the future of that life. This shift involves the reemerging feminine archetype, and the need for the integration of feminine and masculine attitudes. The need for integration of the masculine and feminine principles spans personal, cultural, and collective spheres. This research project recognizes the loss of the feminine attitude as a natural consequence of a necessary evolution of consciousness; however, this evolution has resulted in a one-sided patriarchal mind-set which favors the masculine and undervalues the feminine, resulting in their imbalance in all facets of life. The study suggests that numinous experiences, including visions, dreams, and synchronistic events, are vehicles and expressions of the feminine conveying messages alerting the individual or collective to existing imbalances. Furthermore these messengers are autonomous archetypal energies mediated by a transpersonal guide, the Self. 

Three visions in which images of the feminine pattern are manifest are explored. The meaning conveyed by the feminine's archetypal presence in these numinous encounters is turned through active imagination, personal reflections, cultural-historical amplification, and archetypal amplification of images. The study traces the feminine pattern's first expressions through her evolution from the ancient goddess culture forward, noting her gradual marginalization and repression, the consequences for Western culture, and the dawning of her reemergence. An assessment of the impact of these factors on clinical and depth psychologies is made. Opportunities presented to these professions via the feminine attitude are explored.
<<link 727914561>>
<<<
Couples come to therapy desperate to save their marriages. The most important adult relationship of their lives is in turmoil. Possibly more than any type of therapy, marital therapy begins with a specific goal. The partners want the problems of their marriage to be fixed. Much of marital therapy has focused on just that, fixing marital problems. Solution-oriented approaches to ones' problems, including those of relationships, all too often ignore the depth and soulful qualities of the symptoms and conflicts. This study has proposed that by looking into the symptoms and conflicts of the relationship through images, imaginings, and imagination the relationship is deepened and renewed. The purpose of this study has been to explore the use of images, imaginings, imagination, and the imaginal in marital therapy. Imagination is an essential element of love relationships. Through the sharing of their inner most lives Eros comes to lovers. In the sharing of images and imaginings of the conflicts as well as the joyful aspects of the relationship, partners experience the deeper aspects of themselves and each other. Issues which are threatening to each partner's ego when viewed from a literal, content perspective bring curiosity and empathy when viewed through images and imagining. Partners can begin to see themselves and the other with understanding, renewed affection, and emotional closeness. Through this sharing there is a valuing of each partner's inner reality. What emerges is a deepening and often, a transformation of the relationship. This study has examined imagination, active imagination, and the imaginal as viewed through the eyes of depth psychology. Theories of imagination and the imaginal which have previously been limited to individual therapy have been expanded to relationship therapy. Excerpts of therapy sessions have been offered to elaborate and illustrate the use of images, imaginings, and imagination with couples in the therapy room. Specific techniques to facilitate the use of images and imagination with couples have been explored.
<<<
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<<<
<<link 732908161>>

This dissertation is a theoretical study that uses a hermeneutic method to examine possibilities inherent in the phenomenon of long life for ever growing numbers of people. The implications for the individual and for society are profound. Whether the trend to a large population of elders bodes good or ill for the nation as a whole depends entirely on how we age. The study examines psychological factors thought to be related to vitality in aging and necessary for the development of wisdom throughout a lifetime. Over the course of the last several centuries, industrialization has robbed elders in the west of their once valued place in the community. While rapid advances in science and technology have made longevity possible for a great many people, they have, at the same time, contributed to the obsolescence of the older members of society and widened the gulf between young and old. Archetypal psychology posits a relationship between such historical events and the movement of the soul. Currently two phenomena appear to be calling attention to what James Hillman describes as a split in the senex/puer archetype. One is the unprecedented number of older persons in our throw-away society, another is the enormity of outrages committed on and by our children. The evolutionary consequences inherent in such events demand that we pay attention and that we attempt a conscious response. The dissertation examines both personal and societal implications of the split and proposes a direction for reparation. A resurgence of the conjoined positive puer and positive senex may develop in the individual through the process which Jung termed "individuation" that is, confronting and integrating the personal shadow, and sustaining the tension of opposites. In addition, I propose that re-imagining and re-integrating certain qualities inherent in the child archetype will fuel the imagination and broaden the potential for relationship in later life. One image discussed is that of the child/hero. Heroic energy is currently out of favor in a society that equates the hero with the warrior. Yet, in its true form, the heroic ideal is a portrait of the soul's journey through life. Regaining this heroic ideal could prove invaluable to those who desire to live the whole of life fully and creatively. The idea that humans are intended by nature to retain qualities of youth throughout life has been proposed by Ashley Montagu and others. The dissertation examines certain of these characteristics, and attempts to suggest ways that the adult personality can retain or revive them in age appropriate ways. Such characteristics are then associated with the attainment of wisdom. The restoration of wisdom as valuable and attainable could shape a new, much needed role for older adults. Wisdom, currently recognized only by its abscence in the culture, is a worthy subject for further study and an equally worthy goal for the aging population.
<<link 727696361>>

Archetypal psychology posits imagination, poesis, and a mythical sensibility as the basis of therapy. It relies upon the knowledge of philosophers, theologians, artists, and novelists to deepen and broaden our connection to ourselves, to enrich and nourish our soul, and to allow for imagination and fantasy to be expressed. It is the purpose of this dissertation to introduce the work of the French philosopher and novelist Michel Tournier to archetypal psychologists and to demonstrate the numerous parallels between his literary works and James Hillman's theoretical writings. Michel Tournier's writings take us to the dark places of humanity and the depths of the human soul. They touch upon the night-side of life and upon primordial experiences, describing side by side the sublime and the gruesome, the erotic and the perverse. Tournier's stories describe with a rich and variegated language what therapists often encounter in the therapy room: the ambiguous features of life, people's struggles, human conflicts, and unbearable situations. His imaginative and visionary writings, his incisive "dark" eye offer therapists invaluable insights about the human heart. His literary body of work, suffused as it is with arts, science, philosophy, religion, history, mythology, alchemy, culture, and a heightened sense of aesthetics embodies the many concepts of archetypal psychology presented by James Hillman. As a counterpoint against the one-sidedness of theoretical, empirical, and scientific studies and Hillman's concerns about the three style of denial of nihilism, nominalism, and transcendence prevalent amongst psychological circles, the study presents three initiatory processes. Initiation in mythopoesis and images, initiation through words and language, and initiation in the underworld represents major themes found in Tournier's work. In each initiation, images and the mythical are valued over facts and concepts, poetic speech over labels and arguments, entry into the darkness of the underworld over a quest for peak experiences. In each initiation, the world of oral tradition where ambiguous images convey power, where words carry life, and where the chthonic realms of shadows irradiate light are explored. The study's central aim is to enlarge our emotional repertoire, educate our imaginative function, and develop an archetypal sensitivity.
<<link 730351541>>

The intention of this study was to thoroughly understand the psychological significance of the human relationship to what has familiarly been called angel experience. When I began this research, I found that scholars understood the universality of the transcendent human experience and its psychological significance. My goal in this work was to clarify our understanding of how the angel experience involves psychological functions that are both transcendent and mediating. The method utilized in researching this theoretical dissertation involved the reading and review of works pertaining to the areas of the 6,000 years of recorded history of the angel, the angel as archetypal image, the psychological significance of the angel as archetypal image, and the healing influences of the angel as archetypal image. These areas of research became the focus chapters and body of the paper. The discussion of the 6,000 years of recorded history of the angel revealed particular characteristics about the angel. Angels appear in many cultures and religious traditions as intermediaries and messengers. The discussion of the angel as archetypal image revealed the universal experience of the angel as a portal to the numinous and miraculous. The discussion of the psychological significance of the angel as archetypal image revealed that through a Jungian and archetypal interpretation, this symbol represents the transcendent function of the psyche and the mediating function on the ego/Self axis. Given these psychological functions and the participation of the psyche's autonomous healing functions, a discussion of vibrational theories and healing energies followed. It was proposed that there may be correlation between vibrational energies and psychological, spiritual healing that is provided through the personification of the healing function experienced in angels.
<<link 765916121>>

This dissertation is a theoretical study using a hermeneutic methodology. It has a chronological structure that begins with Freud, moves through Klein, selected Kleinians, and Bion, and ends with contemporary reconsiderations of the death instinct. Freud conceives the death instinct as a biological drive of life to return to the inanimate. The life instinct defends against this self-destructive drive of the death instinct both by projecting it externally as aggression and by binding it internally in sadomasochistic forms. Freud links an array of clinical phenomena—the repetition compulsion, sadomasochism, melancholia, obsessional neuroses, trauma, the negative therapeutic reaction, aggression, and self-destructiveness—to the workings of the death instinct. Klein and Bion and their followers emphasize the significance of the death instinct in psychological development and in trauma, psychosis, and character disorders. The question of whether there exists in human beings a force of primal destructiveness is a central question raised by Freud's concept of a death instinct. The intent of the present study is not only to evaluate how the death instinct relates to the question of human destructiveness but also to explore embedded meanings in the death instinct that reveal disowned or shadow elements of psychic life in psychoanalytic theory. Freud's formulations of the death instinct and its Nirvana principle were instigated by reflections on the repetition compulsion that lends a haunted, daemonic, or fateful quality to our lives. This study proposes that the repetition compulsion, and thus the idea of a death instinct, has an archetypal basis in the myth of the eternal return and that Freud's linking of the repetition compulsion to a death instinct is an intuitive but unrealized mythologizing. The death instinct is divested of the rational, scientific claims Freud so persistently makes for it, and is allowed to reconstitute in the domain of metaphysics and myth. On the basis of ideas from the works of Eliade, Jung, and Hillman, it is suggested that in Freud's concept of a self-annihilatory death instinct, the Nirvana principle stands for an unattainable spiritual life that is repressed as death.
<<link 726124371>>

In 1932, C. G. Jung and J. W. Hauer presented a seminar series on the psychology of Kundalini yoga. Throughout these lectures, Jung used Kundalini yoga symbolism to extend the symbolic range of his analytical psychology. He and Hauer also discussed many concepts from Indian philosophy. Some of their comments have been criticized for misinterpreting Kundalini yoga. Others have raised controversy, especially Jung's many warnings about dangers to Westerners who attempt yoga practices. Using a dialogic, hermeneutic method, this study compares Jung's commentaries about Kundalini yoga with a Kundalini yoga practitioner's perspective. To help bridge these disciplines, it addresses the following research questions: (1)&nbsp;How does personal transformation guided by analytical psychology resemble or differ from personal transformation in Kundalini yoga? (2)&nbsp;What controversies have been raised by Jung's commentaries and interpretations of Kundalini yoga texts? (3)&nbsp;How did these controversies arise from personal, cultural, and practice perspectives? (4)&nbsp;Can some of these controversies be settled? (5)&nbsp;What insights or wisdom does each of these disciplines contribute to the other? To answer these questions, the hermeneutic discipline guides the researcher in exploring the cultural and historical perspectives of analytical psychology and Kundalini yoga. It identifies issues raised by Jung's critics and presents the evolution of his psychology and its core concepts throughout his mature career. A depth of context is created by addressing (a)&nbsp;Jung's relationship with Indian spirituality, (b)&nbsp;his individuation construct, (c)&nbsp;a cross-cultural review of subtle body symbolism and its evolution, and (d)&nbsp;Kundalini yoga as described by practitioners. This study concludes by presenting findings in response to the research questions and suggesting topics for other studies, including a survey of current methods for measuring human bio-fields, and creation of a subtle energy model of psychological transformation.
<<link 1793098531>>

<<<
This study explores the process of individuation in the lives of eight research participants who have identified as being orphans. Individuation, defined as the psychological process of becoming who one was meant to be, is an archetypal experience as evidenced through its timeless and universal qualities. The data derived from semistructured interviews with the orphans is analyzed using the Giorgi method of thematic exposition.

Jungian psychology serves as the primary hermeneutic, addressing both the spiritual and material realities of development subsequent to the orphans' experience of primal abandonment. This theoretical position is supported by psychoanalytically based attachment and selfobject theories of development which articulate the interpersonal dynamics of early relational trauma. The incarnational model of development integrates the transpersonal and personalistic manifestations of the orphan archetype and its role in individuation in a manner pertinent to developmental issues in clinical depth psychology.

The findings suggest that the underlying structure of the orphan's individuation process reflects the mythical hero's journey. Motifs of separation, initiation, and return provide the principle framework for personalistic developmental issues characterized by difficulties with self-worth and self-direction, affecting the orphans' ability to form lasting relationships and to embody their potential in the world. The underlying heroic potential of the orphan archetype, however, as manifest in the orphans' determination and resilience, as well as the experience of a spiritual connection with a higher power in the orphans' darkest hour, aided their survival against the greatest of odds.

From a clinical perspective, it is suggested that the orphans' experiences of literal and emotional abandonment have contributed to their narcissistic vulnerability, those disorders of the self so defined by self psychology. It is the researcher's belief that early attachment and relational trauma is etiologically significant in the course of many major psychiatric and character disorders, but remains diagnostically imperceptible to clinicians who are not trained to assess it. The findings of this study contribute to the clinical psychologist's understanding of early loss, facilitating the diagnosis and treatment of those predisposed to orphan psychology.

<<<
<<link 728368901>>

This study involves five individuals whose Jewish parents emigrated from Nazi Europe to the United States, leaving parents and family behind—many of whom were later deported and murdered in the camps of the Holocaust. These five individuals were born from the ashes of the Holocaust and their inheritance is one of light—the present—and shadows—the horrors of the past. The determination and courage of their parents to move forward in a new life modeled for the children an unspoken mandate to live in the present and to bury the shadows of the past. To live in the present meant that the lives that were lost were not to be mourned, and tears could not be shed. That their grandparents remained behind and that their parent survived Hitler's Third Reich had a powerful and unconscious impact on each of the individuals who were interviewed. They continued their parents' determination to live in the present by dissociating themselves from the shadow of mourning and tears, thereby protecting their parents and themselves from the depths of feelings of loss and death, from the pain of buried feelings. Common themes and phrases emerged from the interviews in this phenomenological study. "Living in the light" meant for the participants little acknowledgment of dark feelings and the careful collusion with the silence of the parents. The "archetype of the survivor," meant life lived in a present without a past and without tears. "Burying the shadow," meant denied feelings of shame and guilt. "Choosing life" brought the participants to their own separation from their parents' past and to the potential emergence of their individual selves. Each participant explored the personal and archetypal themes of his or her childhood and adult life. Each wove a rich tapestry that intertwined the threads of the past, the present, and a future not dared dreamed of by their parents, a future that can now include tears from the past and for the past.
<<link 1486384001>>

This dissertation is a theoretical study with a hermeneutic methodology. The myths of the descents of Inanna and Persephone are used to illustrate the theme of "Initiation Through Trauma" and to explore the differences between voluntary and involuntary descents of women during midlife and adolescence, respectively. This depth psychological study is grounded within developmental, attachment, feminist, and Jungian perspectives. It holds a both/and approach to inner, intrapsychic, and symbolic aspects of trauma and environmental, interpersonal, and literal aspects of trauma, to archetypal feminine and feminist critique, and to analytic and synthetic viewpoints. The study considers psychological themes of coming to terms with loss, separation, violence, suffering, death, and initiation into a more comprehensive identity. Inanna is an image of a mature, acculturated woman who voluntarily makes her descent. Persephone, on the other hand, provides an image of descent through trauma and victimization. 

Inanna is an image of a heroine and Persephone of a victim. Inanna's descent depicts the basic archetypal pattern of initiation at midlife—an initiation out of culture in order to face her dark sister who represents the marginalized underworld feminine. Persephone's rape and abduction, on the other hand, represent an initiation into patriarchal culture and the patriarchal underworld. The study determined that Persephone's story is not about healing but instead presents a problem: the traumatic separatio from the feminine for girls in patriarchy and the subsequent traumatic coniunctio with the undeveloped masculine and resulting abduction by an inner destructive complex. Inanna's story is not specifically about trauma but about inner calling and developmental necessity. Inanna's myth was found helpful in building up a stronger sense of a feminine Self, whereas Persephone's myth was found most helpful in the identification and deconstruction of the patriarchal complex and victim identity. Inanna's myth is progressive and furthers women's unfolding. The Persephone myth is regressive and reflects historically from where we have come. Persephone's story is a dream of the patriarchal imagination. (With trauma, a person loses the ability to dream her own dream. Healing occurs when she can dream her own dream into being.)
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<<link 727914461>>
<<<
Shelley's mythical drama, Prometheus Unbound , written in 1820, anticipated developments in modern psychology, including an understanding of how multiple components within the psyche interact. Shelley indicated that the characters in this drama represented different operations within the human psyche. In Jung's subjective theory of dream interpretation, each character represents a different aspect of the psyche. Jung applied this method to archetypal literary analysis, and this study followed his precedent. Previous literary critics have attempted to interpret Shelley's drama according to the author's indications, but have failed to consistently identify all the characters as operating within the confines of the mind. The issue Shelley depicted in the play was how the psyche can liberate itself from the tyranny of one component, the superego. The captive protagonist, Prometheus (ego) had irresponsibly projected the authority for self-governing onto Jupiter (superego). This empowerment resulted in Jupiter's despotism. Through his own suffering, Prometheus learned to empathically imagine the psychic pain experienced by his tormentor, and renounced revenge. This development of compassion was the product of a psycho-spiritual reunion with his separated wife, Asia (anima). Through Asia, Prometheus connected with Demogorgon (shadow) in the unconscious, reassuming the authoritative energy he had previously devalued and repressed. This enabled Demogorgon to overthrow, but not destroy, Jupiter, who was transformed into serving a positive function as the figure of Wisdom, subordinate to Prometheus. The creative energies of the psyche were liberated and enabled to continue the process of individuation, fulfilling the psyche's potential to transform the external world. Shelley's valuable intuitive insight on how to heal a hostile split within the psyche through compassion for the dysfunctional component was validated by two clinical case studies. Therapy included the voice dialogue technique of Stone and Winkelman (1985), in which the clients assumed the roles of their controlling superegos. The therapist ascertained the motivation behind the superegos' behavior and suggested positive ways they could have their needs met while benefiting the client. The clients adopted an attitude of compassion and understanding toward their superegos and, like Shelley's Prometheus, transformed them from adversaries into advisors.
<<<
<<link 1436384901>>

This theoretical study integrates, through dialectical hermeneutics, the transpersonal theories of Carl Gustav Jung and Stanislav Grof regarding the structure and dynamics of the human psyche. The Jungian concept of the feeling-toned complex is shown to be equivalent to the Grofian concept of the system of condensed experience (COEX system). Various contemporary Jungian theories of the complex are compared to one another, some emphasizing object relations and others emphasizing self-organizing systems. Implications of similarities and differences between COEX systems and the various theories of complexes are explored. Grof's methods and goals of LSD psychotherapy are compared to methods and goals of analytical psychology, as described by Murray Stein, Edward Edinger, and Jung. The death rebirth cycle in Grof's Basic Perinatal Matrices is compared to the death-rebirth cycle in alchemy. Alchemical imagery found in psychedelic therapy sessions is explored, comparing Jungian interpretations of these symbols with interpretations by Grof. 

The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) has recently funded psychedelic research on human subjects using psilocybin and MDMA with promising results. Research into the benefits of psychedelic psychotherapy is becoming increasingly popular in Europe and more recently in the United States. Not only has psychedelic psychotherapy been valuable as a clinical tool, but also as a great aid in understanding the dynamics of the deeper layers of the human psyche, including the dynamics of the personal unconscious, the influence and activity of the archetypes, and the structure of the collective unconscious. This study bridges the gap between Jungian theory and theory from psychedelic research, so that each may benefit from the other as these theories advance.
<<link 2032822311>> | <<library 17303>>
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To enhance the effectiveness of therapy for Spanish-speaking individuals and families requires an understanding of the subtleties of language use and interpretive processing. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the interpretive process in bilingual psychotherapists as they reflected upon their lived experiences of providing therapy to this growing population. The study involved an exploration of a particular interpretive process related to dual language acquisitions, bicultural awareness, and specific linguistic behavior. The ways in which familial and cultural experiences influence the acquisition of first and second languages were considered to have an impact on therapeutic services. Interpreting meaning and values was believed to necessitate an integration of cross-cultural conscious and unconscious perceptions. To determine whether contextual and relational commonalities could be revealed in this sample of bilingual psychotherapists, the research utilized Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method.

The research found that language acquisition affected how psychotherapists came to relate emotionally and intellectually to the process of thought and speech in a specific language. Familial, educational, and social perceptions were major factors in their language processing. For all of the bilingual psychotherapists visiting or living in a Spanish-speaking environment contributed to their cultural awareness and sensitivity. A range of clinically relevant insights was gained in the study. Language-use strategies utilized by the psychotherapists included switching/shifting, speaking in Spanglish, dichos, and the use of visuals and metaphors. Bicultural, separate identities occurred when two languages were used in separate cultural contexts, resulting in feelings of disconnect or fragmentation. Also, a bilingual dual-self manifested as behavioral characteristics differentiated by cultural ties, social settings, and expectations.

The psychotherapists who participated in this study were not fully conversant with depth psychology as a theoretical perspective. Nevertheless, they often described their clinical procedures in terms of this orientation suggesting that depth psychologies are clinically applicable to Latino/Latina cultures. What needs to be explored further is how psychological theory and practice in English are interpreted into Spanish. An important finding of this study also suggested that mythological meaning and historical events derived from Latino/Latina cultures need to be integrated into psychology course studies.
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This study reports a heuristic hermeneutic investigation of imagination understood as illumination that flows from experience. The investigation is situated within the field of depth-oriented psychology, particularly analytical psychology. Conducted within the tradition of autobiographical studies, the investigation examines seven stories from the life of the researcher. Three questions stream throughout the work. The first question concerns the imaginal realm: "What do the stories tell about how the imaginal world works?". The second question concerns the figures within the mundus imaginalis : "What does the investigation of autobiographical stories tell us about the figures that live within the domain of imagination, particularly their differing levels of reality, their nature, their source, and their response to engagement?" The third question concerns therapeutic methodology for clinical psychologists: "What can this study offer that would enrich the clinical practice of psychotherapy?". The work is heuristic in that the author is not only both depicted and depicter in each story, but also the interpreter of these stories. The work is hermeneutic in that it seeks an original understanding of phenomena and calls for an expanded conception of interpretation. In particular, the investigation itself creates an alchemy in which hermeneutic philosophy and the unconscious create a transferential field within which the imaginal manifests (Romanyshyn, 1999). Findings include the discovery that the breakthrough of the imaginal realm is announced with a differentiated ego consciousness and paradoxically, at times, a muting of awareness. The study suggests that moments of breakthrough are not experienced in simple or normal time, but unfold and accrue in the relative dimension of space-time. It is argued that within the imaginal realm time does not possess urgency as it does in societal consciousness. The stories examined also disclose experiences in which a dual quality of ambiguity and depth emerges with multiple layers of hidden meaning unfolding as the hermeneutic analysis proceeds.
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This study addresses itself to the need for stories and myths in the lives of modern humans. Myth is seen as an organizing framework upon which the facts of our daily existence are organized into a psychologically meaningful narrative. Western society has chosen science as its organizing paradigm, driving mythic awareness into the collective unconscious. Jungian theory provides an understanding of the compensatory nature of the unconscious and of the ability of myth to offset the over-valuation of science. Science fiction serves the function of a modern myth, helping to balance and bridge the often-competing perspectives of science and myth. Science fiction builds upon science as a familiar and trusted paradigm, allowing us to range from this base into mythic areas that reconnect with the ancient energies of the archetypes. Jungian theory suggests that if opposites are held in tension long enough, a transcendence occurs in which the opposites are combined into a new paradigm which values each pole as an integral part of the greater whole. In this theoretical study I used the tool of Joseph Campbell's hero's journey to explore the television series Star Trek: The Next Generation ( TNG ) as a modern myth. The series as a whole was examined for compensatory psychological meanings. Four major characters representing the machine, the feminine human, the masculine human, and the god were examined archetypally. The model of the crew collectively as archetypal Hero emerged as a major theme, providing balance to the stereotypic Western notion of the lone hero on a solitary journey. TNG emerged as providing images of a human future in which science and myth are more integrated. Finally, the concept of the crew as Hero gave rise to a theoretical model for analytical work with projections.
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This work is concerned with uncovering soul as an aspect of the world through a phenomenological approach. Soul is defined here as imaginal phenomena, including dreams, memories, and fantasies as well as a participatory sense of consciousness in regard to the tangible world. The primary focus of the work involves deconstructing the modern, cultural dualism of the interior mind and the world as an object, and identifying a more primary quality of perception in which soul is experienced as an autonomous aspect of the lived body's world. The modern cultural dualism is contrasted with medieval consciousness which is used as an example of an alternative reality in which soul was still a matter of the world. Descartes' philosophy is then explored as the epitome of the shift into the modern, dualistic constructs. Emphasis is given to how Descartes' vision of things translated into an organization of consciousness for the properly socialized, modern individual. Depth psychology is then explored as a cultural artifact deeply entrenched in the modern dualistic constructs. Jung's psychology is analyzed from a philosophical orientation which illuminates his origins in Cartesian and Kantian premises. Overall, Jung's formal theories are shown to be deeply entrenched in the constructs and assumptions of modernity. In contrast, however, the work also shows how Jung, especially in his private life, struggled with the status of imaginal figures as fully autonomous presences in the world. Here, Jung's emphasis on the autonomy of the psyche is regarded as his greatest contribution. Merleau-Ponty's work is explored in an effort to deconstruct the cultural biases of the interior mind and the world as an object. Here, full participatory consciousness is recovered from under the modern constructs through his formulation of perception and the flesh. Likewise, the imaginal is seen to be an aspect of the world. Experiential exercises are used throughout that chapter to help the reader see this shift in perspective. Finally, clinical issues are discussed based on the radical reorientation provided by both Merleau-Ponty's ontology and Jung's emphasis on the autonomy of the imaginal presence.
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The figure of Khidr is well known and revered in the Islamic world. This wise stranger, who appears as a guide in the wilderness, is active in the Psyche but remains largely unidentified and unrecognized in Western culture. Khidr appears most definitively in a religious text, the Holy Qur'an, dated 622 CE, but the elements of the mythologem may be traced back to the Gilgamesh Epic. The mysterious message of this semi-divine figure has persisted in the collective because it has the qualities of what Jung termed a "living archetype." Using a hermeneutic method to discern the meaning hidden within the story of the enigmatic encounter between Khidr and Moses, it is possible to reveal the archetypal theme of the hero's journey, and from this, a metaphor for the process of individuation. Encounters are experienced with a sense of altered consciousness and a delay in comprehension of the event. The factors of obfuscation and confusion mark the proximity of a constellated archetype, a numinous content from the unconscious that heralds a reorganization of the self. The myth is a paradigm of relationships and psychological transformation, as is the alchemical metaphor. Khidr teaches acceptance of a higher, guiding principle that Depth Psychology refers to as the Self. New ways of knowing arise from the encounter of Khidr when ego overvalues the intellectual function.
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The first recorded battle after the Battle of the Little Big Horn between Plains Indians and the United States Army occurred in September of 1876. My great grandfather led an assault against the Plains Indians and acquired war trophies from the Northern Cheyenne Indians. These objects, held by my family for 122 years, were returned to traditional society members In the summer of 1998. This paper is a heuristic and hermeneutic interpretation, amplification and reflection of the consequences of 500 years of denied genocide, a depth psychological analysis of cultural trauma, primitive mental states, Coyote the Trickster, and group functioning. Our historical shadow includes our participation in the attempted genocide of Native Americans. Revisionism—the cunning assertion that memory is a deliberate lie—is hatred's ultimate obscenity (Bertman, 2000, p. 62). Our schools have traditionally taught both Indian and Euro-American children a revisionist view of our heroic conquest of the American West that denies that the Holocaust ever happened. Past and current local and international political policies support this delusion. Eigen (1993) writes that the intensity of belief attached to delusions indicates that the individual is trying to hold fast to a terrifyingly important dimension of his own story (p. 10). Our nation's tendency to idealize itself is a perversion resulting in unrealistic and unattainable attitudes that are related to our Society's affinity for killing Beauty. Collectively we continue to both idealize and denigrate Native Americans, perpetrating the same perversion on ourselves. The destructiveness of idealization is expressed through primitive mental states that no one fully outgrows. Primitive intrapsychic affect is linked to primitive expressions in the larger collective. Our lack of collective awareness of history and our ongoing attempts at cultural genocide are affecting us through a process of denial that splits us off from the violence of our past that is being expressed by our youth. Individual or collective perversion results in losses of human vitality and creativity that insult the nature of Soul.
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Long considered the archetype of the loyal, trusting friend and protector, the canine has rarely been the subject of psychological inquiry. There has been minimal contemporary research on human/animal biology, instincts, and our ancient lineage, but the analytical or depth branch of psychology has begun to explore that part of the human psyche. This study explored the question: What is the volunteer's experience of pursuing volunteer work with a companion animal?

A review of the literature associated with volunteerism, the history of the canine, and canines and their relationship with their human partners sets the stage for this inquiry. The review includes examining the topic from a depth psychological perspective, including archetypes, symbolism, mythology, and the importance of storytelling.

The participant-based, qualitative, phenomenological research methodology of the experience of volunteering with a companion animal is described, including the procedures for finding the research participants, conducting interviews, and the method for analyzing data. Phenomenological themes reflecting the experiences of the participants were identified and examined. The analysis revealed that the participants experienced significant meaningful experiences beyond the sense of altruism that was the original reason for volunteering.

Although a full understanding of the experience and meaning for each participant cannot be completely interpreted by someone outside that experience, through interviews, reading their words, and reflecting on their stories and dreams, common themes emerged for why the participants are willing to give their time and energy to work with their canine companions through the Creating Wellness Program.

The implications of the study and the data gleaned from the interviews and aggregate themes are discussed. For each participant there is (a) an introductory profile, (b) a participant's story, and (c) portions of the interview. The study findings are discussed and recommendations are made for future research.

This research indicates that there are significant benefits not only to patients but also to volunteers. The metaphors and archetypal references are useful in understanding depth psychology through our connection with our companion animals. Through reviewing the history of the human-canine bond and how this relationship affects the volunteer, it is hoped the body of research involving humans and their animal companions is expanded.
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The experience of trauma in 14 firefighters, police officers, and paramedics was explored through a self-administered questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The impact Somatic Experiencing ® (SE), a body-centered psychotherapy, was examined in those who continued in the study. Three psychological lenses were used to explicate the experience of trauma: archetypal, self psychological, and psychophysiological. A theme that emerged from the interviews is that the archetypal energy of the hero allows the emergency workers to do their jobs, which involve sacrifice, skill, strength, and courage. The role of emergency service workers provides a psychological armor which consists of assumptions about courage, helping, control, and protection. When a critical incident punctures the armor, making it difficult to stay in the role of rescuer, the workers are more likely to be traumatized. Several developmental themes emerged out of the interviews with the participants, whose childhood histories were strikingly traumatic and difficult. Working in the emergency services field can be seen as a recapitulation of derailments at mirroring and idealizing in childhood. The individuals in this study are more prone to develop PTSD not only because of their exposure to trauma but also because of their childhood histories. The experience of trauma was more deeply understood by exploring the psychophysiological symptoms which the participants were trying to manage consciously and unconsciously. These symptoms were categorized into the four constituents of a traumatic reaction: hyperarousal, constriction, dissociation, and freezing response in association with the experience of helplessness. SE provided dramatic relief from the symptoms of PTSD for all but one of the participants. Most of the participants reported an improved ability to deal with stress both on and off the job, and to love and nurture their significant others. Approximately 80% of the participants noticed a decrease in mood swings, anxiety, amnesia, flashbacks, or intrusive imagery, and an increase in the ability to concentrate.
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This study addresses the experience of knowing a life from within by using the Life-Study application of the Intensive Journal method of Ira Progoff (1983). To explore the experience of what Progoff calls the "Journal Trustee," the one who writes the journal in the name of a deceased creative person, the heuristic methodology developed by Moustakas (1990) was employed. This approach utilizes the concepts and processes of identifying with the focus of the inquiry, self dialogue, tacit knowing, intuition, indwelling, focusing, and internal frame of reference. The five phases of heuristic research are initial engagement, immersion, incubation, illumination, explication, and creative synthesis. Five participants (co-researchers) were selected from volunteers at two Life-Study workshops. They were interviewed with the open-ended question, "Describe as fully as possible your experience of knowing a life from within by using the Life-Study process." These interviews were analyzed, yielding individual depictions of the experience, a composite depiction of the experience, two exemplary portraits of the experience, and a creative synthesis of the experience. The findings, seen in the composite depiction of the experience, indicate that the process is one of selecting, comparing, identifying with the person, differentiating from the person, being mentored for the Journal Trustee's needs, having an inner relationship with the person, and experiencing changed perspectives. In addition to validating previous understandings of the benefits of Life-Study, this research showed that Life-Study provides psychic energy to do one's own psychological work. Life-Study provides the resources to describe and evoke both what Progoff calls the depth dimension (dreams, twilight imagery) and the meaning dimension (the sense of connection or disconnection with a sense of meaning beyond ourselves), techniques which are not always available in other approaches. Discussion included the experience of the autonomous psyche, imaginal dialogues, and identificatory processes.
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This theoretical study suggests that lectio divina , an ancient Christian form of contemplative prayer, attains to the depth psychological goal of illuminating unconscious material. From its origins in Greco-Roman antiquity, through its appropriation by Philo in the 1st century BC, to its fullest development within the Benedictine monastic tradition in the 6th century, lectio divina has given rise to a contemplative attitude, a result of which can be profound psychological insight which often proceeds from the unconscious. The study provides a foundation for interdisciplinary dialogue by focusing on several important points of intersection between Jung's theory, practice, and desired therapeutic outcomes and those of lectio divina. More than simply slowing the pace of therapy, a contemplative attitude as engendered by the practice of lectio divina encourages focused pondering and realized rumination of psychic material. In contemplation the individual attains many of the goals of psychotherapy: sharpening insights, steadying the emotions, finding the courage to confront previously unconscious material, and effecting psychic change. Additionally, lectio divina encourages engagement with the imagination by focusing attention on a significant text or image. The words or images may or may not be intentionally chosen to reflect components of one's specific psychic landscape, but chosen or not, the imagination is engaged, resulting in unconscious material being more readily accessible. To that end, four fundamental research questions are addressed: (1)&nbsp;What are the spiritual aspects of depth psychology as they relate to contemplative practice, and how is a contemplative attitude present in Jung? (2)&nbsp;What is the genesis, history, and original animating voice of lectio divina, and how is it situated within the broader history of Christian contemplative practice? (3)&nbsp;In general terms, how does the contemplative enhance the psychological? More specifically, how does the practice of lectio divina and the development of a contemplative attitude benefit Jungian psychological practice? (4)&nbsp;How does lectio divina encourage the illumination of unconscious material in a therapeutic setting?
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This hermeneutical, theoretical dissertation from a depth psychological perspective finds that sacrifice is a powerful transformational archetypal process at work in all our lives all the time whether or not we want it or are conscious of it. The study analyzes and integrates the literature of sacrifice from the fields of depth psychology, sociology, anthropology, and theology to identify and describe an archetype of sacrifice. Aspects of ancient sacrificial ritual are related to stages of initiation and depth psychotherapy process. Examination of the literature, images, sacred texts, myths, and stories of sacrifice finds archetypal themes: Sacrifice proves the existence of the gods/deity/archetype; creates the world; brings order out of disorder; bridges the sacred and profane; brings death-in-life and life-in-death; and transforms both interpersonally and intrapsychically. The archetype of sacrifice is enacted, and is itself an agent of action. Integration of Jungian, object relations, attachment, and affect theory with the understanding of sacrifice as an archetypal psychic process brings a depth psychological understanding of sacrifice in a theory of Self. Depth psychological concepts of splitting, projection, introjection, projective identification, and dissociation are investigated as the unconscious enactments of the archetype of sacrifice in service of defense of Self, initiated by Self. Pre-symbolic people using symbolic equation may unconsciously enact sacrifice by cutting or burning their skin or pulling their hair. The archetype is also constellated in service of Self through the transcendent function in the process of individuation and incarnation of Self. Ego suffers intense affect in the sacrificial processes of balancing a one-sided consciousness and forming the ego-Self axis. Using sacrifice as metaphor, depth psychotherapy provides a container to mediate the numinous archetypal energies and the suffering of the sacrificial transformative process. Depth psychotherapists who understand sacrificial dynamics: hear into patients' sacrificial stories and help hold the tension as ego is sacrificed to come into a new conscious orientation with Self; enable and support the suffering of ego as it struggles to become whole; pay attention to and redeem sacrifices of both therapist and patient in the moment in transference and countertransference engagements; and help develop a conscious sacrificial attitude.
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The archetypal field of gender in Western culture remains polarized into rigid classifications of what are considered male and female traits. My perception is that most, though not all, patterns of behavior and feeling attributed to the sexes are socially conditioned, not innate. Nevertheless, culturally defined qualities of what is labeled "feminine" and "masculine" continue to be assigned based on one's biological sex. This dissertation challenges that idea and looks at the resultant cost for half the human race. I propose that a woman experiences a unique dilemma in her quest for an authentic self because what is defined as feminine in our hierarchical society is considered subordinate to what is labeled as masculine. Looking through three lenses of gender identity—the body, the mind, and a woman's spirituality—this dissertation asserts that to survive assigned gender expectation, a woman's process of development is experienced differently than that experienced by a man. Today's constellation of the culture's ideal or stereotypical definition of what is feminine results in an identity for a woman as being "less than." Because gender is at the very core of our identity, to move towards individuation and realize her fuller potential, a woman must integrate this psychic reality, which has shaped her very being. This dissertation argues that the effects of historical suppression of the feminine, both personally and culturally, on a woman's maturation will affect her identity as a female. I propose that a woman's struggle for an authentic self is overlain with pervasive—even though at times invisible—restrictive concepts of what is feminine in a masculine-dominant culture. This theoretical study explores the complexities of gender and its relationship to a woman's individuation processes. Three areas of literature are reviewed throughout the study: (1)&nbsp;traditional depth psychology literature that speaks to gender identity, personality development, and individuation; (2)&nbsp;post-Jungian literature, especially the writings of feminist archetypal theorists, addressing the areas of disparity; and (3)&nbsp;contemporary psychological and sociological works by experts in the field of female development. The purpose of this review is to examine how depth psychology might bridge or at least give some new imaginings about how gender identity and the culture affect a woman's maturation. Utilizing a hermeneutic methodology and a mythopoetic perspective, this investigation moves away from defining gender through reductionism and seeks to examine the nature of the field of gender and its manifestation in the therapeutic setting. Gender is amplified by the lived experiences of women and through myths, fairytales, and dream images, as a search for the meaning of what it is like to be identified as a female in contemporary culture. The study concludes that the concept of the transpersonal dimensions of the psyche can create the opportunity to realize and transcend how we are affected by the archetypal fields of gender. Realizing the meaning of those fields can give us openings for resolving the conflicts women have in living in a hierarchical culture. In tending to our own myth, rather than unconsciously becoming fixated in the myth of the culture, we can return to a more authentic self.
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This qualitative inquiry utilized a weaving together of three distinct methodologies: phenomenological, heuristic, and hermeneutic approaches were combined for the delicate study of numinous experiences. The purpose of the study has been to discover and uncover, rather than to test; to honor personal spiritual experiences in their transformational context of human development. The inquiry's design focused on this question: How are personal spiritual experiences of the numinosum translated into changes of life-style which culminate in a move to the North Idaho Panhandle? A small sample of volunteer co-researchers were selected who, having experienced numinous dreams, visions, voices, and/or synchronistic events, moved to North Idaho as a result of these experiences. The data were collected in two phases. The first phase consisted of 2-hour, in-depth, taped interviews of 25 participants. From the 25 transcripts of the interviews, 7 were developed into detailed portraits of the co-researchers' stories. The second phase was a 1-hour interview approximately 1 year later and after the co-researchers had read the first draft of their portraits. Four specific research questions were posed which formed the framework of the inquiry. One of the most significant aspects of the study involved the question: How did these spiritual experiences relate to developmental and biographical aspects of the co-researchers' personalities? The portraits reveal that all the co-researchers' personal spiritual experiences took place in mid-life. This discovery was related to Jung's individuation process, rites of passage, alchemy, and to the new dispensation. The results of the study suggest that only those individuals whose egos have been forged in the fires of successful completion of mid-life crisis, viewed as a rite of passage, are adult enough to handle the transformative, direct experience of the Self required by the new dispensation and the evolution of consciousness which Jung envisioned as the age of Aquarius.
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
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In recent years, we have witnessed a growing interest among the analytic community concerning the denial of the body in psychoanalytically based therapeutic practices. As a woman who has experienced considerable healing through bodywork and as a classically trained therapist, I share the concern for the possible ways in which our analytic techniques still harbor the Cartesian mind/body split and perhaps too often eclipse the body's expressiveness with a persistent reliance on intellectual understanding. One of the most troubling indications that our techniques fail to fully integrate the body, and one that I have struggled with as a beginning therapist, is the longstanding taboo against direct physical contact between therapist and patient. It is believed that touch introduces not only unnecessary gratification, but problematic sexuality into the analytic situation, thereby contaminating a pure understanding of the patient's unconscious thoughts and motivations. With a tremendous respect for the wisdom of psychoanalytic technique and a sense of the consternation surrounding the issue, this study sought to explore two central questions: what have been the major forces contributing to such a longstanding, firmly entrenched taboo, and how have classically trained analysts, in practice for many years, reconciled their classical training regarding abstinence and neutrality with the inevitable moments which call for touch in every intimate human encounter. The first half of the study consists of a hermeneutic inquiry into the literature, which is a subjective garnering of what this researcher believed to be the most salient aspects of this issue. This includes a philosophical look at the way touch has been perceived in Western culture, an exploration of the very real Western confusion between eros and sexuality and the way this has influenced therapy, an overview of Freud's principles of abstinence and neutrality and the historical and current challenges to them, and an examination of the current thinking on touch in psychotherapy, including theoretical considerations, research, and guidelines. The second half of the study employs an heuristic method of in-depth interviews with six well-seasoned, classically trained analysts, which wonderfully evokes deep reflection on each of the participants' part concerning the major themes of the literature review. There is general agreement that psychoanalysis' greatest achievement is a type of emotional holding which becomes so containing that actual physical touch is rarely needed. That being said, there was also agreement that touch is a natural aspect of all intimate encounter, and not one of my interviewees said that he or she would never allow touch to occur in the analytic relationships. The marvelous tension of opposites which finally emerges is the delicate balance between judicious withholding in the interest of the patient's own inner growth and judicious provision in the interest of real human relating, both of which eloquently seek the creation of a corrective emotional experience.
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The literature on compulsive exhibitionism is redundant with biases, half-truths, contradictions, and misunderstanding. Findings indicate there is no one etiological basis nor a single behavioral pattern: the personality of the exhibitionist remains a mystery. The method of this study follows phenomenological and in-depth imaginative analysis of compulsive phallic exhibitionism in the psychological literature, its context in Western culture, its root in mythology, and its expression through an individual case study. It is phenomenological in that it looks to events themselves to speak to us, and takes into account the central importance of language in expressing a meaning which designates the immutable content of things. Exploring a shamanic prototype in which a "call" compels one into embodying the spiritually phallic generative power of nature, the compulsive exhibitionist—caught in the dualism of Western Culture which negates soul, nature, desire, and body—must create his own trance and ritual to discover and respond to this ancient calling. He is driven by the "sexual instinct" flooded with spiritual meaning, seeking erotic union of the lost part, the lost relation, the abandoned body. This work hopes to assist those with such pathos to find meaning, value, and connectedness through the suffering which appears to be its inscrutable path.
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Aiding Latinas to "claim" their stories, this phenomenological, hermeneutic study, focuses on the experience of migration. These women's stories were collected, woven into a single one, and then analyzed for salient and recurrent themes; what emerged was a picture of their journey. Theirs are stories of separation and loss, and of how, almost invariably, they began to adapt to their new environment. These women are proud of their roots and heritage and they keep a strong national identity stemming from their country of origin. They are Seekers who believe that the process of migration has enriched them, despite the hardships it entails. Although they often still feel as if they belong neither here nor there—in their country of origin—these women continue to search for home. The weaving of these Latinas' stories was then interpreted through the lens of the tale of The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Andersen. This tale, also a story of separation and loss, mirrors in many ways the immigrants' circumstances. It thus helped us place the Latinas' journey within a universal, archetypal context. The tale allowed us to view their stories against a mythological framework. Since the heroic quest portrayed by the tale of the Ugly Duckling is an archetypal pattern or blueprint of the process of individuation, seeing the immigrant's journey through this lens helps situate her personal experiences within the larger human journey. In light of this tale these women are seen as heroines in a quest, one that could, in the end, lead them to individuation: healing their wounds and returning them Home. Listening deeply to the stories Latinas tell about their migration journey, the clinician can help them make meaning of the suffering they may be enduring. By aiding them to "claim" their stories, the wounding that occurs by separating from the "mother-home" country is likely to be healed. Then, the tale of The Ugly Duckling can be used as a therapeutic tool, a metaphor for the journey of migration, allowing the story to teach the immigrant to trust the process and trust herself.
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Masks have a rich tradition in spiritual and healing rituals throughout cultures and times. This dissertation researches how the process of mask-making and mask-wearing can awaken archetypal forces within one's self and how the masks can be a tool in getting to know and express those archetypal forces. The author chose art as her research methodology for working with archetypal masks, arguing that doing research is not confined to the intellectual gathering of knowledge or the careful observation of others. In order to experience the power of mask-making and of wearing masks for herself, on her own body and psyche, she immersed herself in the creation of 12 archetypal masks and let herself be guided by the masks themselves throughout the process of getting to know them, accepting and integrating them as a part of herself. She experienced that masks invite us to try out new sides of ourselves, thus revealing a variety of archetypal forces which lie buried in the unconscious. In addition to giving a literature review relevant to her topic, she shares her personal and intimate journey with each of the 12 archetypal masks. The reader is given directions on how to make a mask. A series of photographs enables the reader to get a glimpse of the magic of masks and conveys the archetypal forces that have been brought alive in shape, body, and voice.
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This dissertation is an essay and assay of the ancient Greek mythological figure of Medea to determine the meaning of Medea for our time. The repertoire of Medea's performances span three millennia and are often anthologized, conflating ideological concerns of differing cultures without placing her within her resonating ancient Greek culture, or within the resonating contemporary contexts of her interpreters, who often see Medea as a woman who is a problem rather than one who has one. Therefore this essay and assay focus on Medea's performances in Hesiod and in Pindar, leading up to Euripides' The Medea of 431 BCE, so that we may say "no" to the lack of coherency and consistency aspects of Medea, and say "know" to the meaning of Medea. Using a theoretical and theatrical framework within a phenomenological, heuristic, and hermeneutic orientation, informed by the depth psychological methodology of amplification and symbol interpretation of C. G. Jung, allows Medea to "shine forth" from the perspective which is proper to Medea. 

Using the setting and concerns of theatre, dance, tragedy, and of the pathos of philia, along with the mythological backdrop of the myths of Phrixus and of Cadmus of Thebes reveals the meaning of the myth of Medea and Jason in the quest for the Golden Fleece: overcoming amphimetric strife and the autonomous complex, to act out of the self. This allows Medea to present herself as the hermeneuticist she is, who solves her problem, and thereby teaches us to discern the means for reciprocal and mutually beneficial relationship. 


.In this vein, Medea overturns the tautological designation of the "Medea complex." Instead, as the granddaughter of Helios, the Sun, with a steady penetrating gaze throughout, Medea shines light on the means to remedy the circumstances of her betrayal by Jason. By so doing, Medea contrives the escape from these circumstances. The symbol of this is her presentation as deus ex machin a, the goddess of contrivance and self-efficacy, but also the goddess, now mortal, who suffers the consequences of her actions.
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Formal examination of the phenomenon of the human-animal bond has drawn increasing attention in the professional literature during the past half century. This dissertation focuses on motivation and meaning in the lives of desert tortoise caretakers in the southwest United States and addresses a specialized subset of interspecies interactions: the examination of human-reptile relationships with specific focus on relationships between humans and desert tortoises. This author conducted a survey of desert tortoise caretakers in a subsection of the southwest United States with respondents of the study primarily located in southern Nevada. This author's almost lifelong relationship and soulful connection with desert tortoises is detailed in the Introduction. The Literature Review provides a brief overview of cross-cultural, historical, and contemporary views of pet-keeping practices which demonstrate the pervasive nature of pet-keeping and the human-animal bond, including human-reptile relationships in global terms. Following a brief review of the current professional literature examining the human-animal bond, a major review is devoted to information about and study of reptilian species. Reptilian images in the human psyche are examined from a depth psychological perspective in the context of mythology, symbolism, creation myths, past and present manifestations of dragon and dinosaur imagery throughout cultures, and relevant modern literature related to the human-reptile bond. Following a statement of the research problem and related questions, the Methodology and Procedures chapter provides theoretical rationale for this study, including utilization of grounded theory, implementation of the survey and project procedure, and development and use of quantitative and quasi-qualitative instruments. Quantitative and quasi-qualitative outcomes from the questionnaire responses are examined. The Discussion of Findings and Methodology chapter further explores the ideas, theoretical bases, and implications of data that emerged and manifested from the study.	Limitations and delimitations of this research, and suggestions for future investigation of this topic are also provided. Conclusions suggest that some people feel reciprocity, or a sense of loving and being loved, within desert tortoise caretaking relationships. Feelings of interspecies' connection can be accepted for their manifest, face value, or interpreted as latent, unconscious verbal imagery.
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There have been numerous and significant research contributions to the field of psychology regarding psychological trauma following various forms of abuse and neglect, terrorism, and natural disasters that occur on both personal and societal levels. Even vicarious traumas incurred by the exposure to the aforementioned have been given due recognition. However, an area of potential psychological trauma that has remained relatively unexplored is the immediate consequences and long-term effects of medical procedures. Statistics indicate that experiencing medical interventions in a variety of forms is commonplace. Further, medical experiences are likely to involve physical and psychological discomfort and pain among other side effects, some of which leave lasting physical, emotional, and mental impact on the patient. Yet despite this knowledge, there has been very little research conducted to understand short or long-term psychological and developmental effects of medical interventions on the patients who experience them, particularly from the perspective of adults who experienced such procedures during their childhoods.

This qualitative, phenomenological study explored medical procedures from the perspective of the adult who experienced them in childhood. Individual, face-to-face, audio-taped interviews were conducted during which participants were asked to describe their medical procedure(s) in childhood and in what, if any ways, they felt impacted by those experiences throughout their lives. From the interviews, portraits were written, which illuminated common themes. The co-researchers were four men (one of whom served in a pilot study capacity) and three women ranging in age from 38-59 years who were eight or younger at the onset of their initial medical procedures. 

The results of the study showed that there was little or no validation, either in the form of having procedures explained or having feelings attended to during the medical procedures. Also suggested was that medical procedures in childhood are traumatic for some individuals under some circumstances with influential factors being, among others, age and level of autonomy at the time of the procedure, parent involvement, number of procedures, receiving explanations, having feelings validated, level of medical technology (e.g., pain management techniques, types of procedures performed, whether hospitalization was involved or patient was cared for at home), and perceptions of how the medical professionals treated them. The results showed that medical procedures experienced in childhood have life-long consequences such as influence over choices of whether or not to seek medical care as an adult; compromised trust with health care professionals; tendencies to seek out specialized medical knowledge to self diagnosis health issues; and, for some, tendencies to advocate for others in medical situations. 

The implications of the results of the study are numerous for the field of psychology and include the need to recognize medical procedures in childhood as sometimes traumatic but likely unrecognized as such, due to the intrinsic nature of medical procedures across the lifespan. Further research to understand variables such as age, gender, types of procedures, level of physical invasiveness, and psychological treatment outcomes is warranted.
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By bringing together three elements, (1)&nbsp;a hermeneutic interpretation of the story of Medusa, (2)&nbsp;a heuristic investigation of the personal experience of years of working with hundreds of patients who have lived through a traumatic experience, and (3)&nbsp;a comprehensive inquiry into past and current research on the subject, the author examines what happens when the human psyche encounters a traumatic event and suggests directions for treatment options in the immediate aftermath of psychological trauma. The story of Medusa aptly illustrates the psychological process of posttraumatic reaction, supporting recent discoveries regarding neurological functioning during the psychological overload of a traumatic event along with subsequent posttraumatic stress symptomatology. In an adaptive manner which is protective of the psyche, traumatic sensory images are sealed off and isolated. Thus, a part of the psyche is also split off, forming powerful, vibrant, and emotionally charged images of the traumatic event which are incompatible with normal consciousness. The fixed nature of traumatic memory creates a psychological condition similar to that of the victims of Medusa, who were turned to stone after gazing at her face. The author also notes that there is no reference to any of the victims of Medusa coming back to life and theorizes that this illustrates how the ancient Greeks struggled with posttraumatic treatment, just as we do in modern times. The author also explores implications for treatment and concludes that some of the current, popular treatment modalities in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event at best provide only minimal psychological support.
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This dissertation is a phenomenological research study that addresses the effect the aging body has on men at midlife. The data for this research was obtained by interviewing six men between the ages of 48 and 61 years of age. These interviews provide a deeper understanding of the relationship between the psyche and the aging body. We can observe this relationship in the psychological life of the individual. I found that the data from this study produced three levels of meaning. The first level was the concrete change that occurred in the aging body. The second level was the change of psychological attitude experienced by the men interviewed. The third level was an imaginal realm of meaning. Concrete bodily changes symbolize a boundary and a limit for the future of the body, and these limits have an impact on this psychological life. Psychological attitudes influenced by the aging body were limitation, power, spirituality, mortality, relationships, deterioration, and the discovery of different parts of the self. These changes forced the individual into an attitude of greater self-awareness and self-reflection providing an opportunity for the soul to be heard through the symptom. The bodily symptoms associated with midlife are wake-up calls that penetrate to the deepest layers of the psyche. They are the voice of the soul wanting to be heard. When examined in detail, the interviews provided a rich source for an imaginal background of meaning. I found that underneath the struggle these men engaged in at midlife existed a hidden conflict. This conflict was between their unconscious concept of a hero and the reality of their own bodies. As their bodies began to deteriorate, they could no longer identify with the hero archetype. This resulted in an attempt to rebuild the body into a heroic form or a sense of despair over the loss of the heroic image. The heroic myth is one of the most embedded myths of the Western world. Our culture, however, has no myth to support an aging hero. The interviews suggest an adult development and psychic growth that is a nonlinear, acausal process, not a stage-dependent progression toward a final goal. Adult development is not, then, a chronological process, but rather a psychological and spiritual process of discovery. Each man provided a unique, individual process in response to the changes in their body. These stories reflected an individually determined course of development that did not fit into a clearly defined stage.
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This study focuses on the investigation of men's lived experience of masculinity in marriage. Here, masculinity is understood as the inner experience of being a man, whether it conforms or not to cultural stereotypes of masculinity.

Descriptions of lived experience were gathered in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with a convenience sample of eight men, ages 31-49, and married for at least three years, with no children. A phenomenological method of data analysis yielded seven major themes that encompassed descriptions of (a) men's relationship to what was referred to in this study as the received model of masculinity (two themes); (b) the experience of a dynamic conflict among personal, marital, and socio-cultural and political roles, values, beliefs, attributes, behaviors, and stereotypes of masculinity; (c) the activation of internal states that support or maintain, challenge, restore, and undermine men's sense of masculinity; (d) the experience of marriage providing a container for development towards a more complex, rich, and expansive sense of masculinity; (e) the sense that men's experience of masculinity changes over time; and (f) the experience of men evaluating their sense of masculinity based on everyday events and interactions with their wives.

These themes were further organized and discussed from a depth psychological perspective using a developmental framework. This analysis exposed the deeper psychological meanings of the participants' experiences and revealed that marriage propelled the participants into a process of deepening their search for their authentic sense of masculinity. Clinical implications of these findings are explored and discussed.

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This depth psychological, hermeneutic study examines the Homeric Hymn to Hermes and the notion of a Mercurius archetype. It suggests that the influence of this archetype takes the form of an unconscious logic, here called the Mercurial aspect of thinking. This study explores the fields of philosophy, literature, hermeneutics, physics and mythology, arguing that a transcendental, mercurial thinking process is involved in human experience. This study defines the Mercurial aspect of thinking as responsible for the emergence of the intuitive insights manifested in the form of images and symbols without which we could not grasp the meaning of psychic experiences. The dissertation argues that the mediation between conscious and unconscious processes is portrayed by the interplay between Hermes and Apollo. The study is based on the assumption that Hermes portrays the Mercurial Aspects of Thinking; Apollo portrays rationality or conscious logic. This dissertation asks: What is the significance of the Mercurial aspect of thinking for depth psychology? Further, what is the significance of the Mercurial aspect of thinking to contemporary culture? Using a mythopoetic approach to interpret the Hymn to Hermes, the hymn is viewed as an archetypal stage in the interplay between intuition and Apollonian rationality, recognizing that psychological life is contrived with spontaneity, circularity, chance, conflict, and contradiction. The study concludes by suggesting that this transcendental logic questions our reliance and dependency on the attitudes that have alienated us from the experience of soul. Further, the study argues that the practice of depth psychology demands an attitude of openness to these psychic processes. In other words, by assenting to their value, the therapeutic process is deepened by the meaningful experience of the psyche. This dissertation suggests that acknowledgement of the Mercurial aspect of thinking allows us to "attune" to psyche and recognize that the soul's yearnings are not confined to personal or narcissistic wounding, nor do they represent nescient interpsychic difficulties of "you" and "I" conflicts or shortcomings; but are intrapsychic yearnings resulting from our growing distance from the deepest realm of our existence.
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This study offers a critical, hermeneutic examination of basic assumptions which structure contemporary Western culture's understanding of women. The study explores psychology's and society's understanding of what being a female means, how that understanding might be changing, and how a depth psychological, or imaginal, perspective might expand that understanding. Although this dissertation is rooted in Jungian archetypal theory, it incorporates a wide range of material from contemporary culture as well as other disciplines, including Adlerian psychology, women's studies, feminist theory, social psychology, and mythology. Using a hermeneutic research methodology three cultural assumptions are identified and investigated: (1)&nbsp;that women are essentially receptive, (2)&nbsp;that women are relational by nature, and (3)&nbsp;that women are more intimately connected with nature and the body than males. The study reviews and documents the appearance of these assumptive themes in literature about women from the fields of depth psychology, social psychology, and feminist theory. It is then argued that these themes offer women a sense of personal and cultural coherence, by providing prescriptions for how to live and behave. Each theme is then critically analyzed with reference to its historical origins and its personal, cultural, and economic functions. The study argues that although the modern feminist movement has radically expanded our understanding of women's roles and, to some degree, legitimized the idea of feminine power, the unquestioning acceptance of these core assumptive themes make it difficult for many to recognize aggression and destructiveness as natural or normal features of the feminine. The investigation further argues that the startling images of violent women which are emerging from popular culture have begun to disrupt the cultural understanding of what constitutes femininity, thus calling into question the core assumptive themes around which that understanding has been structured. It is then shown how these contemporary images of violent women challenge the dualistic thinking that organizes our unexamined beliefs about who and what women are. Finally, it is argued that the pervasiveness of these new images reflects an urgency within the collective to discover deeper truths about what it means to be a human being, both male and female.
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The purpose of this study is to identify the efficacy of a brief therapeutic intervention targeting immigrants from Russia, Ukraine, and Moldova. The goal is to identify the ways in which a Jungian theoretical construct, specifically the usefulness of a "safe place" or Temenos within the context of individuation, can be applied in a brief cognitive and depth therapy. The research provides an overview of the target population, specifically, Jewish immigrants now living in the United States. 

The dissertation begins with a description of the key concepts advanced by C. G. Jung with respect to the importance of spirituality in the development of the human psyche and outlines Jung's contributions to the understanding of the therapeutic relationship. The study then proceeds to document a series of seven interviews and brief therapeutic engagements that I conducted with immigrants from the above countries now living in the United States. Extensive case notes on the interviews and brief cognitive therapy with seven participants form the basis for the analysis of the therapeutic relationship and its outcomes. The results of these interviews and engagements are tabulated and commented upon. 

The dissertation also incorporates a lengthy review of literature identifying key issues that challenge immigrants as they attempt to acculturate in a new environment and the role that religious affiliations or participation in faith communities can play in reducing some of the inevitable stresses associated with immigration. The study suggests that by applying Jungian theory to an understanding of the specific challenges and problems that immigrants routinely encounter and incorporating elements of Jungian therapy into brief cognitive therapeutic interventions, it is possible to assist immigrants in developing a greater sense of personal well-being and enhanced coping skills that facilitate better adjustment to a new and potentially challenging culture. The research project confirmed the conclusions of previous investigators concerned with this issue, namely, that many immigrants find that involvement in a faith community or spirituality enhances their sense of personal empowerment and aids them in adjusting to the stresses of a new life. 

The methodologies used in the dissertation include a series of focused interviews and standard psychological case analyses. The study serves as a foundation upon which social workers, psychologists, counselors, and other caregivers can develop their own unique approaches to facilitating the transition of immigrants from their home country to a new environment, reducing their sense of isolation and alienation. A detailed analysis of each of the seven cases advances the possibility of new directions for clinical practice that can benefit both the target population and the clinicians who serve them.
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In separate, unstructured, two-hour interviews, nine adult gay men described how they came to know themselves as gay and at the same time came to know themselves as men. Phenomenological reductions were performed. The men were more aware of the acquisition of their gay identity than their male identifications. Consciousness of being different began for most at the age of 5; indications varied but included cross-dressing, sexual interest in other boys, and failure to perform successfully in athletics. The resulting general structure suggested that the men were far more conscious of "being gay" than of "being men." Psychological desire preceded specific sexual interests. Sexual contact with childhood friends tended to end at puberty. Rejection by partners resulted in wounds that still lingered at the time of the interviews. The absence of adequate positive mirrors for homo-erotic feelings in adolescence led to secrecy, withdrawal, self-loathing, and creation of false selves. Coming out in early adulthood relieved some psychological pressure and ushered in a "gay adolescence" characterized by the concomitant search for love and the exploration of the self in relationship to others through sexual contact with multiple partners. As gay identity became incorporated into their self-concepts most of the men bonded using a variety of partnering models. Acquisition of a sense of manhood was slow in developing for most participants. Adult validation from other gay men and from women, career successes, and grappling with the AIDS crisis has given the men a sense of strength which most have equated with masculinity. The separation of gay and non-gay aspects of their lives has made the process of identity consolidation protracted and difficult. Psychotherapy with gay men must recognize the difficulties inherent in the creation of a psycho-social self in the absence of adequate mirroring and seek to redress the deficiency using both traditional and proactive models.
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The purpose of this study was to discover and to describe the experiences of eight women, including the researcher, whose fathers had died when the participants were between the ages of 6 and 12 years. There is extensive literature on the impact of the death of a mother on children's psychological development. However, there is less literature on the death of the father and its potential impact and minimal literature from a depth perspective on this experience.

This study, in the form of an Organic Inquiry, attempted to capture not only the conscious, surface story of each of the participants, but also revealed some of the deeper, unconscious story of each of these women. The researcher conducted two interviews and two administrations of the Word Association Test with the seven other participants in the study. Participants were given a journal to record any material that they found to be relevant between the two interviews.

The main purpose of an Organic Inquiry is transformation, rather than the information, although this study reports both the clinical aspects of a parental death in childhood, as well as the reports of transformation that occurred for the participants as a result of participation in the study.

The significant findings in this study, especially among those women who reported not having their grief process supported as children, indicated that the emotions experienced in the aftermath of their father's death included depression or sadness, anxiety, envy/jealousy, and struggles with self-esteem. They also experienced an accompanying sense of having part of them missing or a huge void they could not fill.

The participants also commented on internal resources that had been helpful to them, such as dreams of their fathers or other communications with their father after his death. A majority of the participants expressed a belief that everything happens for a reason. This belief, along with dreams or communications with their father, may have helped these women to cope with a loss they were too young to handle psychologically and emotionally. The internal resources of these women speak to the resiliency and the transcendent function of the Self.


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This phenomenological study explored money and the care of Soul through the lived experiences of five depth therapists. These co-researchers were asked to describe their existential experience with money in their work. Guided interviews explored their attitudes, feelings, values, conflicts, associations, and other psychological factors that related to psychotherapy and money issues. Such money concerns as negotiating and collecting fees, charging for missed sessions, and providing free service were discussed. Other topics relating to money and co-researchers' graduate training, training analysis, and ongoing analysis and supervision were also examined. An extensive literature review framed the interview process. Literature on ethical and financial attitudes toward making money was presented. Depth psychological approaches to money and Soul were explored, with attention given to Freudian, Jungian, and Archetypal schools of thought. An extensive survey was made of Freud's and Jung's lived experience with money and their approach to money as analysts. From the interviews, four common themes emerged to describe the essences and meanings of money in Soul work. First, it was found that money memories live on in depth work. Second, money was viewed as a necessary grounding for depth work. Third, money was described as a window into Soul. Fourth, money was shown to be a measure of values important to depth therapy. These four themes provided insight into what makes money what it is in the work of depth therapy. The study revealed a need for depth therapists to give more focused attention to the psychologically charged symbol of money and its impact upon their work. Six specific suggestions regarding money and psychotherapy were made. The six suggestions related to education, training, analytic preparation, mindfulness, continuing analysis and supervision, and the care on Anima Mundi.
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This study explores a particular nuance of mother loss from a depth psychological perspective—one in which a young daughter is taken from her mother with her mother's consent, but is not returned as promised. The research focuses on the child's experience of this little-known phenomenon, the many facets of the adult daughter's life which are affected by this early childhood loss, and the adaptation that has to take place. The study blends personal experience, psychological literature, and examines the ancient myth of Demeter and Persephone in a nonlinear approach that is theoretical in nature and hermeneutic in its application. It is circular in that it begins with connection (the importance of attachment and the primary relationship), moves to separation, loss, exile, and the imagination of displacement, and finally comes back to re-connection. This investigation is an attempt to create new psychological theory for women that begins with female experience and shows an archetypal element in which daughters seek reconnection to their mothers, particularly when there has been an abrupt separation after a good mother-daughter bonding. The daughter's experience of being displaced from her mother, her homeland, and her stories, which leads to living in a form of exile, is examined with focus on imaginal processes, conscious and unconscious influences, and ways in which compensation for mother loss is constellated. The adult child makes a long journey home to find her lost mother, homeland, and her true self by way of mythology, dreams, fantasies, Jungian analysis, and a dissertation process. In the process, she is taken into the depths of her own psyche where the healing of the early wounds begin to take place.
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Many studies aimed at looking into the nature and origin of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in children have focused on the patient, giving emphasis to hereditary and environmental factors through a quantitative approach. There are other people who suffer from the symptoms of OCD; however, and these are the family members. In this study five mothers of children with OCD were interviewed and asked to relate their stories, telling how they have coped with the stress of raising a child with OCD and where they have or have not received support. A qualitative design, both phenomenological and heuristic in nature, was chosen for this study, which consisted of 4 hours of taped interview for each mother or co-researcher. After the interviews were transcribed, each was condensed into the mother's story. As the stories unfolded, particular themes began to appear and reappear in each one. All of the mothers reported difficulty being heard by medical and mental health practitioners in that diagnosis was often delayed. The children's frustration with OCD found release through violent outbursts at home, outbursts that made the family atmosphere tense. These temper tantrums frightened the parents, making it difficult for them to establish discipline. Another area of stress for the mothers involved their children's education. The interviews established that the competitive, stressful nature of the school setting activated and often exacerbated the symptoms of OCD. In addition to the stress of finding the right medication and the right dosage of the medication, mothers feared that their children would turn to drugs to solve their problems. OCD often interfered with the smooth functioning of these families, especially family outings and other social engagements. Finally, these mothers worried about their children's future independence and whether they could get insured as young adults.
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This study examines the prenatal-postnatal relationship. Recent studies have shown that a mother's psychological state and attachment to her fetus affects the infant's regulatory capacities after birth. Ninety women during their 35 th to 40 th week of singleton, low-risk pregnancies and their infants postnatally participated in this study. The study used the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (PAI) (Müller, 1993), which consists of 21 items and assesses the mother's prenatal attachment to her fetus. The participants charted their prenatal sleep and their 1-week-old and 3-month-old infant's postnatal sleep over a 3-day period using the Sleep/Activity Record (SAR) (Barnard, 1999). Assessed infant sleep characteristics included average number of sleep segments, longest sustained sleep, and total sleep over three 24-hour periods. These scores were then correlated with the PAI score and total maternal prenatal sleep. Correlational analysis revealed that contrary to expectations, PAI scores did not correlate with either infant sleep segments or longest sustained sleep. The study found an inverted correlation between PAI scores and infant total sleep at 1 week. The study also found an inverted correlation between maternal total sleep and infant sleep segments at 1 week and 3 months. Furthermore, 1-week-old infant sleep correlated with 3-month-old infant sleep. The study extends current literature on prenatal to postnatal continuity.
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This dissertation investigated the phenomenon of personal transformation through the lens of depth psychology using a descriptive phenomenological research method. Eight participants were invited to tell their personal stories of transformation. Specifically, the participants were asked, "Have you ever felt a shift such that after that event how you were in the world or how you saw the world had changed? Please describe the shift." An extensive review of the literature about the topic of personal transformation combined with the research findings revealed the following story of transformation: An autonomous visitor (could be an image, a life event, or a strong feeling) comes to the person, usually unbidden or unexpected. The experience has a numinous quality and shakes up the person's current status quo. The person wrestles with the visitor and reflects upon the encounter. The person is not alone in the endeavor; other people witness, support, and participate. Through contact with the numinosum, the person lets go of or is released from an old way of being and moves to a deeper level of consciousness—accepting the wholeness of life, healing from past wounds, and living life more fully and with more purpose. The person's relationship to self, other people, the world, and the divine is changed. Although the transformation may start with a single encounter, that event becomes an initiation into a life of openness toward the visitors yet to come. The study has multiple implications for clinical psychology. Relationships were found to be important in the experience and process of transformation. The presence of heightened awareness was seen as a side-effect of transformation and may signal that transformation is taking place. Spiritual experiences such as hearing God's voice or seeing a vision map not indicate pathology but rather may lead to transformation. Psychological pain and struggle are a part of the process of transformation, and reflection is necessary for integration of the experience into one's life. Depth psychological considerations include the role of images, the influence of the numinosum, second half of life transitions, and deepening of consciousness through transformative experiences.
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The following dissertation introduces the significant contributions of Jung and Depth Psychology in exploring landscapes that allow the soul to express itself. It is the aim of this work to further broaden Jung's Eastern and Christian perspective to include the wealth of Judaism. A detailed analysis of the Tree of Life and its emanations, the sefirot (branches) is integrated into Jung's archetype of the Self. Chassidus reveals the teachings of the great Jewish mystics, which provide significant theological and psychological perspectives. The alchemical elements of Judaism, as the very soul of the Torah , the Hebrew Bible, are the radiance that can illuminate even the worst darkness of humanity. Chassidus accomplishes this by presenting the transcendental concepts through dreams and folklore. These act as a gate for the individual to access his or her inner Self through Divine communications. Thus, the esoteric works penetrate the very core of humanity, eliciting a powerful response. The Judaic breakdown of the various levels of the soul is part of the necessary alchemical process that occurs in the therapeutic session. This dissertation relies on a hermeneutic methodology to explore the material in a greater depth. Written under the branch of Depth Psychology, this study is a blend of the theological and psychological insights which parallel the Torah's tolerant approach to humanity's responses to the obstacles encountered during the lifecycle.
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When James Hillman, chief architect of archetypal psychology, refers to Christianity, he presents views that would be more appropriately directed toward fundamentalism than toward Christianity as a whole. Consequently, his writing contains an anti-Christian bias that prevents archetypal psychology from making use of the many developments within Christian thought and practice that are deeply compatible with archetypal psychology's central concerns. Using a dialogical approach within the hermeneutic method, this study challenges Hillman's priority of image over concept, polytheism over monotheism, and soul over spirit. A metaphorical epistemology is presented as an alternative to the polarization of image and concept, a clarification of the differing tasks of psychology and theology addresses the polarization of polytheism and monotheism, and an approach to the problem of evil is presented that protects the soul's need for depth, complexity, and pathologizing, without sacrificing the spirit's need for transcendence and healing. Potential links between archetypal psychology and Christian spirituality are offered as well. Fundamentalism is presented as being more method than content, and although each finds fundamentalist assertions in the other, archetypal psychology and Christianity can be linked in their opposition to fundamentalism. Christian apophatic mysticism is presented as an example of a type of Christian spirituality that links Christianity and archetypal depth and which suggests rich possibilities for an apophatic psychology. Finally, process theology is presented as an example of a postmodern Christian theological formulation that strengthens Hillman's concern to return the soul to the world by offering a more thoroughly conceived metaphysics. Although many of the apparent incompatibilities between archetypal psychology and Christian spirituality can be overcome, they remain divided at the level of praxis. Whereas a Christian spirituality based in the Resurrection as a way of seeing is found to be radically healing, Hillman's archetypal psychology contains covert metaphysical commitments that yield a deep suspicion of healing agendas. Although each can learn much from the other, they originate in primary faith commitments that cannot finally be reconciled.
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This dissertation examines a residential treatment facility and its residents. It focuses on a systemic split that occurs in clinical treatment between the psychoanalytic and cognitive behavioral therapy approaches. Residents manifest certain fantastical narratives and images, which are relative to their unique circumstances. Meanwhile, the facility's clinical treatment team define residents using psychiatric diagnostic standards and behavior-oriented methodologies. Residents use stories to compensate for their experiences of trauma and alienation. Clinicians and staff, on the other hand, adhere to interpretations and practices that are designed to contain extreme behaviors. These differing perspectives can conflict with one another, leaving the clinician and staff in a state of confusion, unable to treat a disorder effectively. Based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV), cognitive behavioral therapy and psychiatric medications are the dominant treatment methodologies at residential treatment facilities. Clinical staff emphasize containing, modifying, and measuring behaviors. They cannot tolerate other approaches that require more time and resources. The diagnosis itself then becomes a narrative that imposes a defining myth of its own on the individual. It determines the course of the resident's treatment, but also the shape of his self-understanding. Yet, the presence of fantastical narratives and images suggests other possible meanings for the residents' pathologies. A diagnosis and personal narrative and images are both mythic formulas of self-identification that inform the beliefs of the resident, clinician, and staff. A personal mythological approach puts the story a resident tells back in relationship to the literal tendencies of the psychiatric diagnosis. Therefore, mythic narratives and images help reintroduce fantasy to the diagnosis. Diagnostic categories and personal mythologies operate on one level as fictional components of a complex myth system. Instead of viewing them as opposing frames of reference, I propose to demonstrate that the formulation and interpretation of these narratives and images can serve as a coherent process for clarifying the therapeutic aims of treatment.
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The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the stages in near-death experiences could parallel those of a rite of passage resulting in the transformation of the individual to a higher level of behavioral and attitudinal functioning. A higher level of functioning, as described here, is an experience of improving interpersonal relationships, an increased openness and acceptance of others, an increased desire to be of service to others, and a loss of the fear of death. The study illustrated that near-death experiences could have a profound effect on the attitudinal and behavioral functioning of an individual. Eight subjects from around the United States were engaged in an in-depth interview to describe their near-death experiences and their life circumstances before and after the event. Six interviews were tape-recorded and two were recorded by written notes. The tapes were transcribed, the cases were studied extensively, and data was analyzed using a phenomenological approach. The findings illustrate that the three stages of a rite of passage may be clearly seen within the near-death experience. The results also conclude that when an individual has experienced an NDE as a rite of passage for spiritual maturity, they are profoundly affected as demonstrated through changes in their behaviors and attitudes. The findings also reveal the NDE as a catalyst for change in the experiencer's life, similar to that of a bottoming out experience. The analysis also provided evidence that the presence of a life review during the NDE had a profound effect on the experiencer's interpretation of God as benevolent.
<<link 765916111>>

In past centuries, masculine Logos consciousness has generally been elevated above feminine instinctual knowledge resulting in an overvaluing and imbalance of masculine consciousness, which now threatens the psychological health of individuals, civilization, and the biosphere. This work attempts to discover some ways the objective psyche is attempting to rebalance human consciousness. The use of a creative method to study the nature of and differences between masculine and feminine consciousness led me to the imaginal theory that suggests the coming of a "higher feminine consciousness," one capable of equal partnership to Logos or "higher masculine consciousness." I wrote the mythopoetic tale, "The Story of "The," as a gathering from the unconscious. The dialogue and adventures in this myth became the intuitive library from which I garnered new images of Eros and Psyche. Holding the imagination as a valid research source was critical in developing a feminine methodology to study new directions in feminine consciousness and its impact on the changing relationship between the sexual opposites. The imaginal couple in the tale, a snail named Theo and a Butterfly just emerged from the patriarchal cocoon, are revealed as the new equal and androgynous Royal Couple who each carry the wholeness of their compensatory opposites within themselves. Their story has elicited a number of imaginal theories presented in the academic portion of this work such as, a model of feminine transformation, the nature of feminine fertilization, and the coming of a "higher feminine consciousness," which I call Liminal consciousness. This is an "inbetween" intelligence that bridges masculine dualistic logos and matriarchal unconscious wholeness while being neither of them. Liminal consciousness is a unique awareness carried by the spiritual feminine that is equal to, but different from, Logos. In this imaginal theory, it requires Jung's chthonic son, the compensatory brother of Christ, to midwife the birth of Liminal consciousness into collective awareness through the development of his "extraordinary empathy." The chthonic son, carrier of repressed masculine instinctual feelings and the Spirit Muse, carrier of the repressed spiritual feminine, are the new son and daughter of our consciousness, the new Royal Couple. For the story reveals that it is now only through the couple, the coming together of the opposites in consciousness, that new meaning will be ushered in and the old restored.
<<link 727695961>>
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This phenomenological study focuses upon the lived experiences of five men who sexually molested children. After participating in two 2-hour interviews, I drafted a portrait of each co-researcher and submitted it to him for review. I then met with each of the participants for a final interview to review the portrait, receive feedback, and explore his experience of participating in this research process. This input was incorporated into the final portrait. In his seduction theory, Freud asserted that his patients' hysterical symptoms were founded in traumatic sexual experiences in early childhood. After he determined that his patients' memories were based in fantasy, he then came to the pivotal development of the Oedipus complex. However, in Freud's exploration of the Oedipal myth, he focused upon the issue of incest, ignoring that the myth begins with infanticide. Thus, within the foundation and practice of psychoanalysis lies not only the concept of incest, but also the repressed infanticidal impulse. The perpetrators of child sexual molest were abandoned in their symptoms when Freud revised his seduction theory and developed the Oedipus complex. The co-researchers of this study have literalized the need and desire for divine energy through sexually molesting a child. Metaphor becomes trapped in the literalization of the image, which is released in the telling of their tales. Images, memories, secrets, and feelings are a part of each person's mythic process. In utilizing the Oedipal myth to open up and restore the perpetrator to his symptoms, the split between mythos and matter is revitalized and re-membered. The stories of these men are located on the continuum between mythos and matter, the mythos that lives within the Oedipus complex, and the matter of the literal enactment of child molest.
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<<link 727914611>>

Beyond identifying the animus as an archetype, Jung avoided discussing the way in which the animus developed, the process by which it functioned in a woman's life—particularly in its more pathological constellations—and the way in which the destructive animus complex becomes activated in the analytic setting. Jung's failure to address the critical impact of the personal father upon animus formation in girls paralleled Freud's failure to focus upon the relationship between fathers and daughters during oedipal development. In his metaphorical discussion of the Oedipus myth, Freud completely ignored the psychological and emotionally incestuous relationship between Oedipus and his daughter, Antigone. Consequently, both Jung and Freud set the precedent for the historic inattention to the role of the father in feminine development. This theoretical dissertation advances the hypothesis that both the Oedipus complex and the destructive animus complex in women are integrally related and originate from oedipal developmental and socialization protocol for males in our culture. The relationship between animus pathology and disturbances in oedipal development is explored at length in this study, in order to render a more complete understanding of the impact of father's psychological constitution upon the formation and function of the destructive animus complex in women. In developing a more comprehensive understanding of animus pathology, both object relations and archetypal theory are revisited, in order to discuss the importance of considering both developmental and archetypal components in conceptualizing the destructive animus complex. Additionally, a re-analysis of the many versions of the Oedipus myth examines the heretofore neglected relationship between Oedipus and his daughter, Antigone, offering a metaphorical rendering of destructive animus pathology. Among the many ideas advanced in this study regarding the origins of the destructive animus is the conclusion that a narcissistic personality organization underlies the complex and that the narcissistic personality structure is inherited directly from the father. Furthermore, the formation of the narcissistic personality organization occurs during oedipal, not preoedipal, stages of development, as girls become unconsciously identified with father's destructive, omnipotent narcissism.
<<link 2032823821>> 
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This qualitative research on the experience of moving into a nursing home documents a moment in time during the change process for each of the eight participants in the study. This sample of the population of recently admitted nursing home residents is not large, but their experiences may shed light on what others go through during similar moves. This question regarding the experience of a specific population, namely independent seniors who have recently entered a nursing home as residents, brought out experiential and liminal qualities with implications for treatment that support depth psychological approaches to psychotherapy.

The choice of a hermeneutic phenomenological methodology appears uniquely suited for this research. Reflection is used as a tool to derive meaning from the interviews. The interviews themselves are a means of reflecting; a process inherent to the participants' own understanding and to change itself. Reflection is a liminal process, occurring in the liminal space where all change takes place (Hopcke, 1991).

The transitional experiences are discussed primarily using Turner's (1969) stages of separation, threshold, and reincorporation as a model. Although the concept of stages implies a temporal order, a change such as this does not occur in a linear manner, but consists of a constant breaking down, recombining, and building up of elements. Alchemical concepts of liquefactio, nigredo , and coniunctio are used to further clarify the application of this transitional model to the change processes addressed in this study.

Clinical psychologists are trained to provide a container for clients to have a safe place to transform. The process of moving into a nursing home is a transition largely without containment. By understanding this experience, clinical psychologists may be inspired to transform the process so that a safe transformational container exists.
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<<link 2117392471>>
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This study is an investigation of a specific type of spiritual or mystical experience occurring in nature. Experiences in nature are considered to be numinous if they have the feeling qualities, identified by Otto (1917/1950), of mystery, uncanny dread, or fascination. The primary data for this study are written accounts of nature-based numinous experiences found in the published works of Henry David Thoreau, John Muir, Richard Jefferies, Sigurd Olson, and Annie Dillard. These written accounts are presented, showing that they meet the criteria for being numinous. Next, using a hermeneutic method, the nature-based numinous experiences of Thoreau, Muir, Jefferies, Olson, and Dillard are explored using the general interpretive framework of the religious approach to the psyche, a theoretical system within the field of depth psychology developed by Corbett (1996). Within this framework, ideas from the schools of object relations, self psychology, and Jungian psychology are used to investigate the personal significance of the nature-based numinous experiences for each individual. Broad themes common to several nature-based numinous experiences, including embodiment, unitary experiences, timelessness, and confrontation with death, are explored through the tradition of alchemy, as understood within the field of Jungian psychology, and through the archetypal figure of the Green Man.

Implications of the study are discussed on various levels. On the clinical level, the study shows that nature-based numinous experiences could be an important focus of inquiry in psychotherapy. It is suggested that the sense of connection to nature fostered by nature-based numinous experiences may be an important facet of psychological health. On the collective-cultural level, the study indicates that individual nature-based numinous experiences could be part of a cultural change in the collective image of the divine, toward an image that includes nature and does not rigidly split good from evil. On the eco-cosmological level, the study suggests that nature-based numinous experiences may be manifestations of ideas from the field of Jungian psychology such as //lumen naturae//, the light of nature, and //anima mundi//, the soul of the world.
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<<link 1793571631>> | <<library 17101>>
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The potential for exile has been present since humans first began to gather in communities. The theme of exile and return is embedded in the stories found in ancient texts as well as the stories, myths, and fairytales told across cultures and religions. The story continues to be told in modern literature and film. Human beings have told each other this story over the millennia and across cultures and religions, which suggests it is a common human experience and tells us something essential about what it means to be human.

Most psychological literature regards exile and return as physical and political exile. Yet there are many ways to feel psychologically displaced or dislocated while remaining physically in the same place. This phenomenological study was conducted in an attempt to understand individuals' experiences of psychological exile and return. The findings of this study are synthesized in the //General Structure of a Phenomenology of Psychological Exile and Return// and include the following constituents: (a) life before exile; (b) radical event or constellation of events leading to exile; (c) disillusionment with one's world as it has been known; (d) radiation of exile; (e) reverberation of exile; and (f) possibility of return. Psychological exile involves a disruption of a sense of self, of self's place in the world, and of life as it has been imagined. It radiates and reverberates through a person's life and often impacts those close to them. Return comes when one begins to accept one's life as it is. Return is not to a literal circumstance, place, or time but to a sense of wholeness, safety, familiarity, and a renewed sense of self.

These findings are explored in light of: psychological studies on physical exile; depth psychological studies of immigrants and exiles; and depth psychological studies that use exile and return metaphorically in describing certain psychological states. The implications for clinical psychology and psychotherapy focus on: the invisible nature of psychological exile; the need for a safe, containing therapeutic environment for those in psychological exile; and psychological exile and return as a developmental phase. Suggestions for further research are provided.
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<<link 1793220751>>
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This dissertation is a heuristic, theoretical, practical, nature based, and poetic investigation of the phenomenon of projective identification from an embodied, imaginal, depth perspective. This study arose from a deep, compelling, and enduring personal engagement with the relatively intractable and destructive personal and interpersonal problems resulting from severe trauma. The initial focus of this inquiry was born of a desire to understand and resolve these persistent difficulties. The phenomenon of projective identification presented itself as the core element in these problems and gave rise to the research and findings recorded here.

The apparent transmission of direct embodied affective experience from one person to another is explored from a variety of viewpoints. This is shown to be a central factor in the etiology of recurrent destructive and disturbed states throughout the lifespan and in a wide variety of contexts. Furthermore, a method for resolving these conditions based in a new view of the origin and character of these transmitted experiences is described.

This new view of projective identification is situated within the contexts of clinical theory, history, and practice; homeopathy and energy medicine; quantum physics; ecopsychology; and shamanic traditional practices. It is also described as it occurs in the course of many common interpersonal and group dynamics. The findings presented here are also integrated into a new theory of the origin of conflict, pointing to a new understanding of evil and of the full range of human destructiveness, as well as suggesting an approach to resolution and treatment.

Preliminary success with this new method of resolution is reported. Suggestions are made for the integration of this method into the body of current clinical practice, and for its use in self-care and other non-clinical settings. Reflections are offered on the possible outcomes that might be expected from the application of this new theory and practice, and other reflections and poetry offer a glimpse into the personal process of the researcher throughout the course of this investigation.
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<<link 727914251>>

There has been classical interest in differentiating morning people (larks) from evening people (owls). It has even been suggested that larks are more alert during the morning and owls are more alert during the evening. In his ultradian theory of hypnosis, Ernest Rossi has hypothesized that the peaks of hypnotizability found by others are influenced by alternations in the owl and lark rhythm. Ultradian theory has suggested an association between most classical hypnotic phenomena and the oscillations of the human ultradian/circadian rhythms. The ultradian theory of hypnosis predicts that hypnotic susceptibility and hypnotic analgesia will be found to be related to these rhythms. The present study involved giving 77 subjects a standardized hypnotizability measure and a measure of hypnotic analgesia in the morning and in the evening. The subjects were differentiated into owls and larks. In confirmation of these predictions of the ultradian theory of clinical hypnosis, both hypnotizability and hypnotic analgesia were greater at the nadir phase of the owl and lark rhythm. Owls were significantly more hypnotizable and analgesic in the morning and larks at night. This data provides evidence that a fundamental mechanism of clinical hypnosis is the entrainment of biological rhythms. Hypnosis seems to be a natural everyday state of consciousness that can be verbally entrained to provide therapeutic healing.
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<<link 728844721>>

This study attempted to determine the impact on congregational leader's decision making of the mental model or paradigm that was employed to conceptualize the congregation, particularly in times of crisis. The three models analyzed were the hierarchical model, the Bowen Family Systems model, and a model informed by depth psychology, in particular analytical psychology as well as object relations theory. Central to the study was the notion that the mental model employed by leaders determined what was "seen and unseen" by those leaders, depending on the strengths and/or limitations inherent in the model. The project employed a case study method, in which 20 interviews were conducted with 15 lay leaders and 5 clergy. Two congregations served as specific examples of situations of crisis in which lay and/or ordained leaders were called upon to react in times of high anxiety, and which served to illustrate the mental models employed by those leaders. An attempt was made, although not entirely successful, to find interview subjects to represent all three models. While the first model, the hierarchical, was amply represented, the other two could only be found among clergy. The analysis of the interview material provided an illustration of the strengths and weaknesses of all three models, to the extent that the interview material could be taken as a representative sample of those models. It is argued that, among the three models, the Bowen Systems model is clearly to be preferred over the hierarchical model. However, the limited vocabulary and theoretical concepts of systems theory are inadequate to fully describe, and hence to allow leaders in crisis situations to conceptualize and respond to, the complex unconscious forces that exist in larger human groups or organizations such as religious congregations. If leaders of congregations are to be able to adequately respond to the challenges of such leadership, they need to have at their disposal a model for "seeing" their situation in all its complexity, and this must include the activity of the unconscious. Of the the three models studied, only the depth psychological model is capable of capturing this reality.
<<link 1328075171>>

The 21 st century is currently experiencing a longevity revolution. Contrary to the prevailing pessimistic view of aging, this research is premised on the assumption that many elders are not only living longer, but are doing so with undiminished vitality and enthusiasm. This study seeks to discover the factors that contribute to the renewal and maintenance of passion for life in spite of inevitable challenges to the bodymind, and to understand the feelings elders experience when they are deeply engaged in their lives. The research is phenomenological and heuristic in that elders who are experiencing this phenomenon are considered to be the best source of knowledge, and the personal experience and self-awareness of the researcher are used to enrich the research process, to make meaning of the data, and to present the findings. Fourteen people between the ages of 63 and 98 who appeared to be aging optimally were selected as co-researchers. Audio taped, loosely structured interviews were conducted, and the findings, verified by the respondents, are presented in the form of individual depictions, exemplary portraits, a composite depiction, and a creative synthesis. Analysis of the material reveals that these elders possess common internal resources that contribute to living life fully, including: innate psychic energy and enthusiasm, a positive attitude, a sense of gratitude, resiliency, compassion, a sense of purpose, initiative, self-esteem, intelligence and curiosity, creativity, a sense of humor, and spirituality. They compose their lives in individual ways, so as to achieve harmony and balance between the external environment and their inner experience. The feelings described when they are passionately engaged include complete contentment, intense focus, loss of awareness of time, serenity, sense of oneness with the cosmos, transcendence of self, excitement, high energy, joy, and at times, anger. Many elders believe that the mature stage of life is the best time of life, allowing for a more authentic expression of oneself, and they wish to remain fully involved. Although spiritually inclined, many deny a personal connection to God or any religious practice. They accept the inevitability of death, but do not appear to dwell on or wish to prepare for it. There is evidence of a sense of disconnect between their chronological age and outward manifestation of aging, and the felt experience of the inner youthful self. Some express a desire to spend time with young people, rather than their peers. It is appropriate for psychology to nurture inner resources that will enable elders to maintain vitality and passion for life and to address this intrapsychic split between mind and body and identities of youth and age.
<<link 727914261>>

The phenomenon of pathological narcissism is explored as a denial of the narcissist's issues of his or her own mortality. It is proposed that the narcissist defends against the anxiety experienced when confronting shadow material, in particular the death instinct, by living a disembodied existence through narcissistic ethereal bliss. In particular, the narcissist expels his or her own it "mind," and therefore any sense of felt "separateness," through the process of projective identification, and chooses instead an omnipotent fantasy life. The divergent views of the school of object relations and Jungian psychology are brought together to form a view of pathological narcissism that emphasizes the importance of early object relations without compromising the role of the Jungian archetypal self. An integration of Jungian and object relations perspectives on both the etiology of and treatment of pathological narcissism is attempted by bringing together both personal and archetypal perspectives. It is suggested that a Jungian understanding of pathological narcissism can be enhanced by integrating some views from the school of object relations, in particular the views of Melanie Klein. A case study illustrates the psychodynamics involved in the etiology of pathological narcissism and treatment issues. The case illustrated a salient feature of the dissertation—that the archetypal Self and the personal ego do not have separate lines of development.
<<link 731855421>>

Until the pioneering work of Michael Fordham and Eric Neumann on early psychological development, there was not a Jungian perspective that included both early and adult maturation. Prior to their research, Jungian analysts began their work with those who had resolved the personal conflicts of the first half of life in preparation for the second, This evolutionary view of psychological development, however, does not match what one often sees in a depth clinical practice. The theme of this thematic hermeneutic study is adult psychological development that incorporates ego development and individuation. Three questions directed this study. The first question is theoretical: how do depth psychologists understand or think about adult psychological development that incorporates ego development and individuation? The second question is a clinical one: how do depth psychologists relate to the patient's individual personal issues and archetypal material in the consulting room? The third question concerns symbolism: what is the nature and purpose of the psychological process or inner voyage? Data was collected from Jungian theories of psychological development, C. G. Jung's theory of opposites, and a Hawaiian myth that tells the story of the mythic journey of the volcano goddess, Pele, to the Hawaiian islands. An interweave of Michael Fordham's early developmental theory of the primal self and Joseph Henderson's thesis of the ultimate self advance Jung's original ideas about adult psychological development in a way that joins ego development and individuation in a cyclical process. Pele's spiraling mythic journey is used as a receptive template for this lifelong theory of psychological development. Used in this manner, the myth adds the theme of the coniunctio to a theory of adult psychological development. The interplay between the opposites, symbolically represented by Pele and her sister, Na-maka-o-ka-ha'i, goddess of the sea, is analogous to the paradoxical relationship between the ego and the Self throughout the process of psychological maturation. This cyclical model of adult psychological development, however, is not intended to be applied absolutely in clinical practice without taking into account the patient's own personal myth. Both the theory and the individual's story enter into a dynamic dance of the opposites in the clinical practice of depth psychology.
<<link 738156611>>

Selected techniques from the performing arts and sports are helpful additions to psychotherapy for persons with life-threatening illness. Support for this premise comes from personal observation as well as literature on the human immune system, human brain, stress, ritual, drama, sports, performance theory, and philosophy of coaching. Performance coaching is readily acceptable to clients in the target population and can bring about a sense of coherence, enhance hardiness, and increase optimism, thereby improving quality of life and possibly adding to survival time. Examples of successful use of specific techniques by selected workshop attenders and individual therapy clients, in addition to examples from published literature confirm the usefulness of performance-oriented methods.
<<link 1031061901>>

The purpose of this qualitative, hermeneutic, and heuristic research is to move into a more comprehensive depth psychological understanding of the experience of rape at the individual, psychic, and collective levels of awareness. This dissertation is a revisioning of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder 's category of PTSD from an archetypal approach. Brett & Ostroff (1985) show that traumatic memories lack verbal narrative; rather they are encoded in the form of vivid sensations and images. Robert Jay Lifton (1980) refers to these traumatic memories as indelible images or death imprints. One can look at the symptoms often present after a trauma, such as isolation, alcohol and drug abuse, rage, depression, dissociation, psychosis, and impairment of interpersonal relationships, but to move more deeply into understanding trauma one must go directly to the visceral sensations and images arising from the unconscious to gain access to the heart of the trauma still alive within the individual. The dissertation combines a personal memoir of descent and the healing process that took the author outside the bounds of societal propriety, patriarchal mythology, and current clinical theory on treating PTSD in order to gain access to the deep levels of mystery and transformative power present in the body and its intimate connection to the images arising from the unconscious. Jung described individuation as a series of initiatory experiences; however, many women writers have pointed out that Jung's theory of individuation does not adequately account for a woman's journey towards wholeness. The author explores a series of initiatory experiences in dream space and life that brought her into contact with the ancient mystery cult of Eleusis and the Demeter/Persephone mythologem. Through a hermeneutic exploration of the myth of Demeter, Persephone, and the past rituals in honor of the dark goddess, the author discovers a path towards wholeness that is solidly grounded in women's mysteries. In her research the author discovered that the primary image/archetype that lies behind the traumatized feminine is the demon lover. Once the demon has taken up residence, dominating intrapsychic life, it requires enormous effort to reclaim one's own life. Breaking the death-marriage bond to the demon lover may provide the psychic force necessary to sever the unconscious transmission of intergenerational trauma between mother and daughter. The author explores the reality of what it takes to transform the inner archetypal image of the demon lover into the beloved, an alchemical process equivalent to taking the prima materia , the nigredo , and transforming it into gold, making one capable of entering the highest degree of initiation represented by the hieros gamos . By interpreting the actions of perpetrators during violent sex crimes as symbolic, the researcher discovers an enantiodromia of the sacred rituals once preformed in honor of the dark goddess. It is concluded that an advancement of the psychological understanding of the dark, chthonic goddess archetypes such as Demeter, Persephone, Lilith, and The Black Madonna is necessary in any culture that wishes to decrease its incidents of extreme violence against women and to exist in a more balanced state.
<<link 728969111>>

In the present study, Bowlby's (1969/1982,1988a, 1988b) anxious avoidant attachment pattern was suggested theoretically as a developmental deficit which may be a predispositional factor in superior sales performance by contributing to the creation of a narcissistic-sociopathic personality organization such as was identified by Kemberg (1975/1992,1984,1998) and Meloy (1997). A single-factor quasi-experimental randomized group design was utilized to manipulate and vary the independent variable of sales performance using three treatment conditions that were established based on an income criterion. The randomized study sample of 60 subjects thus consisted of commissioned sales professionals in real estate, securities, and insurance, encompassing three treatment groups of 20 subjects each, namely, Condition P-I ., the high sales performance level (HSPL); Condition P-II ., the moderate sales performance level (MSPL); and Condition P-III ., the low sales performance level (LSPL). Each subject was given two psychodiagnostic instruments: (a)&nbsp;The MCMI-III (Millon, 1976-1997); and (b)&nbsp;The IRI (Davis, 1980-1996), in order to measure the four dependent variables of narcissism, sociopathy, affective empathy, and cognitive empathy. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the sets of data generated from the three treatment conditions of HSPL, MSPL, and LSPL. The Scheffé method was utilized to test for the significant mean differences between those conditions. The major findings of the study were that (a)&nbsp;narcissism and sociopathy, as measured by subscales of The MCMI-III and cognitive empathy, as measured by The IRI, varied positively as sales performance increased, and (b)&nbsp;affective empathy, as measured by The IRI, varied positively as sales performance decreased. Consequently, the results may be summarized by the following statement: The greater the sales performance, as measured by an income criterion, the greater the levels of narcissism, sociopathy, and cognitive empathy, and the lesser the levels of affective empathy. These findings further defined the roles of narcissism and sociopathy in superior sales performance while lending greater support to the research premise that empathy in superior sales performance is a multidimensional personality construct.
<<link 728093111>>
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The purpose of this study was to quantify the prevalence of Post-Operational Trauma in a selected sample of police officers who had used deadly force in the line of duty. This study was undertaken in an effort to determine if police officers experience, to a statistically significant degree, an identifiable, pathological, psychological syndrome, as a result of using deadly force in the line of duty. The Keane, Caddell, and Taylor (1988) Mississippi Scale for Combat-Related Post Traumatic Stress Disorder was administered to two groups of Los Angeles County Sheriffs Deputies. One group was a "Deadly Force Group" consisting of deputies who had used deadly force in the preceding four years. The second group was a "Non-Deadly Force Group" consisting of demographically similar deputies who had not used deadly force. A statistical analysis of the test results was performed and an analysis of variance ( t test) was conducted to assess the significance level of the independent variable. The primary research hypothesis was confirmed in this study. To summarize, there was an elevation on the test scores on the Civilian Mississippi Scale for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder between the Deadly Force and Non-Deadly Force groups. However, neither of these groups had a score that approached the criterion established for this test instrument to characterize a subject as having Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. This initial, albeit very limited, use of the Civilian Mississippi Scale for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder with a police population was a significant contribution to the understanding of stress (general and post-traumatic) in police populations.
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<<link 764855531>>

Imaginal psychology, named for its orientation to the image, espouses seeing through the image to its meaningful depth. The interest of this study is a particular aspect of the image which eludes seeing, or seeing through. It is the mobility of images. Mobility gives the image its life and significance; but movement, in isolation, apart from form, cannot be apprehended directly; and so, we shall approach it indirectly by means of metaphor. Our metaphorical device in this case is nearly as elusive as mobility, it is postmodernism. Postmodernism is metaphorical by nature. Considered variously as discourse, style, or critique, it offers itself only to interpretation and is capable only of interpretation. Here the postmodern discourse is read as mythology. Particular attention goes to those ideas within its discourse that offer us some meaningful connection to the nature of mobility. Ironically, the ideas that connect are precisely those that disconnect. The notion of disengagement, as elaborated by Joseph Campbell, offers us a meaningful way to read symbols. Postmodernism reads the world as symbol, by means of disengagement, thus its resemblance to mobility. Throughout the study, postmodernism is related to modernism as its complement: both are considered as essential and mutually dependent ways of thinking. It may be helpful to think of modernism as the reason of logos, and that postmodernism is the reason of mythos. Corresponding to these two styles of thinking, the writing style of this study mimics its subject by being both factual and fictional. Whereas most of the study is analytical and rational in style and in tone, there is an irrational, or, more accurately, a fictional voice that enters the text spontaneously. The final chapter is almost entirely in the fictional voice, repeating many of the points by earlier by the factual through the use of imagery, dreams, dialogue and poetry-to suggest that what is factual in our minds is indeed fiction.
<<link 727914371>>

This dissertation examines multiple personality disorder as a psychiatric category, and as an individual experience through a case study. Psychoanalytic concepts, specifically Kleinian and Jungian theories of transference, countertransference, primitive states of mind, shadow, animus, and soul are used as a framework for this examination. In order to understand multiple personality disorder (MPD), a review of the history, etiology, empirical findings, definitions and theories of dissociative disorders is included. The case material gathered during 7 years of therapy with a multiple is presented, including extensive journal entries, dreams, verbatim conversations with the Internal Self-Helper and a series of drawings made by the most primitive alter. Since neither Klein nor Jung applied their theories to MPD, new treatment recommendations for working specifically with dissociative disorders and multiple personalities are suggested. The clinician is encouraged to integrate psychoanalytic theory with current methodologies of working with dissociative disorders.
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In this dissertation, I was interested in exploring the meaning and experience of place attachment, the sense of bonding or belonging to particular physical or geographical places, from a depth psychological perspective. The significance of place in psychological life is often overlooked among clinical psychologists and depth psychologists, and yet an understanding of psyche-in-place is vital to a profession devoted to tending the psyche and the anima mundi, the oft neglected soul of the world. I interviewed five women in depth about their experiences with place across their life spans and related nighttime dreams using a phenomenological methodology. The meanings of place were ascertained by a combination of the descriptions of place experiences, the metaphors and etymology of the language used, the emergent images, dream analysis, and creative works, such as drawings and paintings, shared by the interviewees. Analysis of the interview material revealed particular images or themes of person-in-place that evolved over the individual's lifetime. The images reverberated throughout the individuals' lives, representing their relationship to place, their families, other individuals, their creativity, and the core of themselves. Metaphors of place were metaphors of their lives. The stories told that the self's existence is intimately connected to and dependent upon its placement; the self is, as it is in place. The most pronounced image that emerged out of the five stories was that of home and journey, a process of establishing home and embarking on journeys that together shaped the process of individuation. Each life story portrayed a different rhythm of home and journey, of attachment to and detachment from place, that was important in the unfolding of the self. Archetypal home emerged as a concept that described a person's sense of belonging to a particular place on earth, or as a sense of place that the person needed to facilitate her individuation process. The image of home and journey as a process of psychological development was further developed through readings in Jungian psychology, phenomenology, and environmental psychology, and was envisioned as a process of psychological growth suited to the contemporary, mobile, Western individual.
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Premenstrual Syndrome is a phenomenon which has been approached medically from the standpoint of every organ system, without any general consensus as to its actual cause or its effective treatment. Premenstrual Syndrome is also a cultural phenomenon which has increased in prevalence since the advent of the Industrial Revolution. Since the Industrial Revolution has also represented a dramatic and ongoing turn away from feminine values, it is conceivable that women with PMS are recalled through their symptoms to a collective unconscious memory of other eras in human history which did value the feminine. Hormonal fluctuations in mood and energy, as well as the periodic need to sleep, to dream, and to enter into a liminal state are often characteristic of women with Premenstrual Syndrome. Such experience recalls a woman perhaps to a culture or to a time when life was valued for its own sake and on its own terms, when the reality of earthly cycles and seasons were honored along with the normal rhythms of the human body, when communities were ordered by a principle of partnership instead of hierarchy and when a sense of the sacred was a part of everyday life instead of a matter of doctrine. The rage and depression which is often characteristic, too, may be a manifestation within the individual of the collective rage and grief of women throughout history who have been disregarded, shamed, and persecuted in the name of religion, economic expediency, and political gain. Symptoms, in Western healing traditions are problems to be overcome or subdued. Feminine values regard symptoms as harbingers of a wholeness which seeks to make itself known. Premenstrual symptoms, then, perhaps recall a woman and her community to grieve that which has been lost and forgotten, and to remember something about human community and feminine values which are left behind by modern pragmatism. A treatment of premenstrual syndrome will be a treatment which respects the individual woman's history as well as the collective memory which is held within the cells of the body and apprehended consciously through body symptoms, dreams, and images. It is a treatment in which relationship, between therapist and patient, between psyche and soma, between eros and logos, will be central. This process, reminiscent of archaic forms of feminine initiation, recalls a woman into her own essential nature, and enables her to work with her premenstrual symptoms not by fighting or overcoming them, but by honoring their message and listening for their meaning.
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The dramatic tale of Eros and Psyche is a timeless example of how one can transform within the individuation process while participating fully in the phenomena of life. The myth addresses powerful emotional complexes inherent to relationship: desire, regret, a betrayed love, subsequent suffering, and submission to onerous tasks that allow the soul to be awakened, through love leading to psychic consciousness, thus, transformation. The mythical cast of archetypal characters include Psyche, Eros, and Aphrodite, all guiding personifications of innate energies that bridge the erotic connection of the past with the present, from the human and the divine. These archaic mythical voices lend credence to the fact that the psyche itself is the primary healer. This dissertation explored Psyche's four tasks via three psychological theories: the object-relations psychoanalytic theory, the Jungian analytical theory, and the archetypal psychology paradigm. This dissertation contended that unifying the interpersonal and intrapsychic clinical insights of the developmental object relations theory grounds the transpersonal Jungian amplifications as well as archetypal psychology's imaginal reflections. Beginning with each of the four tasks with emphasis on image, metaphor, and theoretical application, the study applied a hermeneutic method. Interpretation of the myth's archetypal images augmented contemporary psychological understanding associated developmentally, transpersonally, and imaginally within the psyche's underpinnings of core instincts, human impulses, and burning desires. Task 1 was explored through each of the psychological theory's perspective of sorting the patient's varying degrees of consciousness linked to somatic intuition and organic knowledge. Task 2 was looked at psychologically from within the issue of the power differential found in the shadow of the healer-patient archetype. Task 3 was clinically interpreted as the integration of masculine and feminine elements of the unconscious that are necessary for every creative act. Task 4 was explored clinically in terms of accessing and integrating destructive and shadow elements of the personality by resuming an ancient dialogue with the unconscious via play, dreams, and dramatization. From this perspective, ongoing, soul-focused clinical work requires an understanding and regard for the physical form, the instinctual perception, an imaginal heart, and the intuition of psyche that maintains authentic relationship to the personal, transpersonal and imaginal aspects of the erotic divine. The study concluded that Psyche's tasks, as initiations into deeper levels of consciousness and transformation, are an important part of psychology's collective heritage, allowing psychotherapy to remain a true vocation of the soul.
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Self-doubt is a crisis in being. Based on the professed experiences and implied psychological structure of an introverted intuitive woman's voice in an amalgamated phenomenological recitation, this work explores an experience of self-doubt, and finds it to be a crisis in which the self is alienated from her own sense of self, from her relations with others, from a sense of connection with her culture, and from her identity as one of the human family. It is a crisis in which there is a fluctuation and a conflict in thought and feeling which gives rise to a disorientation about what is real, what is possible, what is good. "Something about who I am is self-doubt," writes the woman, "it is like 'doubt' is the state, that it precedes the 'self' part." She frequently is stuck in a frightened, paranoid-schizoid place, caught in a cycle fueled by her longing and patterns of remembering, which moves from the strong energy of desire, expectation, interest, and curiosity, through an automatic containment with questioning and ambivalence, into a reactive, associative, negativity of affect and thought, igniting harsh self-attack in which she stands outside herself and objectifies her actions, and thoughts, and feelings, which then excites strong energy again. She loses track of her subjectivity. In this cycle she is distanced from the part of herself which knows a more open and symbolic functioning, and cannot reliably access the depressive capacity for play. Possibility, life, narrows. This study synthesizes certain depth psychological approaches concerning the process of development of a sense of self, focusing on the disruption of this development in the existential tension of self-doubt, both in trapsychically and in the interrelational, cultural, and mythic contexts of the postmodern Western world. To date, very little has been directed in the literature to either the specific experience or the theoretical understanding of the ubiquitous and crippling phenomenon of self-doubt. With the text of this study I begin to form new theoretical connections among the various depth understandings in this area, work to open up and integrate insights within analytical psychology, psychoanalytic psychology, archetypal psychology, ego psychology, object relations, self and intersubjective psychologies, attachment and developmental theories of self, and parallel the individual subjective experience with its cultural-historical mirror in the modern Western world using theoretical writing, and mythological and poetic images. As such, this work is largely a theoretical dissertation using a hermeneutic and heuristic method, organized around a thematic and synthetic exploration of a psychological process and reality, which is established by a description through a created phenomenological monologue. In this process, the work elaborates a particular experience of self-doubt, identifies some structural and typological realities in this experience, isolates the experience of self-doubt in terms of a struggle with psychological separation and dependence, and in terms of its patterns of affect and cognition, and touches on its expression in the multiple realms of sense of self, making a beginning into understanding a significant psychological reality.
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This research is a textual hermeneutic investigation of the soma in psychoanalytic metapsychology. A systematic examination of the evolving role of the body in psychoanalytic metatheoretical principles is undertaken in order to answer the question: what is unconscious within the text of psychoanalytic metapsychological organizing principles in regard to the relationship between psyche and soma? A review of the evolving philosophical solutions to the mind-body problem serves as a context in which to evaluate the socio-historical influences which inform theory. The evolution of Freud's writings is explored in relationship to the nature of drives and the consequential casting of the body in the founding concepts of psychoanalysis. Several themes which portray psychoanalytic assumptions regarding the body are distilled. These include the nature of drives in the topographic and structural models, the relationship between or equation of the body and the unconscious, the role of words in negotiating the exchange between conscious and unconscious or psyche and soma, and the hierarchical valuation of psyche over soma. The research builds on this analysis to undertake a review of the contemporary metapsychological shifts to answer the question of whether or how these assumptions have either remained or been modified for contemporary theories. The major theoretical shifts represented by Melanie Klein and the Object Relations school as well as Heinz Kohut and the Intersubjective and Relational Systems theories are included in this analysis. The research concludes that psychoanalytic models have not overcome a tendency to be informed by unconscious organizing principles which infer a bias regarding the somatic dimension of experience. The organizing principles identified are: (1)&nbsp;The spirit-matter split and the ensuing mind-body split. (2)&nbsp;The overlay of a Judeo-Christian ascension myth upon the mind-body split and the consequent valuation of psyche over soma. (3)&nbsp;The association between the body and the unconscious. (4)&nbsp;The assumption that the reflective capacities are built on the chiasm between mind and body. It is suggested that insofar as theory informs clinical practice, metapsychological principles which carry these unconscious biases support clinical practice which is vulnerable to collude with intellectualization, avoidance of embodied awareness, alienation, and isolation.
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Millions of Americans who are afflicted with mental illness go untreated. When violence is a symptom, afflicted individuals have the potential to affect the unafflicted in their personal lives and in their community. This phenomenological study addresses this issue from the standpoint of depth psychology in order to expand the current clinical and sociological knowledge of the obstacles, both conscious and unconscious, to seeking treatment. Seven men who were enrolled in a batterer's intervention program were the research participants. The data obtained revealed three primary conscious obstacles to choosing psychotherapy: fear, inability to identify need, and resistance to change. In addition to these obstacles were three lesser but significant obstacles: a resistance to recounting the past, a lack of confidence in therapy or therapists, and a concern that treatment would not be confidential. 

The employment of a depth psychological lens revealed archetypal and mythic themes that emerged when psychic energy became autonomous within the interview process. Projections, resistance, and denial were exhibited but remained beyond consciousness. The stigma associated with mental illness was shown to be archetypal, active in the collective unconscious, and a redoubtable obstacle. The finding of determinate unconscious obstacles demonstrates the strength of psychological material that is present at the crossroads of decision. It is also significant that by qualitative standards, this study of seven individuals' experience of obstacles to choosing psychotherapy has a data base too small to generalize its findings, yet, the obstacles that manifested during the interviews are comparable to timeless traits that have been described in myth in numerous cultures for centuries. By utilizing depth psychology, the data were substantiated and generalized beyond the limits of what a traditional methodological approach could have provided. This result of the study supports the use of depth psychology in modern research.
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An experiment was conducted to investigate the role of psychological type in a simulated juror's verdict decision. The right to a fair trial by an impartial jury has been held to be a cornerstone of democracy, and juries have been charged with rendering verdicts based upon evidence. Recent research has suggested that when evidence was complex, weak, or voluminous, the role of extra evidentiary factors became more prominent. Furthermore, unconscious processes that affect everyone have not been measurable during jury selection; however, these processes undoubtedly affect verdict. In any case, although the presence of extralegal influences is indisputable, the specific determinants of juror's decisions have as yet not been conclusively determined. A recent unpublished pilot study which compared juror's psychological type and their verdict decision yielded highly significant results. The current study was an attempt to replicate these results. A diverse sample of 166 participants were recruited. Each of them completed a packet of materials that included a demographic information sheet, the Myers Briggs Type Indicator - Form M, a verdict form, and a reaction questionnaire. After completing the MBTI , they read a case vignette regarding battered woman syndrome including both the prosecution and defense arguments. They then filled out a verdict form and completed the reaction questionnaire. A chi-square analysis of the participants and their decision was conducted. Also, a comparison of psychological type and juror reactions was conducted through chi-square analysis. Reliable differences were not obtained on any of the hypotheses regarding verdict and the manner in which different psychological types viewed the case. The current study did not confirm the highly significant findings in the pilot study. As such, the study has demonstrated that psychological type cannot be assumed to contribute significantly to a juror's decision. Ironically, the study did demonstrate striking concordance between the groups, both in terms of verdict preference and their apparent understanding of the case. The results obtained likely reflect the fact that the case vignette presented the participant with a significant amount of evidence which was clear and as a result, extra-evidentiary factors did not enter in. Secondly, the case required the participants to accept two psychological constructs—battered woman syndrome and codependency. Participants overwhelmingly supported their relevance. Had less generally well-accepted psychological constructs been tested, significant differences between the groups may have been obtained. Finally, the study has pointed out the difficulty of quantifying or determining personality type as a static variable which could then be used to predict behavior.
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In this study Jung's theory of Psychological Types and the empirical science of Cognitive Styles are reviewed and compared. From this, three assertions can be drawn. The first is that the two fields are related, specifically regarding the thinking function and feeling function and their direct relationship to field independence and field dependence, respectively, of Cognitive Styles. The second assertion is that the thinking function and field independence are the natural expression of the archetypal masculine, and the feeling function and field dependence are the natural expression of the feminine. Coming from this relationship to the masculine and feminine is the third assertion: The field of Cognitive Styles is a metaphor for a too one-sided patriarchal Western culture. This one-sidedness and the problems it presents are described in relation to the culture, the educational system, and the individuals it contains.
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The psychopath may indeed be the perverted and dangerous frontrunner of a new kind of personality, which could become the central expression of human nature before the twentieth century is over. (Mailer, 1958, p. 282) This paper is a theoretic study that investigates how the struggles present in North American culture are fostering a generalized form of psychopathy and what this phenomenon suggests about the changing nature of human consciousness. Every age develops its own peculiar forms of pathology which signify underlying changes in the organization of personality in response to environmental, historic, and social changes. In the turmoil of today's milieu, psychopathy has become the role model for psychosemantic learning (attitudes, behavioral dispositions, beliefs, habits, values). Constitutional psychopathy is a disorder of the emotions which affects feelings, instincts, and volition in a pathologic way. Psychopathic drift refers to adaptational behaviors that mimic the psychopath's detached disregard for others as a neurologic defense against anxiety and conflict. This is a perceptual style of cognitive and emotional alienation used to separate the person from the impact of some aspect of its external or internal reality. Paradoxically, the fact that psychopathy has reoccurred throughout time and culture indicates a personality variable that nature finds necessary in her continual experiments to build bigger and better models of humanity. The be dismissed without thought as to how they may be developing our capacities to experience archetypal realities on an entirely different level. This study discusses the rise of the psychopath as role model as the possible entry of the new God-image (the next level of consciousness) intruding itself into the human psyche via its negative and destructive side. The iconic psychopath may be an intermediary figure borne of the disruptive shift from a psychologic consciousness to an energetics consciousness.
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This dissertation examines the psychospiritual experience of pain patients who attended and completed an outpatient stress reduction and relaxation program with the primary intent of diminishing their pain. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the psychospiritual transitions in persons meditating without the intended goal of having such experiences. Due to the desire for a systematic investigation of this subjective experience, a phenomenological method was chosen for the study. Four pain patients were selected who had completed the Stress Reduction and Relaxation Program at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center and who had also alluded in their questionnaire responses to psychospiritual experiences. They were asked to describe, in an open-ended interview their experience of attending the clinic for the diminishing of their pain. This clinic's core program was training in mindfulness meditation and stress reduction in both group and individual setting. They were then asked to speak to the continued changes in their lives as a result of their work in the clinic and on-going meditation. All of those interviewed were beginning meditators before participating in this stress reduction program. Data was analyzed according to the phenomenological method of Giorgi (1971, 1975). The results reflected the innate psychospiritual power of mindfulness meditation as participants integrated meditation into other change modalities in their lives (e.g. therapy, religious services, physical therapy, etc.). In actual meditation they reported a deepening of meaning of practiced religious experiences, a sense of the interrelatedness of life, a vision of the possibilities of new life and a peace or calmness. This manifested in their lives as shifts in an increased awareness of nature, a deepening of relationships, a broadening concept of God, an increased acceptance and kindness towards self, a more mindful perspective of events and/or an expanded vision of their life-world in which pain claimed a smaller portion. The individual changes differed but seemed to be the needed movement to bring more balance to their lives. Three of the four continued a light discipline of mindfulness meditation which they modified to fit their lives. Following the interview, the fourth also planned to continue, but the lack of group support appeared to be a detriment to this.
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In a pluralistic society such as the United States where several versions of the basic culture exist, an awareness of the cultural character, such as family system, health system, urban system, its value system and above at all, its political system, which for all practical purpose has lost the confidence of the people, becomes relevant for all mental health workers responsible for the evaluation of ethnical groups, to be aware of the psychic forces which arise when the therapist and patient come from different religious, socio-economic, or cultural backgrounds.
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This dissertation will attempt to modernize the classical psychoanalytic concept of the transference. Freud's brilliant initial insights into the existence, nature, and mechanisms of the transference phenomena were all formulated and consistent with the prevailing science of his day: the dualistic Cartesian paradigm of material realism that strictly separated mind from body and subject from object. The transference was originally envisioned as a mental process, an intrapsychic phenomenon carried by images projected back and forth between the minds of two discrete and isolated individuals. Transference by projection belies a belief in mind-body dualism and subject-object separation. This dissertation will challenge the notion of transference by projection that occurs by an imaginal exchange of images between separated minds. Separation of mind and body no longer exists in the modern quantum paradigm. Psyche could not project without involving soma; the transference must have an embodied component. As quantum mechanical bodies, no clear skin boundaries separate us. Rather, each of us is a radiant, emitting, resonant, vibrating being in constant and continuous energetic exchange with others. Newly embodied, the transference phenomena, rather than shared imaginal psychic projections, becomes a literal overlap of body-generated fields. This is a theoretical dissertation utilizing the thematic hermeneutical method. The literature reviews are organized in overlapping concentric circles, spokes on the wheel surrounding the hub of quantum alchemy, a new model of psychological transference. The conclusion reached by this dissertation is that an energetic exchange accompanies every meeting between two resonant quantum bodies. The transference is not a solely intrapsychic phenomenon. Rather, the interaction between two people takes place in a broad sphere—the interactive field. Every meeting is actually a mixing, a wave symphony of colliding electromagnetic fields. The transference is a psychosomatic process. The self of the healer/therapist is definitely an instrument of healing, and this is not just psyche, but resonant body as well. A therapist becomes an agent of healing through his or her bodily presence. Rather than just a projection between minds, the transference is also a synchronistic co-resonance between bodies.
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In a society driven by success, the experience of failure is often pushed to the periphery and is associated with shame and personal defect. Although various schools of psychotherapy deal with human failure, the potential of failure for personal transformation and growth is often overlooked and undervalued. This theoretical study explores the centrality of failure in such psychological concepts as self-object failure, symbolformation, and Bion's theory of thinking. With the help of models and ideas from the fields of semiotics, existential and postmodernist philosophy, as well as literature and poetics, failure is re-evaluated and re-positioned as one of the essential processes in human existence. Failure is a precondition for coming into contact with the unfamiliar and the unknown. In this way, the experience of failure is a necessary precondition for growth. I will use the hermeneutic method to explore human existence through a reparative paradigm: in this view through the continuous process of failing and repairing, we create our inner and outer worlds, deepen our relationships, develop our capacity to think symbolically, confront omnipotence and narcissism, and develop the ability to be alone within a relational matrix. In this exploration, the limitations of the responsiveness-model in self-psychology become apparent, as does the necessity to question therapeutic models that overemphasize traditional ways of knowledge and the authority of the psychotherapist. The usefulness of the conventional professional language of psychotherapy for reflecting the reality of the patient and therapist is also questioned. In this context, it is understood that psychotherapy itself has to fail in order that the underlying assumptions and expectations can become visible and the process of meaning-making and our participation in the co-construction of the world become transparent. Through conceptualizing psychotherapy as a failure-friendly space, the reparative paradigm becomes central and the transformative potential of failure can be used for profound psychological growth.
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This inquiry utilized a phenomenological and heuristic design and methodology to explore the experience of child-surrender. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with a small sample of birthmothers, and was amplified by the researchers own personal experience of this phenomenon. The design of this inquiry focused on these questions: "What does it mean to a woman's soul to give birth to a child she will relinquish to others to raise? What dimensions and phenomena are associated with this loss?" These are the perspectives from which the dynamics surrounding child-surrender were addressed. Five women, ages 40-62, were interviewed in depth about their experience. All of the participants had relinquished their first child to adoption, reuniting with these adult children years later. The interviews were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved two taped interviews, each 2 hours long. Participants were asked to speak, in as much detail as they chose, to the fundamental question: "What is it like to surrender a child to adoption?" The interviews were open-ended, informal, and interactive. From these interviews, written portraits were created, depicting how each birthmother lived the experience. Excerpts from the researchers own experience of child-surrender were included at the end of each portrait. Phase 2 consisted of a final, 1-hour interview providing each woman the opportunity to offer feedback on the accuracy of her portrait and to share what participating in the study was like for her. The participants' stories, offering a phenomenological glimpse into the soul of the experience of child-surrender, portrayed a deep and lifelong wounding, which manifested itself through hurtful dynamics within their families of origin, difficult dynamics with subsequent relationships and children, and a damaged sense of self. Although all experienced reunion with their adult children as healing, it did not fully resolve on-going grief resulting from years lost. Also emerging from the stories were echoes of archetypal motifs, dynamics of memory loss and repression, and pain and anger arising from shame induced by punitive cultural judgments and adoption practices in place at the time of relinquishment.
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Statement of the problem. This dissertation attempted to reclaim the Furies, to discover, relate to, dialogue with, understand, and incarnate the ancient Fury goddesses as they are presented in The Oresteia by Aeschylus. This work explored the notion of the opposites: Apollo and the Furies, light and darkness, masculine and feminine. My hypothesis was that reclaiming the Furies would help bridge these dichotomies and would lead to a way of moving between and incorporating, rather than splitting off and repressing these aspects of Self in our psyches and in the world. Method. The methodology of this work was hermeneutic and phenomenological. I used the metaphor of the spider and the web (suggested to me by the Furies themselves) to describe the process of observing, feeling, sensing, relating, connecting, spanning, bridging, spinning—webbing in order to understand and interpret. A condensed summary of the findings. The Furies are guardians of relationship. They assure justice. They help us to relate through understanding and appreciation of our kinship ties, and we demonstrate this understanding through the practice of the laws of hospitality. The Furies teach that all is interrelated, alive, and in process. We are required to host and to be hosted. In reclaiming the Furies, we reclaim our kinship to the living earth, our mother, to our own material body, to our feminine creative energy, to our passions and desires, to our mothering capacity to be fertile and pregnant with possibility, to hold and nurture our creations and bring them to birth. We also reclaim the blessing of our mortality, our symbolic and actual death, as a return to the earth, a means of transformation and resurrection. The preeminence of the Apollonian stance in the individuation process is transformed to include the feminine and the relational in the process of becoming.
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The intention of this study was to understand more deeply the subjective experience of the body-self relationship of an adult with a history of traumatic childhood sexual abuse. This was accomplished by tracking the experience, within a series of eight guided movement sessions, of an adult with such a history. This study was a phenomenological investigation of the lived experience of the subject. The data used to determine the results and conclusions were the self-reports of the subject. The analysis of the data attempted to track the self-reported patterns of bodily felt experience, associated imagery and memories as they emerged over time. This analysis clarified the delicate process of reconnecting to the body. Distinct patterns of how the subject related to her body emerged from the analysis of the data. As the series unfolded, there was a fluctuating shift in focus from imagery to increasing awareness of body movement experience and emotions. Patterns of defensive moves were delineated. These defenses occurred in relation to the subject's ability to sustain and deepen emotional states; the degree of integration of image, affect and body sensations; mind-body relatedness; and body-movement awareness. Throughout the series, memories became increasingly connected to body sensations and associated affect. Varied archetypal themes emerged from the subject's developing process. These included motifs of light and dark, body and psyche, rebirth and transformation, and mother and child. The vivid and dichotomous nature of the polarity within some of these themes reflected the dissociative and sudden disconnecting or severing impact of traumatic phenomena. The exploration of these archetypal themes also brought forth guiding elements in support of her healing process. The focus on body movement supported the unfolding process of the retrieval of parts of herself and the reconnecting to bodily felt experience. The clarification of the patterns of approach and avoidance as related to bodily felt experience and the revealing of significant themes can inform psychotherapists in their work with adults with such a history. The subject's description of her lived experience provided an inside understanding of how a traumatized individual experiences his or her body, emotions, and associated imagery.
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The soul is an essential aspect of each of us. When soul murder is committed, the desire to continue living is diminished; the victim seeks ways to compensate for this injury, ritual sexual abuse is a source of soul murder. The specific sexual acts of clergy against their young parishioners are patterned after the dominator behavior of the patriarchy. Throughout history, there appears a lack of regard for women and children by most forms of organized religion adhering to the patriarchal model. This study unpacks and clarifies the origins, symptoms, and consequences of the spiritual disconnect resulting from Ritual Sexual Abuse. A common thread in every story documented herein is the ability to dissociate. The dissociation was so extreme that these parts or alters began to take charge and control the entire inner system. The focus of the interviews included was to determine what affect the ritual sexual abuse had on the individual's spiritual life. What was learned? Each woman acknowledged the existence of a "divine spark or light" that was always present during the abuse. It was as if a part of her soul was "walled off" and protected from the trauma. These women felt abandoned by God, parents and community, and began creating alters as a means to create safety and survival. In some cases, particular alters were designated to protect the soul part and to be the recipients of the ritual abuse, thus permitting the core person to remain alive and functioning. It is my contention that by accepting as divine truths the liturgy, images, and symbols of patriarchal religions that marginalize or imprison women and children, society continues to condone abusive and denigrating practices through its silence. No one is saved by silence. Catherine of Siena, a 14 th -century mystic, said, "Speak the truth in a million voices. It is silence that kills." The silence demanded by their perpetrators has been preventing these women from healing. The therapist who chooses to work with these victims needs to be an effective listener, an open-hearted witness dislodging fear, and an encouraging supporter of the healing journey ahead.
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This dissertation presents a hermeneutic theoretical discussion of love as it pertains to the person of the therapist and the therapeutic setting. What is not really discussed in the field of depth psychology is the concept of the importance of therapists' attitudes toward love; both in their personal lives and the subsequent theoretical implications. The purpose of this study is to discuss love as a psychological idea and to evaluate its relevance to the practice of psychotherapy. Love is explored and illuminated as it affects personal, collective, and therapeutic endeavors. A study of love in the therapeutic relationship engages the reader to consider the preeminence of the topic of love, a topic that has been marginalized far too long. 

Love is explored through the prisms of classical Greek mythology, historical psychoanalysis, current psychoanalytical theoretical positions in the psychoanalytic community, archetypal psychology, and personal reflections presented as reveries. The vantage point provided by various approaches to love from throughout history and the literature of depth psychology allows love to take center stage in this work.
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The purpose of this study is to explore relational trauma in early childhood and its influence on the regulatory function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and corresponding personality structure. The method of inquiry will be a theoretical-hermeneutic and correlational design. Relational trauma in early childhood will be generally defined as an impairment of the ANS's ability to regulate one's psychobiological processes while experiencing an environmental stressor. These dysregulated processes consist of cognition, emotive feedback, and affect from one stimulus to the next, as a result of having experienced various degrees of one or more of the following: abandonment, neglect and/or physical abuse during the first two years of human development. Findings of this study suggest that when there has been relational trauma in early childhood, a more rigid and less flexible personality structure is developed allowing the adult in later years to experience the feeling of a more predictable internalized impression of stability (secure base). Furthermore, with the decrease in tolerance for ambiguity comes an increase in dualistic inflexible cognitive function.
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For more than 18 years I have examined my own personal stories and searched through volumes of literature for reports of people who have shared numinous or transcendent experiences. This search was prompted by a need to understand a profound experience that manifested during my own personal life journey, which occurred after a friend and I made a commitment to study together, to risk growth through personal sharing, and to become more conscious. That life-changing experience has become a pivotal point in both of our lives. Thus, the purpose of this dissertation is to explore (a)&nbsp;how intimacy within a relationship can become a vehicle for developing the self to its deepest levels, (b)&nbsp;the nature of the numinous and how it is perceived in a variety of genres, and (c)&nbsp;how intimacy in relationships and the numinous can come together in a shared experience of the radiant sacred. This dissertation addresses the following question: How does intimacy in relationship open doors to a mutual experience of the transcendent? To explore this question it became necessary to weave together two seemingly unrelated topics; personal relationships and extraordinary experiences. Although the term extraordinary experiences can include a variety of unusual happenings, from drug-induced altered states of consciousness to an awareness of the presence of God, this work concentrates only on experiences that refer to God, a Supreme Being, Ultimate Reality, or spirituality. I approach this work as a phenomenological self-study, describing and analyzing personal lived experiences from a theoretical perspective using a thematic hermeneutic method. By placing relationships and experience in the center of the circle, the radiating spokes investigate specific topics such as religion, psychology, pathology, mythology, power, energy, and therapeutic considerations. I approach each topic as both a story teller and academic investigator as I reflect and critique each area of study in the light of personal experience. As various subjects are reflected upon, I have remained mindful that my goal is to better understand particular phenomena rather than setting my sites on a final explanation of the topic.
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The existential underpinnings of our current global situation can be framed in the context of failing cultural myths and the resultant lost connection to the Divine, a condition that Carl Jung identified as the spiritual problem of modern men and women. A connection to a living religious myth is essential for mental health and well-being. However, many individuals are no longer contained in an existing religious myth because the teachings, symbols, and rituals no longer contain meaning or an experience of the sacred. Others may continue to attend their churches but are spiritually hungry for something more than what their faith can provide them. Some individuals may have suffered a kind of wounding in their original faith, leaving them hostile, angry, or indifferent to traditional churches and their teachings. Neglect of one's religious instinct can manifest as chronic depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and various addictions but the deeper problem is in fact a religious one. Individuals who cannot respond to any existing Eastern or Western religious myths may be carrying the seed of a new myth, not only for themselves, but also for the evolutionary advancement of their culture, and ultimately for the evolution of consciousness. To journey in search of a new faith, via a personal mythology, requires nothing short of a total reexamination of one's ontological worldview. The result is a personal connection to the numinous, a religious solution for one's religious problem. The depth psychologist, as opposed to a modern scientific-based psychologist, is in a unique position to assist and witness such an individual's experience. This is a theoretical work employing a thematic hermeneutic method. It has a heuristic sensibility as it focuses on personal experiences in addition to the interpretation of written theoretical texts. The study explores the relationship between depth psychology and the individuation process as viewed through a religious lens. It asks the primary question, "How does the field of depth psychology understand, from a historical, mythological, and psychological perspective, the religious problems of individuals who cannot be contained or recontained in their original faith?"
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Remembering Orpheus Resurrecting Eurydice is a depth psychological analysis of the relationship between myth, biography, and culture. In broad terms the work examines the boundary between myth and history and weaves a narrative of the history of an archetype. In specific terms the work is a hermeneutic inquiry into the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice and an examination of myth's ongoing significance in the lives of three sets of "musical poets" and their beloveds: Dante and Beatrice, Frederic Chopin and George Sand, and Elvis and Priscilla Presley. The project situates a set of mythic biographies within western cultural history. These biographies are bi-focal in quality presenting a view into the "interior" fantasy life and "exterior" historical circumstances of the persons considered. This view into an individual's biography permits a deeper understanding of the importance of the mythic underpinnings of an individual life and reveals both continuity and change in the expression of mytho-poetic images from the Greek era to the 20 th century. The myth of Orpheus and Eurydice is "lived forward" in the lives and literary, or musical, productions of the historical persons under consideration: Dante, Chopin, Sand, Elvis, and Priscilla are pre-occupied with dreams and fantasies rich with the themes and imagery inherent to the myth and to a greater or lesser degree live out the drama of Orpheus and Eurydice myth in their lives and relationships. As the myth is lived forward the "poet" gifts new visions of the myth to culture. Orpheus, Dante, Sand, and Elvis each exerted a tremendous influence in cultural history. This project looks specifically at both the representations of the "beloved" and the representations of the poet's "body" as a hermeneutic starting point to unfolding a history of consciousness in the West. The work argues that there have been changes in consciousness over the course of cultural history and that the poets have made these changes explicit to their audiences. Changes in epistemological perspective have shifted our experience of the relationship between the mythopoetic imaginal world and the historical world. If we engage the world from the integrated perspectives offered by these poets, that of the mind, the heart, the hands, and the body, we comprehend we live in a deeply intertwined imaginal reality.
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One's memory is one's history. This phenomenological investigation focuses on the deep history of infancy: the time from before one begins to walk or talk. This form of memory is not generally recognized in psychological literature. In fact, it is usually dismissed as a nonevent under the designation of infantile or childhood amnesia. The results of this research present a coherent and consistent array of information about the subjective experience of infancy: what is noticed and how that is responded to. Although the focus is adult memory of infancy, it may be that the medium of adult memory is a way to access the infant mind. In effect, the data of the overlooked information from very early memories may stretch the understanding of what it means to be human during the first 18 months of life and earlier. Why does western culture believe that the earliest moments of life cannot be recovered? Is society invested in the forgetting of childhood? This study examines the roots of current belief and documents the recollections of 25 people with very early memory. Their narratives of remembering infancy, as well as the memories of 109 clinical, literary, and autobiographical authors, comprise the data. Descriptive summaries of the phenomenon and what it is like to live with the ability to recall infancy are taken from these narratives. The memories reveal a developing sense of time, the beginnings of language, access to the powerful emotions of infancy, and an early awareness of self. Applications for the practice of depth psychology, especially as it pertains to engendering a sense of self, healing family ties, and nurturing spirituality, are discussed. Suggestions for further work conclude the research. Appendixes include standard research tools plus a glossary and a compendium of very early memories gleaned from written sources.
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This inquiry utilized a phenomenological and heuristic design and methodology to explore the experience of joy in the therapist and the psychotherapeutic process. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with a small sample of psychotherapists. The design of this inquiry focused on the questions: What is joy to you? How would you describe your experiences of joy? Are you aware of the experience of joy within the psychotherapeutic process? Is the experience of joy an agent of healing and transformation within the psychotherapeutic process? Seven therapists, ages 40-70, volunteered to participate in the in-depth interviews following their completion of a questionnaire on joy. All therapists were licensed a minimum of one year. The interviews were conducted within a two week period at the convenience of the co-researchers. All interviews were concluded with the question: "What has this experience of remembering joy been like for you?" Participants were asked to speak in as much detail as they chose to the above questions. The interviews were open-ended and interactive. From these interviews, portraits were created illustrating the lived experience of joy for each of these therapists personally and professionally. The co-researcher's stories, offering a phenomenological view of the experience of joy, portrayed the experience of joy as varied and personal with elements of the transcendent. Blocks to joy were acknowledged along with the expressed need to make space for its possible return by remembering it. These stories revealed that paying attention to joy's reality created an opportunity for individuals to participate in joy's unfolding and developing nature. These therapists' recognized the experience of joy as healing and transformative personally and in the psychotherapeutic process despite their explicit lack of reference to the word 'joy'.
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The complex syndrome of compulsive overeating is the most understudied of all the eating disorders. Many women suffering from this disorder go undetected. They are viewed as having a problem with will power and food as compared to a full psychological syndrome. The origins of this 91 disorder are in childhood relationships, particularly with the mother. The maternal archetype is not constellated. Lacking adequate mothering from others and themselves, these women live in the negative pole of the archetypal energies. They call this their disease of compulsive overeating. This dissertation looks at the current research on the syndrome of compulsive overeating including the psychodynamic view, the physical basis of the addiction and the Overeaters Anonymous recovery program. To better understand this syndrome, six women who profess to be healing from the disorder were interviewed and asked to describe the course of their illness and what was helpful for healing. All were participants in the 12-step recovery group, Overeaters Anonymous. Their interviews were analyzed from a phenomenological perspective into five core themes and twenty-two clusters. All the women reported having experienced a spiritual awakening as a result of participating in the program. Through relationships with others in the program, following the principles of the program and attending the meetings, they were mothered into a state of health such as they never had experienced before. Their wounds were nursed and healed. The weight came off and stayed off. The positive pole of the Great Mother archetype was constellated in their psyches and they were able to disengage from the negative pole of it. This dissertation offers a new perspective on the treatment of the eating disorders, particularly on compulsive overeating. It does not just focus on diets, exercise or fat grams, but on an introduction into a more feminine way of being in a world that supports the masculinity of the patriarchy.
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This dissertation inquires into the phenomenon of severe dissociation, specifically exploring altered states of consciousness commonly reported by dissociated individuals. Rather than addressing the altered state experience as related exclusively to a defense mechanism, and therefore keeping it connected to a pathological state, this study investigates the idea that dissociation opens a doorway to invisible worlds, which allow an individual to enter hidden and mysterious dimensions, spiritual and numinous in nature. The inquiry explores two related questions: (1)&nbsp;How might violent and explosive dissociation be construed as an opening of the psyche, through altered states of consciousness, into unexplored regions of the psyche? and (2)&nbsp;How might altered states of consciousness be understood as propelling a dissociated individual into other realities that may be independent of, or even lie outside of, the unconscious or psyche? This work is grounded in historical movements that parallel the usual mainstream understandings about dissociation. Mainstream depth psychological research followed a path that originated with Pierre Janet and found support through the work of Sigmund Freud, both of whom construed dissociative states as pathological. This study contrasts this mainstream tradition with a parallel movement that is highlighted in the works of William James and Carl Jung and further articulated by the field of archetypal psychology. The study demonstrates how this latter movement honors multiplicity, dissociation, and other anomalous psychic experiences as manifestations of the psyche's inherent activity. The study thus criticizes mainstream interpretations that foster a one-sided pathologized view of dissociation and altered state experiences at the expense of the transcendent and mysterious possibilities inherent in those experiences. This study then offers a different approach to understanding anomalous experiences by synthesizing visionary traditions with traditional psychological theory. Evidence is gathered from religious, mystical, and cultural traditions drawing on the voices of shamans and mystics to radically revision our understanding of altered state experiences. Quantum physics is also visited and used to support a paradigm shift for holding unusual psychic experiences within the realm of science. The result offers a container that provides a way to hold altered state experiences that is richer and more soulful than traditional mainstream research, one that allows room for an understanding of ways that spirit and soul wander in a psychological environment that is more inclusive of unusual and nonordinary experiences within and beyond imaginal space.
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This dissertation employs a thematic hermeneutic method to reveal qualities of a psychodynamic phenomenon, reverie, through a dialectic between psychoanalytic and Jungian points of view. Noting that reverie as a term occurs with increasing frequency in depth psychological discussion, this study assumes an attitude of contemplation that seeks out the appearances of reverie among depth psychological theories and discovers reverie as a point of intersection. This study responds to an overarching research question that contemplates how psychoanalytic and Jungian formulations of reverie complement one another. This project initially notes the work of Bion, Winnicott, and Ogden in terms of reverie and intersubjectivity in tandem with the contemplations of Jung, Hillman, Bachelard, and Romanyshyn in terms of reverie and the imaginal. Mythopoeic themes of chaos and creation are associated with reverie, and linked to a contemporary image of chaos and complexity that allows for a multidimensional phenomenological view. The project then explores the relationship of reverie and hermeneutics, finding reverie to be a mode of awareness uniquely suited to phenomenology, and revealing the roles of hermeneutics and reverie in the psychotherapeutic encounter. The work then attends to parallel observations arising out of the fields of interpersonal neurobiology and cognitive linguistics. A phenomenological sense of reverie is illuminated in a dialectic between Winnicott's (1971) notion of potential space and Bachelard's (1958/1994) images of spatiality. Finally, the psychoanalytic view and the Jungian view are revealed as complementary valences. This study finds that psychoanalytic based formulations of reverie tend to emphasize relational and intersubjective aspects, with implicit attention to reverie's relationship to image, whereas Jungian attitudes tend to emphasize the role of reverie in accessing image, while acknowledging the importance of relationship in establishing the conditions for this imaginal work. The results of this discussion suggest that a clinical attitude that recognizes both aspects of reverie, relational and imaginal, provides the fullest possible potential for transformation and growth in the psychotherapeutic endeavor.
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This dissertation employs a thematic hermeneutic method to critique and revise psychoanalytic theory on countertransference. Psychoanalytic theory is criticized for its reliance on subject/object epistemology. The subject/object assumption is initially found in the early orthodox views that were committed to the idea of the neutral analyst, and then located in the supposed second tier of countertransference theory that described its constructive possibilities. The subject/object assumption is also detected within contemporary psychoanalytic intersubjectivity theory, which has been a partially successful attempt to resolve the epistemological dilemma. Intersubjectivity theory's incomplete resolution rests against a philosophical backdrop composed of the works of Sartre, Husserl, and Heidegger. In this context, it is suggested that intersubjectivity theory has been successful in resolving only one-half of the Cartesian dilemma, but neglects the inherent mind/body split by failing to elucidate the nature of embodiment. Thus, implicitly at least, intersubjectivity theory perpetuates subject/object epistemology. A proposed resolution is drawn out of Merleau-Ponty's latter phenomenological work on the notion of flesh . Merleau-Ponty refers to perceptually extended flesh as composed of partially visible and partially invisible (i.e., not perceptually apprehended, but apprehended nonetheless) dimensions. Flesh is constituted by an intertwining of sensory modalities with the elements of the perceptual field. An elucidation of psychoanalytic epistemology and ontology free of the subject/object assumption is undertaken while drawing on the notion of flesh . Yet limitations are found in the use of the notion of flesh , for it does not contain the activity of human motility and thus does not fully capture the embodied phenomenological experience of analytic encounter. Romanyshyn's work on the gestural field is discussed in terms of adding motility to Merleau-Ponty's flesh . But limitations are addressed in that the notion of gesture neither fully amplifies, nor fully animates, flesh . The final hermeneutic turn is toward pantomime , which inhabits flesh in the fullest, most animate, sense. It contains not only the motility of gesture (with its corresponding image and mood) but also the dialectical elements of persona and character. The work on pantomime, then, in conjunction with reverie, clears the ground for a fuller resolution of subject/object dichotomy within countertransference theory.
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The topic of this study is the recovery of the ancestral landscape. In many traditional cultures, remembering one's ancestors is a ritualized practice which is fully integrated into daily life and embedded in the actual geographical habitat of the tribe or clan. In the United States, the dominant culture was formed primarily through immigration, a phenomenon which disengages individuals from vital connections to land and to traditions. This dissertation explores the meaning of recovering the ancestors within our own cultural milieu. This dissertation is a depth psychological approach to exploring the recovery of the ancestral landscape. It is a reflective work on the researcher's personal experience of the ancestral. The method used in this hermeneutic study is heuristic. Much of the text used is a transcription of the sensory and affectual experience of the presence of the ancestral archetype. This study depends upon the concept of the imaginal as a way to gain access to the collective ancestral. Memories of family, reveries, and imaginal stories are treated as texts. Because psychological literature yielded very little applicable to the imaginal ancestral, these texts are interpreted using an eclectic collection of materials that include philosophy, mythology, sociology, physics and the physical sciences, poetry, and fiction. This study finds that the ancestors have not left us. It finds that personal signs and symbols of ethnic identity—language, traditions, values and activities—form both a physical and a more subtle landscape that evokes and invites the presence of the ancestors. The study argues that daily ritual, habits, and the life of the senses invite reveries that evoke the ancestral archetype on both the personal and collective level.
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This dissertation forms new theoretical links between concepts concerning the "nature" of masculinity and the influence of "nurture" upon it. The thrust of the argument is that masculinity is poorly understood by psychology. Its masculine ideals primarily emerge from: (1)&nbsp;Nineteenth century empirical science's reflection of Judeo-Christian, Western culture. (2)&nbsp;The revisions of 20th century anima-focused theory. In an attempt to revision, masculine stereotypes which generate pathology for contemporary men, this dissertation contrasts American males' personal revelations with ancient and cross-cultural images from diverse mythologies. New templates are drawn, through which one can view men's lives and behavior. This new paradigm supports life-affirming, creative, and nurturing male capacities in balance with nature and women. This new image of masculinity may serve the amelioration of many gender-specific, male pathologies. This work does not continue the move of recent decades encouraging men to "get in touch" with their femininity. Nor is this work an anti-feminist backlash harkening us back to the anachronistic, dominating and heroic male model. Rather a third view emerges—a modern, psyche-centered theory of deep masculinity. A hard, deconstructive look is taken at dysfunctional beliefs regarding the ontological nature of masculinity. One finding is that in many arenas, what is needed is not change, but rather, positive regard for, and understanding of the essential ways in which males are different and uniquely contribute to relationships and culture. Reverse sexism and negative counter-transference toward men are explored. A critical look at scientific literature on gender differences is taken. Specific suggestions for new training are offered, including detailed information about male-specific styles of language and feeling, including the implications these have for approaching male individuation and healing. Suggestions for new, male-specific psychotherapeutic treatment methodologies are made, including an in-depth investigation of the value of nonprofessional groups.
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In this study the author cites the emerging theoretical convergence of Jungian Analysis, Self Psychology and Clinical Hypnosis as a basis for a quantitative study that compares the effects of psychotherapy, into which formal hypnotic ego/self-strengthening techniques have been incorporated, to psychotherapy in which they have not. The research questions are drawn from the exploratory nature of the theoretical conceptualizations of this seminal study. They are proposed in a way that allows the discovery of empirical measures for the presumptive gains of the hypnotherapeutic experience. The integrative compendium of organizing conceptualizations that are presented are as follows: (a) That self object validation is vital to the maturation of the self to a constant consciousness of self-worth. This consciousness of self-worth can be made available in the intersubjective, ego/self-strengthening experience of the Special Place Trance technique of clinical hypnosis; (b) That the Special Place Trance experience can provide a context for the symbolization of unconscious contents, including archetypal self object imaging, that are analogous to the intersubjective therapeutic experience which activates the transcendent function; and, (c) That the appropriate objective measures of this transformative process are discovered within the results of efforts to employ an intersubjective attitude in the research endeavor. This study uses a randomly assigned, posttest only, experimental approach that investigates the possible cause-and-effect relationship between the hypnotic trance experience and the subjects' concept of self (measured by 13 scales on the Tennessee Self Concept Scale) and locus of control (measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal External Control Scale). Two groups of subjects are employed. One is an experimental group of 18 adult women, each of whom receives five psychotherapy sessions including the hypnotic trance experience. The other is a control group of 18 adult women, who receive five psychotherapy sessions without the hypnotic trance experience. The results of the (chi-square and analysis of variance) statistical analysis between the two groups on each of the seven demographic variables tested (Age, Marital Status, Years of Education, Ego Level, Previous Psychological Treatment, Taking Psychotropic Medication, Using Alcohol) are not significant. This shows that the experimental and control groups are well matched. However, the results of the analysis of variance of the dependent measure scores show that there is no significant difference between the experimental group scores and the control group scores. In lieu of a third group who receive no therapy, a z-test that compares the study sample scores and the normative sample data on the TSCS and the ANSIE suggests that a significant difference exists between the study sample and the general population. A correlation matrix of the total scores of the dependent measures and the qualifying variable (Ego Level as measured by the Washington State Sentence Completion Test for Women) illustrates that expected intercorrelation exists between five scales' scores. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
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This dissertation proposes three main theses: that contemporary American girls suffer unnecessarily at puberty, that they would benefit from a rite of passage designed to help them transition from childhood to adolescence, and that Sandplay is a suitable vehicle for a rite of passage for girls at puberty. A review of the literature reveals that pre- and early-adolescent girls have been regarded over time and across cultures and ideologies to suffer a decline in exuberance and self-assurance. Contemporary girls endure the same disequilibrium experienced by girls of the ancient world. In addition, our society exacerbates their confusion by advocating conflicting qualities. Urged to be both strong and demure, ambitious and submissive, but above all nice rather than genuine, girls often lose confidence in the validity of their own thoughts and feelings. They stop speaking up for themselves. For many, it becomes a permanent loss of voice. Traditional societies assisted girls in bridging the gap between childhood and adulthood by providing a rite of passage. Girls' rites typically followed a three-stage pattern of enclosure, transformation, and emergence back into society. Secluded in her enclosure, a girl's tendency to silence and passivity was given a ritual container. There spiritual encounters with the gods and goddesses of her culture transformed the girl into a woman who trusted her inner resources and knew herself. Enclosure, solitude, silence, and a meeting with archetypal entities were required in order to emerge a reborn woman. Analysis of a psychotherapy case demonstrates the benefits of Sandplay as a rite of passage for contemporary girls. Pubertal girls struggle to communicate verbally; Sandplay permits silent, nonverbal communication. The setting, the sandtrays, and the therapeutic relationship provide enclosure. Transformation occurs as the girl confronts universal themes of puberty by depicting them in sand scenes. The therapist's respectful honoring of the initiand's inner life allows her to regain trust in her powers of discernment. Sandplay benefits girls in the way of traditional rites of passage, by enabling them to emerge with confidence in the wisdom of their personal truth.
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This dissertation examines the awakening of homosexual libido within individual subjectivity as a means of initiating the personality to its own erotic desires and possibilities of authentic destiny. Reclaiming a vision of gay experience within the landscape and history of Imaginal Iran, the dissertation looks at poems, myths, and narratives from Zoroastrian and Persian Sufi traditions in order to develop a gay-centered myth of meaning that can give voice to the unique horizons of gay experience. The role of homosexual libido in differentiating the individual from collective belief-systems is explored by drawing parallels between the modern experience of coming out and the Sufi tradition of mystical initiation through homosexual romance. Grounded in Jungian and psychoanalytic theory, the study addresses key aspects of gay male individuation, including a gay man's struggle to consciously own his gay shadow and to integrate a "feminine" attitude of receptivity within a masculine identity. The dissertation weaves together phenomenological, hermeneutic, post-modern, and depth-psychological approaches to create a methodology of subjectivity suitable for studying gay experience that includes the examiner's own intuitions, feelings, and sensations in its verification criteria for safeguarding "objectivity". This approach places the individual as the final arbiter of any psychological discovery and, thus, provides unique solutions for the understanding of sacred phenomena that are firmly grounded in the felt-experience of embodied subjectivity. Homosexual libido can be understood symbolically as an engine of transformation that releases the personality from the bonds of collective heterosexism and brings into experience the authentic possibilities of one's own erotic imagination. Because the conscious realization of homosexual libido places one outside collective norms, it compels one to re-examine the relationship one has established to society at large and to question previously-cherished systems of belief one has taken for granted as one's own. In this way, the process that leads to the formation of gay identity models for society at large a new way of understanding individuality that integrates the shadow personally and helps to liberate all people from their unconscious dependence upon collective patterns of thinking and feeling that are ultimately rooted in their mergers with internalized familial complexes.
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Earth's population is aging so rapidly, it is said that two-thirds of those in history who have lived to be 65 years of age are currently alive (Haas, 2000). Given a society where youth is revered and extended lifetimes are healthier and more active, psychologists need to understand the self-perception of individuals in the years between middle age and old age—-55 to 80 years-of-age—-the late-life transition. In a therapeutic setting, knowledge of the patient's self-perception is important in defining treatment objectives. This paper considers the milieu for those aging in early 21 st -century United States, and provides a brief overview of lifespan developmental psychology with a focus on Erik Erikson's epigenetic developmental model. An extended methodology section describes the theory of Q methodology as a valid approach for depth psychological research. The study investigates the subjective self views of 40 volunteers from a general population, aged 55 to 80 years, using a Q sort based on Erikson's eight-stage epigenetic developmental theory. Factor analysis revealed a primary factor, on which all but three participants loaded at the .01 level of significance. The factor describes an adult who feels competent and confident and is highly relational and spiritually connected. Four other factors show adults with (a)&nbsp;concerns of becoming ill, (b)&nbsp;defiance of aging in the face of reduced ability, (c)&nbsp;dogged determination to continue with life despite a failing body, and (d)&nbsp;despair over a life not lived as desired. Indicating a fairly stable positive self-perception of individuals between 55 and 80 years of age, without significant variations for gender or age, the results confirmed other studies' conclusions that illness or other factors are more likely to affect self-perception than chronological age. There was also support for Joan Erikson's addition of a ninth stage of development to Erik Erikson's theory. Of concern for treatment of individuals in this age group is the intricacy of the self view as shown in mixed loadings of some participants on both the first factor and one or more minor factors. The confounding issues are described and discussed for their implications for psychotherapy.
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This study examines the function of compulsive sexual behavior. Eight homosexual male participants were interviewed. Participants' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors were examined based on contemporary theoretical constructs. Participants shared or revealed personal experiences, personal information, and memories regarding the topic of sexuality and sexual addiction. Participants' responses were utilized to compare, analyze, and categorize identified significant statements. Significant statements were used to evaluate theories that best account for the development and etiology of the phenomenon in question. Common themes were developed based on these identified significant statements. The common themes are correlated with scientific research regarding human sexuality, sexual behavior, and the neurobiology of addictive behaviors. The findings are also compared with established theoretical constructs from depth psychological, psychodynamic, object relations, and developmental studies. Findings demonstrated participants' inability to form intimate relationship with others. As reported by subjects interviewed, sexual acts do not function merely for sexual pleasures or gratification alone. Sexual behaviors are best understood as expressive functions: an attempt for one to become more conscious as one moves along the path of individuation.
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This study sought to discover to what extent, if at all, we should use essentialist and constructionist paradigms to understand the phenomenon of sexual orientation. In order to find out, a phenomenological study was devised to discover if changes in culture over the past 50 years had significantly affected the process of sexual identity development among homosexual men.

The study was accomplished by first reviewing the literature to determine that changes in cultural attitudes and theory had indeed occurred, over the past 50 years, in regard to homosexuality. Secondly, data was gathered from two different age groups, who grew up in cultures with different attitudes towards sexual orientation. The first age group consisted of ten homosexual men from the baby boomer generation, while the second group was comprised of ten homosexual men in their early to mid 20s (the "echo generation"). Thirdly, using the Giorgi Method (Giorgi, 1985) of data analysis, the results from the two age groups were compared. The comparison demonstrated that there were far more similarities than differences between the groups in terms of the overall process of developing a sexual identity. The only significant difference between the two was that the younger group tended to start the coming out phase of their sexual identity development at an earlier age than the older group.

The results from this study provide strong phenomenological evidence that the internal process of developing a sexual identity among homosexual men is an enduring one that is not significantly affected by changes in culture. However, this study also showed that changes in culture may influence the age at which one goes through the coming out stage of this process, even if the essential elements of that process appear to be stable across time and culture. Such a finding lends support to an essentialist view of sexuality that is slightly interactionist in its consideration of the timing with which the sexual identity development process unfolds. Age-sensitive sexual identity development models, which are primarily based on essentialist and interactionist ideas, are therefore appropriate theoretical tools for use in the clinical setting when treating homosexual men.
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This study examines the expressive function of compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB) in a sample of urban gay men through the symbols, metaphors, and archetypal references used by subjects to describe their sexual behaviors. The researcher postulates on the potentially creative function of archetypal images being expressed through CSB, once appropriately brought to a subject's consciousness, for the process of individuation. This text presents a phenomenological infrastructure for CSB in urban gay men by examining study findings in the context of the sexual mores of the urban gay male subculture, and correlating these findings with scientific research regarding human sexuality, sexual behavior, and the neurobiology of addictive behaviors with established theoretical constructs from Jungian depth psychology, Freudian psychodynamic theory, Kleinian object relations, and Kohutian self psychology. The metaphorical and archetypal images presented by the study subjects, in particular the "vampire archetype," have been explored to extrapolate the value of unconscious symbolic material to clinical treatment of CSB.
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This paper contends that loss of soul is a violent act, an "unnatural" yet purposive response which interferes with natural human vocation, evolution, and elaboration, with the dignity and elegance of imaginative expression, with the myriad, complex and simple ways we, as human beings, have of expressing experience and making life meaningful. This interference is an act of betrayal which results in a traumatic loss of human dignity and response. As a modern "condition", a waste land results when imagination and meaning are eradicated and existence becomes solely a concrete and materialistic exercise, when feeling, individual thought and fantasy become threatening and alien, invasions to be eradicated by drugs or step-by-step how-to-fix-it manuals, and human suffering is meaningless, unattended or encountered by a hardened, empty or dead heart. How and why this can be is the subject of this enterprise—a look into a cultural phenomenon where inner and outer emptiness is the norm, where space becomes filled with uninspired objects, where substance and fullness are equated with concrete "things" to be consumed, where nourishment or food for thought is merely the acquisition of facts and knowledge, where "as if", symbol, metaphor and the playgrounds of imagination are dis-avowed and symptoms hold no message or point to no deeper reality of experience, where individual expression and individual difference are "reasonably" done away with, where life is responded to from an unshakeable position of power and certainty and conception is murdered internally as well as in relationship with life, human or otherwise. The term soul murder is used intentionally for its dramatic and shocking value. It is a vehicle to motivate a hermeneutic investigation into psyche-logical matters; matters having to do with the logic of the psyche which has its own meaning and intelligence, in which matters of the heart, matters of Eros, are as essential as they are to our physical existence. Without Eros, our world becomes a deadened, concrete space full of dead objects which will never inspire, and are never inspired. Our culture, our pathology, perhaps even our psychology reflect the pain of this affliction.
<<link 727791011>>

This dissertation is a theoretical study that uses a phenomenological and hermeneutic method to research the question: What is the experience of a shamanic initiation? This study seeks to understand the structure of the human psyche by researching the way a transformation of consciousness can occur through a personal contact with the dream-like symbols and motifs which characteristically make up the shamanic initiation. I have drawn upon my own experience to demonstrate how, with no prior knowledge of its pattern, archetypal symbols of initiation spontaneously emerged from the depths of my psyche, producing an alteration in consciousness. Through a weaving of anthropological studies with depth psychological theory, I demonstrate how a universal pattern of mystical initiation is part of the inherited structure of the psyche accessible to all. Woven within the study is the following question: How is the archetypal constellation of the actor-healer revealed in the shamanic initiation, and what is its significance? I propose that in order for a transformation in consciousness to take place, the mythic imagery within the initiation experience must be interacted with in a sincere way. The psychic structure which is revealed through this interaction, I call the actor-healer archetype. I conclude that this archetype functions within the psyche as a healing, connecting force, by establishing a relationship between the individual and the mythic realms and that it is this mediating force which enables the myth's regenerative powers to flow forth into consciousness and into the world. It awakens the perspective that we are truly co-participants in creation. Finally, in the absence of a cultural shamanic image, we are forced to look outside our culture for verification of our mystical experiences of initiation. In seeking a home for my own experience, I discovered that Dionysos has deep shamanic origins and propose that the awakening of a Dionysian consciousness can give our culture and our psychology back its own shamanic ancestry. This consciousness would have, in addition, important ecopsychological implications for the relationship of our soul to the soul of the world.
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<<link 1676347481>>

<<<
Research indicating the importance of examining boundary-crossing in psychotherapy continues to hold the interest of psychologists and psychiatrists. This study is a quantitative investigation of boundary-crossing in psychotherapy and the correlation it has to psychologists and psychiatrists who have or have not experienced a traumatic natural disaster in the past 4 years. Boundaries are defined as "the limits that circumscribe the relationship between a health care professional and a patient" (Miller & Maier, 2002). Ninety-nine participants completed a web survey that documented demographic statistics and perceptions of acceptability of boundary-crossing. This study examines the areas in therapy where boundary-crossing is accepted once a traumatic natural disaster occurs. In addition, there is an exploration of the possible relationship between areas of residence, years of practice, theoretical orientation, practice setting, and boundary-crossing after a traumatic natural disaster.
<<<
Pacifica Graduate Institute
Clinical Psychology Dissertations
<<link 727914731>>
<<<
Three critical concepts of biologist Rupert Sheldrake's hypothesis of Formative Causation—morphic fields, morphic resonance and collective memory—are explored for the purpose of amplifying archetypal psychology's understanding of soul and soul making. Two bodies of literature are reviewed. One focuses on the published work of Sheldrake as it applies to imaginal and transpersonal aspects of human experience, and also considers the responses to his work from the field of psychology. The other examines the work of archetypalists James Hillman, Henry Corbin and Roberts Avens concerning the soul. An argument is made for including imaginal research methodologies within the new science paradigm. Four imaginal interludes explore Formative Causation and the soul from less rational perspectives than in the more formal literature reviews by freely associating to these concepts, and by approaching them through the use of etymology, mythology, active imagination, and symbolic and mantic procedures. One imaginal interlude is an in-depth exploration of the myth of Eros and Psyche as a metaphor suggesting the soul's central role in imagining and perceiving, and a model for research. The myth recurs throughout this work as a referent for the soul's imaging process. A concept of imaginal fields emerges, uniting rational and irrational explorations of the soul and Formative Causation. Imaginal field are described as morphic fields for images and perceptions, and are seen as intrinsic to both imaginal and material display. Imaginal forms are described as interrelating with each other with apparent autonomy, forming transpersonal ecologies in collective memory. By imaginal resonance, perception and imagination are seen as having considerable influence on the evolution of forms. Psychological individuality is envisioned as the perceptions and images that differentiate one from, yet intimately relate one to, collective imagination—a cohesive interrelational network of imaged experience that persists in transpersonal collective memory. Personality is presented as a polymorphic imaginal or subtle form, the soul's body, that may endure beyond the apparent dissolution of its corresponding physical display, as an image in collective memory—an imaginal body consciously experiencing the imaginal world. Thus, the processes of perceiving, imagining and memory are literally soul-making.
<<<
<<link 765231331>>

How we see affects what we are. We limit or enhance our lives by how we see one another, the world, and ourselves. This dissertation explores the art of seeing. It is an archetypal study of the eye, an exploration of sight as a means to understand what it means to live soulfully. The research is qualitative and theoretical and uses a thematic approach. The hermeneutic and the heuristic methodologies are used as the research questions are explored through the lenses of mythology, symbol and folklore, and psychological aspects. The myth of Medusa is critical to this study. As Medusa illustrates an instinctual, embodied way of being and seeing, Medusa appears to be an archetype of soul. The myth of Medusa and the symbolism and folklore of the eye all provide insights into what it means to see soulfully. Soulful sight implies an indirect approach to life, one another, mystery, and the sacred. Soulful sight seems to imply seeing with an eye for the symbolic, metaphorical, and the poetic. Living life soulfully, seeing soulfully is facilitated when one steps out of illusion and sees what is. Seeing what is, one begins to live authentically. Soulful sight seems to imply seeing with a desire for authenticity—seeing through projections and deeply into others and oneself. In seeing what is, one opens to the imperfection of reality, the "both/and" of one another and ourselves. Seeing the wholeness in a person or situation is a part of soulful sight. Soulful sight appears to also be about compassion and kindness. It involves seeing one another and ourselves as imperfect beings, whole in our flaws and fullness, perfectly imperfect. Soulful sight also seems to be connected with the intelligence of the heart. Knowing becomes more about gnosis, or knowing from the heart. It is knowing from a place of attunement to one's inner world. This attitude fosters living in the moment. Things are not forced. Living from a place of acceptance, openness, and attentive seeing facilitates soulful sight and a soulful way of living.
<<link 727914481>>

This study compared a specific immunomodulatory effect between participants who either listened to or read traditional fantasy-theme stories as well as identified differential immunological responses between genders and personality subtypes. Research interests in storytelling's effects have not previously extended to biochemistry, an area which might suggest an association between storytelling and state dependent memory, learning and behavior. Fifty-six voluntary Psychology students from a private university participated by providing initial baselines of saliva and peripheral temperature. Treatment involved either observing and listening to a video-taped presentation of three fantasy theme stories (experimental group) or silently reading the same three stories (control group) during a 20-minute period. Saliva was volumetrically measured and subjected to radial immunodiffusion to determine secretory immunoglobulin A concentration. Findings suggest a significant positive association between story listening and immunoenhancement in the experimental group which was not present in the story reading group. Furthermore, participants who endorsed the Myers-Briggs thinking personality type demonstrated significantly greater immunoenhancement than their feeling counterparts. Females demonstrated a slightly greater immunoresponse than males. None of the health variables or indicators of parasympathetic nervous system activation (salivary flow or peripheral temperature) presented consistent evidence of a significant causal relationship. Implications are discussed with regard to health-care delivery, educational methods, and psychological treatment.
<<link 765346301>>

There are similarities between the patterns of holography and of psychological transference, where holography is the process of recording and reconstructing holograms. Employing a theoretical perspective using a hermeneutic method, this dissertation parallels holography with transference, offering another way to encounter transference by showing similarities between the processes of each and the results of each. Though complex, infinitely varying, and unique, their patterns are clearly identifiable. Thus, they are a metaphorical fit to the concept of strange attractors in physics and a more literal fit to the concept of archetypes in depth psychology or dynamic psychology, psychology which attends to the living, autonomous unconscious. This study explains how holography models transference, what a hologram is and how it works, and how depth psychology's understanding of the interaction between consciousness and the unconscious is related to the hologram. It describes transference and related psychological processes as understood in six different schools of depth psychological thought. It shows that the underlying pattern or strange attraction between transference and holography extends to other processes both within and outside the field of psychology, processes such as projection, projective identification, splitting, memory, biology, creative discovery, theology, synchronicity, chaos, and nonlocality. By identifying the similar patterns of these processes, this study demonstrates the existence of an underlying holographic archetype in which essential qualities of the whole are present in each of the parts of the whole: The visual image of the overall hologram is present in each component part of the hologram; the autonomy of the overall human is present in each conscious and unconscious component part of the human psyche. By noting differences as well as similarities in these processes, it suggests an inventory of the qualities of the holographic archetype. This study furthers understanding of the pervasiveness, force, and autonomy of the unconscious acting through transference and projection by identifying a group projection of domestic violence lying at the core of the Christian myth. This study also furthers understanding of the concept of transference by providing a reflection hologram of the human psyche as an artistic work and as a visual metaphor of transference.
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<<link 727914741>>
<<<
The Greek myth of Prometheus was shown to situate hubris and sacrifice as foundational principles of psychological life. Hubris is a principle of excessive pride resulting in narcissism and inflation. Sacrifice designates an attitude of surrender, honoring non-ego entities and relativizing egocentric perspective. Through its pervasive hubris, modern culture has identified itself with one side of this archetypal pairing. Simultaneously whereas sacrifice maybe identified as a psycho-religious pivot throughout history, sacrificial gesture and sensibility have declined in modern culture. Psychological symptomatology over the past century was related to this problem. Responding to this modern condition, depth psychological theories were regarded as reflecting the themes of hubris and sacrifice. The dissertation argued that depth psychology returns a sacrificial sensibility to the culture: Freudian, Jungian, and Post-Jungian archetypal theories were examined to reveal their internal sacrificial character. Jungian and archetypal perspectives were focused upon. Beginning in myth, and proceeding with an emphasis on image and metaphor, the study applied an archetypal-mythopoetic hermeneutic method. Three bodies of literature were initially described: (1)&nbsp;non psychological works on traditions of sacrifice; (2)&nbsp;psychological theories of sacrifice; (3)&nbsp;cultural commentary suggestive of modern hubris. The mitigation of egocentric perspective was identified as the crucial sacrificial gesture of contemporary life. In turning the ego to psychic depth, psychology maintains this sacrificial gesture. The surrender of fixed meanings and literalisms plays a key role in this sacrificial process. The study concluded that tending depth psychology's bond with sacrifice may serve to maintain its effective response to modern psychological symptoms. The future of this psychological tradition is regarded as dependent upon the ability to delineate itself from the rationalism, materialism, and fundamentalism of the age.
<<<
<<link 736711811>>

This inquiry utilized a phenomenological design and methodology to explore the experience of surrogacy. Data was collected through in-depth interviews with a small sample of women. In addition, a dramatic approach was developed in which the embodied experience of surrogacy is portrayed. The choreographed dance video entitled Love's Way: The Joy and Pain of Surrogacy is an exploration of the selchie myth from the Celtic tradition, suggesting that a surrogate's story can be reflected through myth and movement. The design of this inquiry focused on the question: What is the experience of being a surrogate mother? What dimensions and phenomena are associated with relinquishing a child as a surrogate? Four surrogates, ages 30-39 at the time of their surrogacies, were interviewed in depth about their experience. All the participants relinquished their child to the biological father and the adoptive mother, the commissioning couple. The interviews were conducted in the morning and afternoon of the same day. All interviews were followed by a telephone interview. Participants were asked to speak in as much detail as they chose, in response to the question, "What is your experience of being a surrogate mother?" The interviews were open-ended and interactive. From these interviews, written narratives were created illustrating the lived experience of each of the surrogates. In addition to the narratives, a modified phenomenological analysis of the interview material was completed to construct a composite picture of surrogacy from the meanings and essences of the experience. The co-researcher's stories, offering a phenomenological view of the experience of surrogacy, portrayed a life-giving process that involves decisions and actions that affect not only the surrogate, her child and the commissioning couple, but her relationships with her family and extended family.
<<link 738156781>>

This study is a phenomenological approach to the experience of sandplay as a process of symbol formation during the psychological transition of menopause. Symbolic processes are activated in the unconscious psyche during periods of transition when new forms of psychic energy are needed for change and transformation. The process of symbol formation is the activation of the inner symbolic where new psychic energy can be released into a woman's life. The purpose of this study has been to understand the essence of the sandplay process and symbol formation as it reveals itself through the experience of four menopausal women as they produce a series of nine to eleven sandtrays. Each session consisted of two separate phases, a construction phase and a reflection phase. During the construction phase the participant was invited to construct a scene in the sand using a variety of miniature figures and objects. During the reflection phase, the participant was invited to dialogue with the contents of the sandtray through a series of open-ended questions intended to amplify and elaborate there experience. Each participant's dialogue with the contents of the sandtrays generated data used to analyze the essence of their experience. These dialogues were analyzed using Giorgi's methodology, which ultimately created a generalized essential structure of their experience. Finally, the discussion has examined the associations between the statements in the Generalized Essential Structure and (1) the mythological journey of descent and transformation, and (2) images of the Goddess in order to give context and broader insight into the understanding of their experience. Both the image of the Goddess and elements of the mythological journey are configurations that the psyche produces during times of change and transformation.
<<link 728840651>>

This study illuminates the Jungian concept of individuation and its goal of androgyny through a psychological interpretation of Virginia Woolf's Orlando: A Biography . Setting grounds for this study, the concept of Jungian literary criticism is reviewed and established as a psychological approach to literature that helps us to better know psyche and psychological processes through the interpretation of visionary works. Using a classical Jungian model of theory, the topic of individuation and alchemy is outlined, providing a lens through which this study is accomplished. Orlando is a young man in Elizabethan England who has an androgynous nature that develops as the story progresses through four centuries. The individuation process is illustrated beginning with Orlando's confrontation with the anima, and continuing with his magical change of gender in a lesser coniunctio. As a woman, Orlando confronts and integrates the animus, and is subsequently able to identify with her own inner feminine. The psychological process is culminated with the greater coniunctio, from which she emerges a woman with a fully integrated psyche. Finally, the state of Orlando's psyche and her realization of the Self is illustrated as the interpretation illuminates the psychological state of androgyny. The interpretation ends with Orlando established as a symbol of the androgyne. Understanding Orlando from this perspective illustrates how androgyny is not just the existence of masculine and feminine qualities, but the harmonious interchange between all opposites within psyche. Individuation and androgyny are ever evolving processes kept alive by the role of Hermes who is uncovered in the text as facilitator of the numinous experience and psychological wholeness. Understanding the text from this viewpoint may result in greater personal insight for the reader, potentially facilitating a symbolic experience, and thereby enhancing the process of individuation itself. Furthermore, by understanding the text in the context of visionary art, this study illuminates the importance of Orlando on the personal, cultural, and archetypal levels of human understanding, enhancing the value of the text both from a psychological and a literary perspective.
<<link 738156791>>

This research study sought to identify and quantify factors contributing to the migraine-headache experience in the adult population. The purpose was to determine the degree to which daily journal writing for 14 consecutive days would influence migraine-headache symptoms. The 24 participants were solicited from the general population and were asked to evaluate their symptoms, their emotional behavior, and their behavioral responses utilizing four self-administered questionnaires at pre- and post-test intervals. The selected tests were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI), the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP), and the Headache Questionnaire (HQ). Topics covered in the review of the literature included the history of migraine-headaches, sociodemographic information about migraine sufferers, and pharmacological, nonpharmacological, and alternative therapeutic interventions for symptom relief. Three research questions were posed in order to evaluate the effect of journal writing on the migraine-headache experience. The first research question examined baseline comparisons between participants in the study and control groups. The second question evaluated the pre-test and post-test differences between the two groups using different psychological dimensions. The third question examined the contribution of repressed emotions to the migraine experience. Journal writing was found to be effective in reducing certain migraine-headache symptoms, especially in those subjects who expressed anger outwardly.
/***
|Name|TagCloudPlugin|
|Source|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#TagCloudPlugin|
|Version|1.7.0|
|Author|Eric Shulman|
|Original Author|Clint Checketts|
|License|http://www.TiddlyTools.com/#LegalStatements|
|~CoreVersion|2.1|
|Type|plugin|
|Description|present a 'cloud' of tags (or links) using proportional font display|
!Usage
<<<
{{{
<<cloud type action:... limit:... tag tag tag ...>>
<<cloud type action:... limit:... +TiddlerName>>
<<cloud type action:... limit:... -TiddlerName>>
<<cloud type action:... limit:... =tagvalue>>
}}}
where:
* //type// is a keyword, one of:
** ''tags'' (default) - displays a cloud of tags, based on frequency of use
** ''links'' - displays a cloud of tiddlers, based on number of links //from// each tiddler
** ''references'' - displays a cloud of tiddlers, based on number of links //to// each tiddler
* ''action:popup'' (default) - clicking a cloud item shows a popup with links to related tiddlers<br>//or//<br> ''action:goto'' - clicking a cloud item immediately opens the tiddler corresponding to that item
* ''limit:N'' (optional) - restricts the cloud display to only show the N most popular tags/links
* ''tag tag tag...'' (or ''title title title'' if ''links''/''references'' is used)<br>shows all tags/links in the document //except// for those listed as macro parameters
* ''+TiddlerName''<br>show only tags/links read from a space-separated, bracketed list stored in a separate tiddler.
* ''-TiddlerName''<br>show all tags/links //except// those read from a space-separated, bracketed list stored in a separate tiddler.
* ''=tagvalue'' (//only if type=''tags''//)<br>shows only tags that are themselves tagged with the indicated tag value (i.e., ~TagglyTagging usage)
//note: for backward-compatibility, you can also use the macro {{{<<tagCloud ...>>}}} in place of {{{<<cloud ...>>}}}//
<<<
!Examples
<<<
//all tags excluding<<tag systemConfig>>, <<tag excludeMissing>> and <<tag script>>//
{{{<<cloud systemConfig excludeMissing script>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud systemConfig excludeMissing script>>}}}
//top 10 tags excluding<<tag systemConfig>>, <<tag excludeMissing>> and <<tag script>>//
{{{<<cloud limit:10 systemConfig excludeMissing script>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud limit:10 systemConfig excludeMissing script>>}}}
//tags listed in// [[FavoriteTags]]
{{{<<cloud +FavoriteTags>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud +FavoriteTags>>}}}
//tags NOT listed in// [[FavoriteTags]]
{{{<<cloud -FavoriteTags>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud -FavoriteTags>>}}}
//links to tiddlers tagged with 'package'//
{{{<<cloud action:goto =package>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud action:goto =package>>}}}
//top 20 most referenced tiddlers//
{{{<<cloud references limit:20>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud references limit:20>>}}}
//top 20 tiddlers that contain the most links//
{{{<<cloud links limit:20>>}}}
{{groupbox{<<cloud links limit:20>>}}}
<<<
!Revisions
<<<
2009.07.17 [1.7.0] added {{{-TiddlerName}}} parameter to exclude tags that are listed in the indicated tiddler
2009.02.26 [1.6.0] added {{{action:...}}} parameter to apply popup vs. goto action when clicking cloud items
2009.02.05 [1.5.0] added ability to show links or back-links (references) instead of tags and renamed macro to {{{<<cloud>>}}} to reflect more generalized usage.
2008.12.16 [1.4.2] corrected group calculation to prevent 'group=0' error
2008.12.16 [1.4.1] revised tag filtering so excluded tags don't affect calculations
2008.12.15 [1.4.0] added {{{limit:...}}} parameter to restrict the number of tags displayed to the top N most popular
2008.11.15 [1.3.0] added {{{+TiddlerName}}} parameter to include only tags that are listed in the indicated tiddler
2008.09.05 [1.2.0] added '=tagname' parameter to include only tags that are themselves tagged with the specified value (i.e., ~TagglyTagging usage)
2008.07.03 [1.1.0] added 'segments' property to macro object.  Extensive code cleanup
<<<
!Code
***/
//{{{
version.extensions.TagCloudPlugin= {major: 1, minor: 7 , revision: 0, date: new Date(2009,7,17)};
//Originally created by Clint Checketts, contributions by Jonny Leroy and Eric Shulman
//Currently maintained and enhanced by Eric Shulman
//}}}
//{{{
config.macros.cloud = {
	tagstip: "%1 tiddlers tagged with '%0'",
	refslabel: " (%0 references)",
	refstip: "%1 tiddlers have links to '%0'",
	linkslabel: " (%0 links)",
	linkstip: "'%0' has links to %1 other tiddlers",
	groups: 9,
	init: function() {
		config.macros.tagCloud=config.macros.cloud; // for backward-compatibility
		config.shadowTiddlers.TagCloud='<<cloud>>';
		config.shadowTiddlers.StyleSheetTagCloud=
			'/*{{{*/\n'
			+'.tagCloud span {line-height: 3.5em; margin:3px;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud1{font-size: 80%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud2{font-size: 100%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud3{font-size: 120%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud4{font-size: 140%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud5{font-size: 160%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud6{font-size: 180%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud7{font-size: 200%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud8{font-size: 220%;}\n'
			+'.tagCloud9{font-size: 240%;}\n'
			+'/*}}}*/\n';
		setStylesheet(store.getTiddlerText('StyleSheetTagCloud'),'tagCloudsStyles');
	},
	getLinks: function(tiddler) { // get list of links to existing tiddlers and shadows
		if (!tiddler.linksUpdated) tiddler.changed();
		var list=[]; for (var i=0; i<tiddler.links.length; i++) {
			var title=tiddler.links[i];
			if (store.isShadowTiddler(title)||store.tiddlerExists(title))
				list.push(title);
		}
		return list;
	},
	handler: function(place,macroName,params) {
		// unpack params
		var inc=[]; var ex=[]; var limit=0; var action='popup';
		var links=(params[0]&&params[0].toLowerCase()=='links'); if (links) params.shift();
		var refs=(params[0]&&params[0].toLowerCase()=='references'); if (refs) params.shift();
		if (params[0]&&params[0].substr(0,7).toLowerCase()=='action:')
			action=params.shift().substr(7).toLowerCase();
		if (params[0]&&params[0].substr(0,6).toLowerCase()=='limit:')
			limit=parseInt(params.shift().substr(6));
		while (params.length) {
			if (params[0].substr(0,1)=='+') { // read taglist from tiddler
				inc=inc.concat(store.getTiddlerText(params[0].substr(1),'').readBracketedList());
			} else if (params[0].substr(0,1)=='-') { // exclude taglist from tiddler
				ex=ex.concat(store.getTiddlerText(params[0].substr(1),'').readBracketedList());
			} else if (params[0].substr(0,1)=='=') { // get tag list using tagged tags
				var tagged=store.getTaggedTiddlers(params[0].substr(1));
				for (var t=0; t<tagged.length; t++) inc.push(tagged[t].title);
			} else ex.push(params[0]); // exclude params
			params.shift();
		}
		// get all items, include/exclude specific items
		var items=[];
		var list=(links||refs)?store.getTiddlers('title','excludeLists'):store.getTags();
		for (var t=0; t<list.length; t++) {
			var title=(links||refs)?list[t].title:list[t][0];
			if (links)	var count=this.getLinks(list[t]).length;
			else if (refs)	var count=store.getReferringTiddlers(title).length;
			else 		var count=list[t][1];
			if ((!inc.length||inc.contains(title))&&(!ex.length||!ex.contains(title)))
				items.push({ title:title, count:count });
		}
		if(!items.length) return;
		// sort by decending count, limit results (optional)
		items=items.sort(function(a,b){return(a.count==b.count)?0:(a.count>b.count?-1:1);});
		while (limit && items.length>limit) items.pop();
		// find min/max and group size
		var most=items[0].count;
		var least=items[items.length-1].count;
		var groupSize=(most-least+1)/this.groups;
		// sort by title and draw the cloud of items
		items=items.sort(function(a,b){return(a.title==b.title)?0:(a.title>b.title?1:-1);});
		var cloudWrapper = createTiddlyElement(place,'div',null,'tagCloud',null);
		for (var t=0; t<items.length; t++) {
			cloudWrapper.appendChild(document.createTextNode(' '));
			var group=Math.ceil((items[t].count-least)/groupSize)||1;
			var className='tagCloudtag tagCloud'+group;
			var tip=refs?this.refstip:links?this.linkstip:this.tagstip;
			tip=tip.format([items[t].title,items[t].count]);
			if (action=='goto') { // TAG/LINK/REFERENCES GOTO
				var btn=createTiddlyLink(cloudWrapper,items[t].title,true,className);
				btn.title=tip;
				btn.style.fontWeight='normal';
			} else if (!links&&!refs) { // TAG POPUP
				var btn=createTiddlyButton(cloudWrapper,items[t].title,tip,onClickTag,className);
				btn.setAttribute('tag',items[t].title);
			} else { // LINK/REFERENCES POPUP
				var btn=createTiddlyButton(cloudWrapper,items[t].title,tip,
					function(ev) { var e=ev||window.event; var cmt=config.macros.cloud;
						var popup = Popup.create(this);
						var title = this.getAttribute('tiddler');
						var count = this.getAttribute('count');
						var refs  = this.getAttribute('refs')=='T';
						var links = this.getAttribute('links')=='T';
						var label = (refs?cmt.refslabel:cmt.linkslabel).format([count]);
						createTiddlyLink(popup,title,true);
						createTiddlyText(popup,label);
						createTiddlyElement(popup,'hr');
						if (refs) {
							popup.setAttribute('tiddler',title);
							config.commands.references.handlePopup(popup,title);
						}
						if (links) {
							var tiddler = store.fetchTiddler(title);
							var links=config.macros.cloud.getLinks(tiddler);
							for(var i=0;i<links.length;i++)
								createTiddlyLink(createTiddlyElement(popup,'li'),
									links[i],true);
						}
						Popup.show();
						e.cancelBubble=true; if(e.stopPropagation) e.stopPropagation();
						return false;
					}, className);
				btn.setAttribute('tiddler',items[t].title);
				btn.setAttribute('count',items[t].count);
				btn.setAttribute('refs',refs?'T':'F');
				btn.setAttribute('links',links?'T':'F');
				btn.title=tip;
			}
		}
	}
};
//}}}
<<link 2115606261>> 
<<<
Graffiti, words and images inscribed on private or public property, can be traced back thousands of years. Graffiti writing has been found in cave drawings of Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain dating back to 15,000 B.C. Currently, graffiti has become problematic in many communities across the nation, and millions of dollars are spent for its removal from public and private property. Stereotypes have developed regarding graffiti writers, or taggers, and their motivations for tagging. Although numerous works have been written about graffiti and graffiti writers, this research examines the essence of tagging-graffiti from taggers' perspectives.

Utilizing a phenomenological approach, contemporary graffiti-writing is explored through data from interviews with eight self-identified taggers. Using the Giorgi (1985) method to analyze transcribed interviews, common themes are identified, including feelings when tagging, tagging as an addiction, tagging as communication, and tagging as a passion, to name a few. Discussion of the themes provides insight into taggers' experience and perspectives on tagging and dispels some of the myths and stereotypes regarding taggers. This research suggests that taggers are modern-day prophets and tricksters, sharing similarities with the Oracle at Delphi, and residing in a liminal state, both in their subculture and day-to-day lives. The subject of taggers as scapegoats of a community is addressed suggesting that non-taggers fail to see their own shadow of vandalism and disrespect for others' property. Taggers thus provide a service to a community as modern day sacrificial beings.

The clinical implications of this research provide insight into this particular subculture for clinicians, social workers, and teachers working with taggers who may hold stereotypes about this group or may fail to see the similarities taggers share with every other individual, such as the need to be heard and known.
<<<
<<link 730350851>>

The Bhagavad Gita is the best known and most beloved scripture of India and contains the essential teachings of Hinduism, taking the cosmological stance that the world of matter and individualized consciousness are the manifestations of an archetypal reality that can be known direct intuition. It tells the story of both the direct intuition. It tells the story of both the personal, psychological war of the mind influenced by the ego and a universal, spiritual war between good and evil and light darkness, and it places its hero, Arjuna, in the center the battlefield. Using the language of symbolism, metaphor, simile, and allegory, its richly layered images speak to us from the realm of soul. Applying the insights of depth psychology to the dialog between Arjuna, who represents the individualized manifestation of psyche, and Krishna, archetype of the Self, this dissertation establishes a creative connection between Jung's work and Eastern interpretations of the operations for integrating the psychological processes when psyche undergoes transformation. Using Jung's technique of amplification to explore the images contained in the Gita works to illuminate certain profundities that might otherwise be inconceivable. As Western cosmology shifts to make room for the scientific advances of our present age, the archetypes of the collective unconscious emerge and develop, observed, because we are conscious enough to witness their evolution. This transformation process is what is evident in Arjuna's. experience of, and ultimate resolution of, the distress he feels when confronted with a seemingly unresolvable contradiction The East long ago reached the psychological level that understands religious imagery to be the phenomenology of the objective psyche. As the God-image of the West falls out of the heavens and into psyche, we can turn to the East, as Jung did, to find the Archimedean Point necessary from which to view our spiritual evolution.
<<link 734453931>>

In the literature of Carl Jung, there are multiple examples of his understanding of archetypes. This study examined Jung's perception of the Divine Child archetype. The research revealed that Jung learned about the presence of the archetypal Child in the psyche from personal experiences as well as from his work with his patients. The study demonstrated Jung's belief that the Divine Child archetype significantly influences the individuation process. The study showed that Jung's interest in the myths of the Child-God led him to understand the presence of the Divine Child archetype in the psyche. Illustrations of art depicting renditions of a child-God were researched in order to demonstrate religious and cultural beliefs about the myth of the Divine Child. The study affirmed that these beliefs influenced Jung's ideas about the archetypal Child. "You must change and become like the Child" (Matthew 18.3) became a psychological imperative for Jung. The research showed Jung's distinction between the biological child and the Divine Child archetype. This distinction is important to the work of psychotherapy. The study investigated the literature to demonstrate how current psychological thought resonates with Jung's understanding of the Divine Child archetype. The research gave examples of varied views. The study illustrated that Jung's vision of the soul was expansive so as to include all living things. This view of the world's soul has influenced the practice of psychology to include political and environmental concerns. The study of child-advocacy literature indicated a correlation between how persons value the psychological Child and the children in the world. The study included clinical examples of individuals who experienced awareness of the Divine Child archetype. The study illustrated one patient's course of treatment to note the contemplative aspect of Jung's approach to psychotherapy.
<<link 1793192971>>

This is a depth psychological study of a stirring, uncanny, and nearly inexpressible moment called the Evocative Moment. As an interdisciplinary study, it integrates poetic, mythological, and philosophical material in an effort to give voice and form to a relatively formless experience. At heart, it is an offering to and a calling for the further development of a depth psychological poetics that draws nearer to inchoate experience than is permitted by conventional language and forms of inquiry.

The study approaches the Evocative Moment by placing it within the context of key interdisciplinary ideas. As a search for a way of understanding itself, the study then develops a broadly based hermeneutic phenomenology, rooted in a qualitative, human scientific research approach. Within a central clearing ( temenos ), it places poetic-phenomenological explorations in dialogue with selected resonant texts. The intention is not to represent but to present, to evoke, even to become the Evocative Moment itself. Although its phenomenology and birth into language are , essentially, its research results, certain patterns and meanings are gleaned in intuitive reflection. As a content, the Evocative Moment suggests Dionysian remembrance and dis-membrance, primordial temporality, the paradoxical presence of absence, and the uncanny homecoming to Being. As a process, it manifests either spontaneously or in an emotional evolution through tension and anxiety, faith and letting go, becoming and speaking, mourning, and again, faith in letting go.

Clinically, the study espouses an intuitive and radically receptive therapy that cultivates and e-vokes (lifts into speech) implicit moments like the Evocative Moment. Exercises are recommended to facilitate the development of such a therapeutic capacity. The study frames psychotherapy as a practice that must achieve depth as depth of field, both within the consulting room (the intersubjective field) and within the field of the world.

As an experiment in depth psychological poetics, the study suggests that depth psychology must resist becoming seduced by theoretical abstractions, privilege forms of inquiry that reflect the native fluidity of psychic reality itself, and acknowledge that there are subtle, evanescent states, like the Evocative Moment, that are accessible only by way of a via poetica , which speaks not by translating but by carrying meaning.>>

<<<

<<<
<<link 885713371>>

Compulsions and cravings such as gambling and sex compulsions have been the subject of behavioral and psychodynamic treatment. This study formulates a new theory of compulsions and cravings, called the Feeling-State Theory of Compulsions, and utilizes a technique called the Eye Movement Compulsion Protocol (EMCP) for decreasing both the feelings and behavior. The Feeling-State Theory postulates that positive feelings and behavior are fixated in the body during an intense experience, creating the feeling-state. The result is that, when the person desires that feeling again, the feeling-state including the behavior is recapitulated. Just as the use of eye movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) has been shown to reduce Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), the EMCP technique utilizes eye movements to decrease the feeling-state associated with compulsions. The present study utilizes a multiple baseline single case research design with 4 subjects. Skin conductance levels (SCL) and a self-report scale (SUES) are the dependent variables. Two of the subjects provide support for both the theory and the EMCP technique. Both the change in SCL and the SUES values for 1 compulsion are clearly decreased post-intervention while the other compulsions values remain relatively stable. One of the other 2 subjects provided less clear support for the theory and technique but reveals some unexpected interactions between compulsions. The other subject's baseline values did not remain stable enough for a clear result but did not contradict the results of the other subjects. The conclusion is reached that the overall results of the study support the Feeling-State Theory of Compulsions and the usefulness of the EMCP technique to decrease compulsions and cravings. Although the findings in this study can not be conclusive because of the small number of subjects, the results do open up new approaches for research.
<<link 727914591>>
<<<
Projective assessment instruments based on Jungian or archetypal theory are few in number. The MARI ® Card Test © , an instrument developed by Joan Kellogg, MA, ATR, out of her work with mandalas, symbols and color, fills that gap in the assessment literature. The present study is concerned with extending the use and accessibility of the MARI ® Card Test © by examining the reliability between the MARI ® Card Test © and an adapted group version. The tested population was a group of out-patient sex offenders whose crimes were against children. Five research questions were posed. The first two assessed the reliability between the two versions of the test, and between each stage on both the original and adapted versions of the test. Using McNemar's Chi Square Significance of Change Test, significant correspondences were found between the two test versions and in nine of the thirteen stages. The third research question compared the constancy of choices over a four week time period. No reliable effect of time delay is discernable and the order in which the versions were administered was insignificant. The fourth and fifth questions pertain to the clinical formulations regarding developmental process and treatment possibilities of a sex offender population. This group acted on the environment in unmodulated primitive instincts of survival and security. The present study which used the MARI ® Card Test © and an adapted version developed specifically for this study, confirmed an intuitive sense that symbols and mandalas, as archetypal forms, will projectively resonate with psychological process in various visual presentations.
<<<
<<link 765932831>>

The dissertation is a theoretical study examining the parallels between Platonic philosophy and Jungian psychology, the Platonic self and Jung's archetype of the self. Plato identified the self as double, a dual-unity of the divine and human. Dual-unity defines the two as the same, yet different. They are brought into unity through the development of the subtle body of soul, considered by Plato as "the third." The subtle body of soul, in a third ontological category between the divine and sensory-based ego, is the true individual self. Using a hermeneutic method, the author discovered that Jungian psychology is rooted in many facets of Platonic philosophy, and that Jung develops the Platonic double self of a "third" individual subtle body of soul unifying the divine God-image and the personality complexes. His archetype of the self is therefore a dual unity, referred to in the study as the dialogic archetype of the self. Developed through the philosophic life in Plato, and individuation and the transcendent function in Jung, the subtle body of soul is a differentiated organ that provides for psycho-spiritual structure and function. Chapters of the study describe the psycho-spiritual phenomenon of soul's subtle body in the author's experience, Plato's Dialogues , Plotinus' Enneads , Henri Corbin's eastern Platonism, and Jung's Collected Works . The fundamental identity between Platonic philosophy and Jungian psychology is brought out prior to the explication of the self as subtle body of soul in both systems. The last chapter describes a method of analytic psychotherapy based on the subtle body of soul as the developing self, and its role as the essential healing agent.
<<link 1483331801>>

This dissertation uses a revisioning of the Prodigal Son parable to explore the realities of contemporary, "30-something" women's lives. The interpretation of this particular story has traditionally been laden with patriarchal imagery and Christianized terminology. Additionally, women have long lamented the lack of spiritual role models in the Old and New Testament. From a psychological perspective, the Prodigal Son's journey is an important consideration for women on their journey towards individuation. 

The parable is revised as the story of the Prodigal Daughter who prematurely takes her inheritance and leaves home to risk the unknown. With the proposition that this ancient illustration of human behavior provides an opportunity for insight regarding women's transformation in contemporary society, a phenomenological approach is utilized. Thirteen women between the ages of 30 and 40 were asked to describe a transformative event and then analyze the material of the Prodigal Daughter by answering a series of questions. In their own words, they conveyed their lived experience in terms of the parable's relevance to their lives. 

The research demonstrated that reading scriptural text from a feminine perspective pulls up a longing for guidance on how impossible it feels to "do it all." The parable also appeared to confront the fragmented pieces of a woman's heart as she attempts to grow up, and into, her "whole" self by risking personal honesty, increasing accountability to others and surrendering rescue fantasies of being saved from difficult emotions. 

Switching the emphasis form a patriarchal language into a matriarchal modality also illuminated a deeper understanding of the mother daughter bond. This approach revealed the need for radical maternal empathy and acceptance as well as the realization of needing to change unacceptable generational patterns of behavior. The women in this project communicated a struggle to manage successfully her individuation process regarding role definition of wife, mother and professional. Their combined vulnerability underscored the importance of grace on each level of awakening and awareness to both their strengths and limitations. The findings ultimately point to the timeless, inherent need for Old Woman wisdom and soulful mentoring as our culture moves towards greater consciousness.
<<link 727914321>>

This study explores a particular emotional disorder by focusing on the cultural perspective and investigating the impact of religious tradition upon the psyche of women. The central focus of the research considers Self-defeating Personality Disorder in terms of the repression of the feminine in the Christian religious tradition. The research is designed to explore Self-defeating Personality Disorder through the psychological analysis of the Hans Christian Andersen fairy tale of The Red Shoes. The study utilizes fairy tale analysis as hermeneutic investigation in psychology. This method sheds light on the influence of the collective level, that is, the importance of considering the power of religious tradition on the developing female psyche. Andersen's fairy tale of The Red Shoes illuminates the power of the religious community upon personal self-perception. This study reviews the contemporary controversy surrounding Self-defeating Personality Disorder and also reviews Masochistic Personality Disorder, as the underpinning and the basis for the category of Self-defeating Personality Disorder. The research analyzes the behavior of the protagonist in the fairy tale as a case study of self-defeat. A failed individuative attempt on the part of the protagonist is highlighted as a predicament for girls who are socially and "religiously" enculturated within the Christian tradition. In addition to its dogma, rules, and accepted modes of behavior, the Christian religious tradition provides no female aspect of empowerment in its model of divinity. Thus, the research questions this neglect as an aspect of misogyny that may be considered an obscure, yet nonetheless real, cultural-religious precursor for psychological self-defeat. Providing no symbol of female empowerment, the Christian religious tradition may be considered a psychosocial risk factor for this emotional disorder in women.
<<link 2115606251>> 
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The purpose of this dissertation is to discover, to interpret and to further develop Jung's dynamic body of work on active imagination in the writing of an historical fiction about a lost Native American Indian child. This transformative project with heuristic and alchemical hermeneutic components presents as a creative piece of work written from a depth perspective. Human consciousness actively being a reflective activity constructs selves through reflectivity. The writing of this experiential narrative organizes the informing archai into one's own personal myth; in and around the archetypal core the individual evolves. The main character of the story, the lost child, artistically represents the archetypal underpinnings of a developing personality. The girl in the story is an Anasazi Indian, an ancient rock carver, an artist, a poet and song writer. The survival tale reveals metaphorically the work of the depth psychologist.

This dissertation explores the ideas of the so called post-Jungians. While traveling and researching the landscapes of the Ancient Native Americans in California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico and Hawaii, the story continued to build, shape and emerge. My research of the landscapes focused on the caves, the ruins and the ancient images in the pictographs and petroglyphs. The story became the glue of the clinical work, the product. After completing the narrative a hermencutical study of this literary piece is analyzed from the three post-Jungian perspectives; classical, archetypal, and developmental. As the psychotherapist-writer engages the world in this fashion, the narrative mysteriously reveals itself offering solutions to insolvable human dilemmas. So what is the focus of the work of the analyst, the archetypal awareness that develops the individual therapist's methodology? This is a focus for developing specifically a metaphoric sensibility into the clinical work at an archetypal level, the power to explore one's own being in the world reflectively. The wind from a bird's wing, the spraying mist, pounding feet, the dark smells, and the hidden caves; this imaginal methodology proposes that the expressive ways of working are empowering, enhancing self-esteem and developing the ability for interpersonal connection, an individuating, opening process for the clinical psychologist.
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This dissertation is a theoretical exploration of the experience of emptiness in pathology, in spiritual practice, and in the lost sacred feminine. Literature dealing with Borderline Personality Disorder, whose symptoms include feelings of emptiness, abandonment, and unbearable loneliness, was examined. Relevant literature indicated that this condition is often associated with childhood sexual abuse and that survivors are more often female than male. The acceptance and subsequent denial of these histories by Sigmund Freud was described. Pathological experiences of childhood were compared with D. W. Winnicott's theory of adequate mothering. Speculations on the role of emptiness in psychotherapeutic technique were offered, in an attempt to determine what is missing in a society where such abuses and pathologies occur. Next, a study of the nature and role of emptiness in Buddhist meditative practices and concepts was undertaken. Two uses of emptiness were discovered to be of significance for the practice of psychotherapy—ascetic techniques and tantric meditation. A feminist source on Buddhism revealed both an honoring of Buddhist feminine deities and misogyny in Buddhist societies. The feminine body was sometimes reviled and sometimes honored. Next, the presence and absence of the sacred feminine in Judaic and Christian theological history was examined. A background feminine deity was seen to have been denied and her generative characteristics incorporated into male deities. Fundamental myths of patriarchal society were analyzed and found to involve the splitting of female/male, body/mind, body/soul, along with the subjugation and exploitation of women and the exaltation of warlike heroism. A feminist counter-attack on patriarchy stated that a healthy society would value the feminine, the body, and the creative expression of emotions. A review of D. W. Winnicott's theories connected these elements with the infantile experience of adequate mothering. In conclusion, dance/movement therapy was described and identified as a valid psychotherapeutic approach to pathological loss of childhood, the body/soul, and the sacred feminine.
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This dissertation is about bringing heart into the soul of depth psychology by linking a psychology of soul with a psychology of compassion. Depth psychology has grown out of a deep reverence for soul and its searchings, its making, and its musings. There is a call for the heart of compassion from within depth psychology's landscape of soul. Using a hermeneutic method, this study is structured in two parts. Part 1 surveys literature from the field of depth psychology and literature from Tibetan Buddhism. Mahayana Buddhist concepts such as bodhisattva and bodhimind are explained. Particular attention is given to the work of Freud and Jung in areas that pertain to compassion and the related subject of love. The depth psychological review demonstrates that, although there are intimations, there is little focus on the relationship between compassion and transformation, and no methodology articulated for developing compassion. Tibetan Buddhism, on the other hand, recognizes the twin facets of love and compassion as the engine and elixir of transformation, and is replete with literature and methodology on this topic. Part 2 of the dissertation introduces a text called the "Seven Points of Mind Training," which belongs to a tradition of teachings called lojong , or thought transformation. This instruction was brought to Tibet by the Indian Buddhist master Atisha (982-1054). The lojong focuses explicitly on awakening the heart, and identifies habitual selfishness and self-grasping as the obstacles to tapping the compassion and wisdom within. The entire lojong text is encapsulated instruction in the form of aphorisms, and commentary is given to elucidate these. Lojong is especially designed to help individuals attenuate selfishness and cultivate compassion, beginning with establishing the ground of equanimity. Lojong also includes the practice of tonglen , a method of giving happiness and taking suffering conjoined with the breath. This practice and its application for both self and other are explored. Finally, there is a concluding discussion of central themes, and suggestions for future directions. This dissertation draws extensively on depth psychological and Tibetan Buddhist literature, as well as mythology, religion, history, contemporary culture, and personal reflection.
<<link 765018281>>

Grief work in American society is not respected, acknowledged, or tolerated. Grief work is treated with insurmountable denial. To date there is not a depth-psychological approach to grief work. Most bereavement support groups, grief education institutes, hospitals, hospices, and therapies use the Kubler-Ross model. Although Kubler-Ross has been the trailblazer for death and bereavement scholars, her model lacks depth. Through personal and professional experience of death and grief, people travel to profoundly dark layers of pain. There are few words that accurately describe the depth of grief's caverns. Grief work is not mirrored, witnessed, or treated because it is a process and not a check-off list. Even the phrase " grief work " is foreign to most people. The recipe for grief in American society is: someone dies; you go through the motions of grief, you get back to life, and you get over it. The denial of grief continues to create emotional, physical, spiritual, and mental diseases. The lack of conscious grieving people experience in this society causes barren and cold relationships. The purpose of this study is to determine if and how alchemy can expand and revision our understanding of death and grief. A phenomenological study using a heuristic method is undertaken, which analyzes in depth the experiences of eight people who experienced a major death loss. Handwritten interviews were taken in order to determine four things about people's experiences in grief (1)&nbsp;What attitudes, feelings, values, conflicts, and associations do people report concerning their own relationship with death and grief? (2)&nbsp;How can grief work through the process of alchemy benefit people in their own transformation from "lead into gold" and, psychologically speaking, depression into life? (3)&nbsp;How does alchemy compare to other modes of death and grief? (4)&nbsp;Where does alchemy open us to new territory and understanding? These four questions built a context for examining the grief process through the lens of alchemy. The results of this study provide a comprehensive theoretical framework for understanding alchemy and grief, individually and interwoven as one. The data provided by the co-researchers demonstrates the alchemy of grief as an effective depth psychological tool not only for personal transformation, but also for a collective healing of the world. Finally, this document gives to the field of psychology a comprehensive overview of the alchemy of grief's theory and process.
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The "process of individuation" is central to the depth psychology of C. G. Jung. Individuation is his nodal, comprehensive term for the ways of psychological healing, cultural creativity, and spiritual incarnation. Although the basic concept is widely (if not well) known, few understand Jung's emphasis on the arcane art/discipline of alchemy as the finest guide to individuation in the coming era. This hermeneutic theoretical study reveals how the specifically alchemical and experiential qualities of individuation stressed by Jung are vividly and viscerally expressed through the lifework of singer/songwriter Bob Dylan (1941-). Dylan's more than forty years of music-based mythopoetry is shown to display the symbolism, arc (spiral), and procedures of an alchemical opus (work). Far more than mute words on a page, his songs reverberate through the body, activate emotions, and resonate with the nigredo (black), albedo (white or silver), and rubedo (red or gold) stages of transformation described by Jung and the alchemists. Dylan's lyrical demonstration of the three alchemical stages is linked to his underlying methods of joining consciousness, the unconscious, and the world through the "inner work" of dreams, emotions, and active imagination, and the "outer work" of relationships. This depth psychological study both invigorates and broadens clinical practice. It highlights the transformative power of working emotionally and imaginally with the inner manifestations of the unconscious. It also provides a framework for working with the outer reaches of the unconscious, as experienced through a range of relationships. And culturally, this case study confirms Jung's view that the alchemy of individuation extends well beyond the therapy room and serves as the key myth of our time.
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This dissertation addresses the following question: Is it possible to bridge opposing theoretical viewpoints, and to appreciate the meaning of the often confusing and conflictual relationship between mothers and adolescent daughters, by re-visioning this relationship through an archetypal-alchemical perspective? A review of the main ideas in the existing literature begins with an exploration of definitions and descriptions of adolescence, and then proceeds to place the separation-individuation approach in historical context by examining the progression of adolescent developmental theory from classical Greece through mid-20th-century America. The review of literature then goes on to explore a feminist attachment-relational approach to developmental theory in the context of its predecessors and most important influences, demonstrating how the concept of "self-in-relation" complements the traditional separation-individuation view of adolescent development. In preparation for a synthesis of these two approaches, C. G. Jung's archetypal theory is traced from its beginnings, and his use of alchemical symbolism is shown to be a valuable tool in enhancing understanding of the mysteries of psychological development and change. Jung's theories are then applied to the mother-adolescent daughter relationship, utilizing the metaphoric images of alchemy and mythology to illuminate individuation processes at work in the archetypal field constellating between mother and daughter as well as within the individual psyches of each. In the process of applying Jung's theories to this relationship, a bridging of opposing developmental perspectives is simultaneously effected, revealing many points where seemingly disparate approaches act in secret symmetry, and demonstrating that separation and connection are essential and dynamic complementary forces, both of which are equally necessary to the functioning and development of the individual and the relationship.
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Psychotic breakdown is a life transforming process which is often misunderstood and mishandled not only by family members but also hospital staff, psychiatrists and therapists. The confusing affects, thoughts and behaviors that result, instill fear and anxiety into care givers and family and are most often suppressed through the use of drugs. However, the use of insensitive and repressive measures to control symptoms may interfere with a potentially positive process. Breakdown may be seen as the means to breakthrough, when hallucinations and altered states of consciousness are viewed as evidence of the presence of the divine in matter or soul trapped in the unconscious. This study applies a hermeneutic method to published data; on psychosis, alchemy and mysticism. I reinterpret this data in light of the memoirs of a modern individual in the grip of a psychotic process. Just as Freud's case study of Dr. Schreber and Jung's case study of Wolfgang Pauli made use of the subjects' written material, without contact with the subject, so my case study takes a similar format. My study differs from theirs in that although the subject was not my client, I was in close contact with him during the process. The central theme in the psychotic process is loss of connection to the authentic self and alienation from the Self or God. This process may be seen as a journey from the "one" to the "One". The journey to the "One" is achieved by and through the soul or anima conceptualized in three aspects, (1)&nbsp;as guide into the underworld, (2)&nbsp;in the body and (3)&nbsp;as a link to the world soul. The alchemical and mystical literature provides a large enough framework to contain this journey of the soul, whereas, the medical model is too limited and ego centered. The psychotic process and the mystical path are on a continuum. If the psychotic process is treated as ameliorative rather than pathological, the individual may go through his "dark night of the senses" and evolve to a new level of soul consciousness equated in alchemy with the "lesser coniunctio ". This may prepare the way for "the dark night of the soul" and a higher or transpersonal consciousness, equated in alchemy with the "greater coniunctio ".
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Animals are one of the primary ways through which humans have come to understand themselves and their world. In the face of widespread environmental destruction and consequent loss of species, we need to reexamine the importance of the animal presence to our psychological makeup. This dissertation utilizes a hermeneutic methodology, but extends this methodology through an emphasis on interpretation as story. Western culture has been characterized by a relationship to animal which emphasizes separation at the expense of any continuity. This devaluation of the actual animal, combined with the appropriation of animal as a symbol for human qualities, resulted in the increasing interiorization of animal within the human psyche, but this new animal was conceptualized as a fearsome beast. The works of Sigmund Freud, C. G. Jung, and James Hillman are each an evolution in our relationship with animal. Freud's emphasis on the body, Jung's emphasis on the symbolic aspects of animal, and Hillman's refinement of our understanding of the animal archetype restore our awareness of a realistic animal presence within the human psyche. In order to animal to once again be fully present, however, this psychological relationship must be extended to the actual animal in the environment. When animal is seen as an imaginal being with autonomy and intentionality, a third perspective emerges, one which suggests that animal has restored herself within the human psyche in order to reconnect us to a sense of place. When we look at animal's journey as a story unfolding, we see her presence within psychology as teaching us to recollect our own simplicity and relationship to an animate world. The nature of animals' movement leads us now towards an archetypal ecology which focuses on nature's intent as a single set of principles which apply to all beings.
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It has been a common finding among modern theorists that dreams about the deceased are a healthy attempt by the bereaved to resolve conflicts, surrender attachments, and deal with feelings of abandonment (Barrett, 1992; Garfield, 1997; Pollock, 1989; Raphael, 1983; Roeder, 1981; Weizman & Kamm, 1985). In this paradigm, the dream image has been seen as an internally generated memory trace, or introjection. In contrast, pre-scientific cultures and modern tribal peoples have held longstanding beliefs about the veracity of these communications from the dead. This study employed a qualitative research design using a phenomenological method to further elucidate this phenomenon. Five subjects who had experienced the appearance of the deceased as a dream image during the period of mourning were interviewed. It was shown that the dreams did assist the bereaved in their grief process. It was also evidenced that the image of the deceased, in most cases, developed as well. From this standpoint, the author speculated that the image of the deceased may be conceptualized metaphorically. That is, as neither a pure introjection on the part of the bereaved, nor as a substantive visitation, but as something that is created from what lies between the living and the dead. This co-created image can then be seen as a rich source of information for understanding the relationship dynamics in life as well as in death.
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This depth psychological study examines historical and contemporary perspectives of romantic relationships and presents a model of what the author calls "the sacred dimension of romantic relationships." Utilizing a heuristic and hermeneutic approach to psychological investigation, two basic research questions are explored: first, "What are some of the prevailing aspects of the lived understanding of romantic relationships in the present time?" and, second, "What might constitute a useful understanding of the sacred dimension of romantic relationships for the present time?" These research questions are used to guide the author's interpretation of cultural paradigms of romantic intimacy and his recommendations for improving intimate relationships by situating their essence as a spiritual endeavor. The study addresses the research questions in several ways. Historical and multidisciplinary literature reviews disclose cultural perspectives regarding the social and interpersonal meanings of love. A hermeneutic analysis of professional literature on marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction is used to identify dominant but unexamined cultural complexes which interfere with the development of the sacred dimension in romantic relationships. Two primary complexes, the achievement complex and the power complex, are explicated as impediments to sacred relationships. The author then presents a heuristic model of the sacred dimension of relationships comprised of the components of beauty, mystery, and timelessness, and the concept of the beloved. This model, which is offered for consideration in clinical work with couples, is then illustrated by presenting a description of an actual case of couple therapy. In essence, the study proposes that a recovery of the sacred in our spiritually impoverished age of technology will serve to enrich romantic relationships and, thereby, the quality of life in contemporary culture as a whole.
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The archetype of the stranger is examined through a hermeneutic investigation of myth, fiction, and scientific studies of cultural attitudes and actions. Study of classical sources and American archetypal fiction shows that when the stranger archetype is embraced or acknowledged by a culture, significant positive transformations occur in that culture. When the archetype is rejected or denied, negative changes take place. It is suggested that the American public is, at present, denying the reality of the archetype of the stranger by generating two coinciding national myths, that of the evil stranger, the rapist and/or kidnapper, and that of the good stranger, the celebrity. Both of these myths are at variance with the reality of the stranger/culture interaction shown factually in police reports, newspapers, and scholarly studies. It is hypothesized that this cultural denial of the stranger, if unchecked, will lead to destructive actions in the culture, and a lack of productive new growth.
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This dissertation looks at altered states of consciousness and aberrant somatic phenomena as an expression of trauma in adult victims of sexual abuse when they later fall in love. It looks at whether the early experience of sexual abuse affects the capacity to experience love in an embodied manner, and ponders the question of what the experience of falling in love is to someone who was traumatized sexually in childhood. Is it an opportunity for healing, or merely a re-traumatization? The method used in this dissertation is both hermeneutic and heuristic, where an initiatory experience was used in the forming of a question. This question was then used, after a period of reflection, as a guide in the selection of reading. The reading then influenced the understanding of the question, which led into further reading, or at times periods of gestation where the literature super-imposed upon personal experience began to reveal patterns underlying the healing of childhood sexual trauma. As this progressed, the material was organized into chapters, and the process of reading, reflection, and writing was repeated until the chapters were complete. Sexual abuse and its healing can both be understood through the concept of kundalini, consciousness that first lies trapped in its dormant state within the body. In the early stages it manifests merely as sexual energy, or libido. Sexual abuse, as an energetic penetration, causes a premature arousal of kundalini, a fragmentation of consciousness, and the creation of a complex, an energetic blockage, which manifests in emotional distortions, altered states, and unusual somatic phenomena. As consciousness develops, the complex goes through its own transformation in the healing of trauma. This study finds that where consciousness develops to the point where the adult survivor falls in love, this signals a stage of both healing and development, which if worked with consciously, can result in the transcendence of the trauma, and the healing of the split between spirit and matter, which underlies the phenomenon of sexual abuse. Once this occurs the adult victim is ready to return to embodied and instinctual life consciously.
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This study is an exploration of the panther as a broad-spectrumed symbol of narcissism and the human problem with desire which underlies it. In the course of the work, three major areas of study are explored. The first combines the natural and mythic history of the large cats who, regardless of melanistic variation, are collectively known as panther (including the leopard, the jaguar, and the puma). The second area involves an exploration of the psychological theories on narcissism, and covers the two styles of narcissistic presentation that are described in the literature: the overt, or grandiose type, and the covert, or negative type. Narcissism, both as a condition that is endemic to human consciousness and as a problem which seeks psychological maturation and evolution within the human psyche, is explored as well. The third area of study is desire in its relationship both to narcissism and to the symbol of the panther. Various philosophical perspectives on the problem of human desire are explored, and the experience of desire as lack is examined for its contribution to the creation of narcissistic wounding. The symbol of the panther is unveiled not only as a carrier of the problem of human desire, but as an image which points to the need for a return to feminine consciousness and an embodied sense of desire as fullness. Throughout the work, images of panthers in the modern dreamscape are used to punctuate and exemplify their symbolic significance within the human psyche.
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The intent of this study is to examine the institutional surrogate parent, the child-welfare system, from the perspective of the child and the child-welfare professional, utilizing the history of child welfare in America as the foundation. Archetypal forces in the child-welfare system are explored illuminate the role of the institutional surrogate parent. The question posed is one of wondering if the child welfare system is failing or assisting our children? Seven individuals were interviewed who had childhood personal experiences living in the fostercare system. Seven individuals were interviewed who had professional experience working in the child welfare system. This study employs a phenomenological approach and uses a qualitative means to examine the subject. A heuristic/phenomenological approach is present due to the felt experience and interpretation of the co researchers and researcher. In analyzing both the personal and professional participants' responses, this study found that there is a collective sense that the child-welfare system needs to change. In addition, as a surrogate parent, the system is troubled. Themes such as abandonment and loss emerged. Archetypal imagery was found in the experiences of both groups. Some of archetypes found were the lost child, the helpless child, the ineffective parent, and the powerless parent. The overall result of this work was that the child-welfare system is failing our children.
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Existential Trauma is the lack of development of an authentic self in children whose parents can be described as narcissistic. The children seemingly do not exist for the parents, as evidenced by the findings of this phenomenological research. The following questions formed the core of the research of the proposed theory of Existential Trauma: What is the lived experience of children of narcissistic parents? Flow did growing up in an environment in which there is no space for existence affect the development of the self and identity? Is there evidence from case material and psychological literature which supports the hypothesis that Existential Trauma occurs when a child as a separate person psychologically does not exist for the mother, father, or other caregivers?

The research methods included phenomenological, hermeneutic, and heuristic. The research was grounded in the theories of the developmental theorists beginning with Kohut, Winnicott, and Fromm and proceeding to contemporary theorists such as Stolorow and Miller. The dissertation begins with a psychological exploration of the myth of Narcissus as recorded in literature and ends with a description of the parents of Existential Trauma as symbolized by Narcissus and Echo. Included is a description of the effects of Existential Trauma on the psychological development of children.

Findings of the phenomenological research indicate that the Children of Narcissus experience a lack of memories from childhood; a lack of positive and meaningful interactions with parents; physical or emotional abandonment, or both; physical or sexual abuse, or both; trauma, shame, and the feeling of not existing. In addition there are a lack of positive and meaningful communication with parents; a lack of celebrations, rituals, or traditions; and a lack of involvement of the parents in the children's lives. There typically was no other adult to which the child could turn to fill the void left by the absent parents. Subsequent to the childhood of deficiencies and abuses, the participants in the research experienced problems with substance abuse, mood disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety disorder. Wounded by Existential Trauma, the Children of Narcissus struggle to find authenticity and life amid the pain and chaos which are remnants of childhood.
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This study of Hamlet has as its purpose to illustrate that what one sees in this most famous play is a matter of how one sees. Three mythological perspectives: Apollonian, Dionysian and Hermetic, are employed for the purpose of deepening and questioning each of three Jungian models of consciousness: the Theory of Psychological Types, Mythopoetic/Archetypal, and Alchemical and their application to Hamlet. Apollonian order, form, balance and clarity characterize the typological approach. Consciousness in Hamlet is perceived as a gradual and ascendant unfolding of introverted intuition with extraverted thinking. Hamlets inferior sensation and undeveloped feeling provide the dramatic impetus. Dionysian predilection for the shades and shadows accents the view of Hamlet from the underside. Hillman's mythopoetic approach guides the search for the archetypal images behind the initial darkness and melancholia; the inquiry centers on the negative side of the too-good senex, King Hamlet, whose unowned darkness finds its expression in the melancholy and "madness" of the puer, Hamlet. Hamlet is seen as coming to soul-consciousness through dismantling senex consciousness, going to the heart of darkness through his wounds, and through his engagement with the feminine sea. Hermes' association with alchemy presents a ready made affiliation of the mercurial god and the medieval art of the alchemist. In this chapter we imagine the creation of consciousness in Hamlet as a movement from his initial leaden ( nigredo ) condition through a series of transformations ( albedo ) to an embodiment of gold ( rubedo ). After re-imagining the Self/God image through application of Whitehead, Griffin and Asher, the writer suggests that the play Hamlet, is not only an expression of the archetypal field, but that it in turns affects it. The study concludes with applications to therapy guided by the following images: the opening line "Who is there?" Hamlet as a divided man, and Hamlet as a suffering man. Consciousness-creation in the therapy room is facilitated through the embodied working of the constellated archetypes of relation (transference), the experiential knowing and holding of opposites and the increasing ability to bear sorrow, guilt, and joy.
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Within the therapeutic community and the general population there is a passive and tacit acceptance of the theory that the abusive adult of today was probably also a victim of abuse. Though this general impression casts some light on the issue of child abuse, documentation of rehabilitative treatment for the abusive adult presents little evidence that the inherent psychological aspects within the "cycle of abuse" are currently being addressed. Consequently, little guidance is available for the development of effective intervention strategies that can significantly deter the ongoing abuse of children. This work proposes that application of theoretical formulations presented by self psychology provide a rich framework within which to conduct investigation into the phenomenon of cross-generational abuse. Self psychology delineates the nature of specific childhood psychic trauma which in turn inflicts and fosters abuse upon the next generation. The trauma identified by self psychology is specifically bound to missing and distorted interpersonal responses during the developmental process of some abusive adults. These interpersonal failures and the attendant deprivations provide insight into the damaged core self of many child abusers. This theoretical insight enables the rehabilitator to move past personal bias and penetrate the inherent defense mechanisms that isolate the fragile core self of the abusive adult. Informed by the specific developmental failures designated by self psychology, this work suggests a model for therapeutic intervention that predominantly relies on the mirroring transference and empathic attunement. These interpersonal processes allow the therapist to connect with and nurture the wounded self of the adult abuser. Further, this model recommends that the child abuser be taught the interpersonal responses named by self psychology in order to support a critical shift in parenting awareness and effectiveness. This pivotal shift moves parents from a punishment mentality to an emphasis on nurturing the child's developing sense of self, ultimately ending the cycle of abuse. Finally, data is presented in a pre- and post-parenting class test assessing beliefs relative to parental attitudes and behaviors. Following a 10-week parenting course conducted from a self psychological perspective, test results indicate that a significant amount of learning occurred.
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This theoretical dissertation entertains bulimia nervosa within a depth psychological perspective. The work is hermeneutic and discloses the parameters of an archetypal sensibility to explore how eating disorders in general, and bulimia in particular, highlight a threshold of feminine ambivalence about taking (or being able to take) embodied place in the Westernized world. In eating disorders the question truly does become, "To be or not to be." In bulimia, incarnation itself is disclosed as problematic. The word cannot be made flesh. Eating, whilst the ostensible means to nourish the physical body, also sustains soul. The incarnating body originates; sustains, and endures through eating, taking in, and transforming in alchemical relations with what is other. When eating goes awry, the very contact point between self and world has gone awry. Identity, relation, and the meaning of existence itself are called into question. "Reality" is exposed as problematic at the level of soul. This depth psychological study is also a spiritual study as psychology is the word of the soul. Any given psychological symptom is also a symbol of spiritual suffering, regardless of whether this accords with the assumed soul-mind/body splits within modern medicine. The study seeks to expose certain predicates of modern Western "reality" that foreclose archetypal feminine presence in an attempt to get at root-level strata of the bulimic visitation. In particular, the Enlightenment, mass communication, and modern capitalism are explored as bulimic precursors. Ultimately, Sophia, the Goddess of Wisdom, is found to be missing from the current cultural digest. Without her, we cannot metabolize our food. The feminine cannot incarnate within the world. Many girl-women, unable to nourish themselves, enact incarnational arrest. The cultural exclusion of the archetypal feminine is enacted in bulimic women's binging and purging, as is their rage, distress, and existential confusion. Modern patriarchy, in its denial of organic feminine processes, eclipses transformation. Bulimia is a symbolic enactment of the opposite of transformation: it is a state of suspended animation—the very non-death Westernized culture seems to seek. Bulimia confronts our current assumptions and demands our transformation. There is alchemical gold in its dark habit.
<<link 727914311>>

This study focused on understanding the depth psychological nature of organizations and the implications of each individual's involvement in the organization of his or her choice. Organizational culture was portrayed as an identifying landmark for the presence of psyche within the organization. It was depicted as the container in which the unconscious implications of an organization are most evident. The literature on organizational culture was shown to be dominated by descriptions of potential dimensions and attributes of culture, as well as speculations on the variability of the culture between subgroups. In this study, four hypotheses were developed to identify the potential variability between an organization's subgroups. The subgroups identified for the study were departmental, line/staff, management/nonmanagement, and male/female. Ten dimensions were selected to identify a construct of organizational culture. Each dimension was represented by ten attributes. The attributes were formulated into a questionnaire of 100 variables displayed in a seven-point Likert scale format. The questionnaire was presented to the employees of a San Francisco advertising agency along with two other organizational culture instruments—the Kilmann Saxton Culture Gap Survey and the Prien Work Setting Characteristics Questionnaire. The extent of the construct's variability was measured throughout the organization. The study's findings indicated substantial variability between several of the subgroups on a number of dimensions. Significant differences were noted in departmental and male/female comparisons.
<<link 732908141>>

This dissertation relies on a heuristic methodology employed to study how the destruction of forests is creating a negative impact on the psychological and spiritual aspects of the lives of both native and non-native peoples. Although not intended as an anthropological study, indigenous forest peoples were queried about their feelings related to forest destruction under the assumption that they are among the people most intimately in contact with the immediate psychological and spiritual impact of deforestation. Written under the umbrella of a new branch of psychology called "ecopsychology," a blend of ecological and psychological perspectives, this dissertation examines both why humans continue to live in an abusive relationship with the planet and how humans can begin to heal that abusive relationship. In addition to presenting transcripts of interviews with indigenous peoples, this dissertation reviews the literature contained within the disciplines of ecohistory, ecophilosophy, ecopsychology, forests, and soul. The dissertation concludes with a movie-length screenplay story, written in Standard Script Format, which incorporates the themes presented in both the interviews and the literature review, and as is required by heuristic research, is a personal response to the dissertation material.
<<link 913538581>>

This dissertation is a study of the function of fluidity and rigidity within the psyche. Developmental and object relations theory are used within the theoretical and hermeneutic method. These findings are employed as a template to examine religious reification by addressing the following question: What are the effects of the dogmatic reifications of religious symbols and stories in Western religious thought and practice upon psychological and spiritual growth? Drawing upon developmental theory and an object relations perspective, this study explores the hypothesis that the dogmatic approach alone without further development fosters splitting, leading to a defensive ego structure, ultimately retarding psychological and spiritual growth. By use of the ego-Self axis model, it is demonstrated that both a rigid structure of reification and the fluidity of the symbolic realm of archetypes are necessary for psychological and spiritual development. In the course of this study, attention is given to a similar pattern that arises among various developmental theories. This similar pattern demonstrates a need for the developing ego to move from a state of ambiguity to that of a well-defined structure. With the security and identity of structure, the ego is then free to securely reenter ambiguity with sufficient strength to benefit and not be consumed by the interaction. Attention is given in the development to the use of images as the psyche internally integrates the external experience. A dualistic nature of the psyche is explored as seen in the potential space within the tension of opposites. Through this hermeneutical journey, this research benefits the field of clinical psychology by demonstrating the necessity within the ego for both a well-defined, reified structure and the essentiality to tolerate symbolic ambiguity. It is through this further understanding of the ego-Self axis that both the empirical structured work of the ego and the fluid, undefined archetypal openness are shown to be necessary for individuation.
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This study explores the dreams of St. Francis of Assisi from the perspective of depth psychology. St. Francis's charismatic and simple approach to life has transformed him into an archetype who speaks to all who seek the path of spirituality and individuation. His dreams, and the process that they reveal, speak not only of him but of us as well. This study utilizes a hermeneutical investigation which suggests that there is an archetypal basis underlying St. Francis's dreams. Particular attention is given to the first two dreams of St. Francis, which have come to be known as the dreams of conversion. Seeing them for the first time through the lens of psychology can aid us in our understanding of human nature while enhancing the study of both spirituality and psychology. This study situates St. Francis's dreams of conversion within the historical and psychological context of dream theory. The dream is defined and explained historically from the ancient Greeks, through the Bible and the Early Church Fathers, to modern theorists of dream interpretation, especially Freud, Jung, and Hillman. Recent physiological dream research is presented to challenge and extend the meaning of dream interpretation. Significant aspects of Francis's life are presented as well as the socio-cultural milieu in which they occurred. The primary early biographies which contained his dreams are compared and explained. Special attention is given to interpreting St. Francis's dreams using the approach developed by Carl Gustav Jung. It is hoped that analysis of St. Francis's dreams will reveal dimensions of his psychological process that will inspire and aid both those who are spiritual seekers and those who guide them.
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This paper explores the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on male recovering addicts. Researchers first began looking at the link between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol/drug abuse after a large percentage of addicted women reported sexual abuse as children. However, very little research has been done on the impact of CSA on recovering males, even though approximately 10% to 30% of sexual abuse victims are men. This means that men are greatly underrepresented in the literature. The impact of CSA on males may include sexual problems, dysfunctions or compulsions, confusion and struggles over gender and sexual identity, self-blame and anger, and low self-esteem and negative self-image. Substance abuse, a tendency to deny and delegitimize the traumatic experience, symptoms of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, fear, and depression also characterize male recovering addicts. This paper looks at the experiences of 10 male recovering addicts self-identified as sexual abuse survivors. The subjects were seen at community based treatment facilities. Personal interviews and research indicate a positive correlation between CSA and relapse in males.
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This dissertation is a heuristic and hermeneutic research paper on the evolution of consciousness and the individuation process. I begin by examining the question of the evolution of consciousness and its significance regarding individuation in the work of four different authors: Jung, Neumann, Sri Aurobindo, and Gebser. I then study the nature of the development of the Western mind since the period of the Greek philosophers up to postmodernism and beyond. Finally, I discuss the meaning of the individuation process. All four of the authorities referred to on the evolution of consciousness emphasize the need to integrate life around the Self. From the point of view of this study, each brings forward different factors that help one appreciate how consciousness has evolved and how the individuation process can be fostered. An instructive aspect of Neumann's theory is the underlying error in his thinking involving his depiction of the evolution of consciousness as a direct, linear development from matriarchy to patriarchy. Both Sri Aurobindo and Jung saw it as a spiral-like process. The former also describes several different cultural attitudes, each of which can contribute to the realization of an integral consciousness. According to Gebser, the new integral awareness includes the integration of subjectively experienced time, a life of felt-intensity and the concrete realization of spiritual energy in life. Regarding the development of the Western mind, not only has there been a widening separation between the spirit and instincts over time, but the intellect has gradually descended from the realm of ideas to the physical universe. This has led to the modern mind and its offshoot, postmodernism. Jung takes us beyond both tendencies, while reconciling the split in the Western psyche. His psychology involves both following a superior will and the in-depth transformation of the chthonic feminine and realization of the chthonic spirit. I support Jung's view with the one held by Sri Aurobindo and his spiritual collaborator, the Mother, contrasting it with views held by Hillman, Poncé, and Fromm.
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This dissertation used a hermeneutic phenomenological method to examine the lived experience of the wounded healer archetype in the lives of eight Caucasian art therapy graduate students. Results were derived from the analysis of interviews with the co-researchers and their created artwork. The findings showed that the majority of the co-researchers had experienced the presence of the wounded healer archetype through a sense of either a force or energy at work in their lives which led them to become art therapists. It is this researcher's hope that these findings have the potential to have a significant impact on the training of art therapists in their understanding and integration of their personal woundedness. Utilization of the wounded healer archetype may encourage further acknowledgement and open discussion of woundedness among all psychotherapy professionals.
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This theoretical study using a hermeneutic methodology seeks to explore and possibly better understand the experience of existential aloneness. Conditions and experiences which may produce or cause the experience of existential aloneness to arise are investigated. These may include personal, emotional, psychological, and spiritual crises, work in therapy, crises of faith or meaning, and the realization of the emptiness of all things in the Buddhist sense. 

Existential concepts such as nihilism, loss of innocence, anxiety and anguish, and responsibility and freedom are explored, as well as some personal and psychological ramifications of each. The perspectives of Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger, and Nietzsche are considered. 

Experiences that may contain a component of existential aloneness are investigated including: dark night, mysticism, the desert experience, solitude, non-ordinary reality, spiritual emergence, and spiritual emergency. 

Applications and ramifications for Clinical Psychology of these often profound and deeply personal experiences are also explored with a major emphasis on exploring how practitioners in the field might develop ways to conceptualize, hold, help clients move through them more productively.
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
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This phenomenological study explored the experience of feeling really understood in psychotherapy from the client point of view. The literature review revealed considerable evidence from quantitative research that the client's experience of the therapist's empathy, or feeling understood, is one of the strongest predictors of positive therapeutic outcome. Depth psychologists, too, acknowledge the importance of the experience. Yet, little is known about this significant client experience. The study was undertaken to increase therapists' understanding of this poorly understood phenomenon. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with six individuals who experienced feeling really understood in psychotherapy. The research informants included three males and three females, ranging in age from 35 to 57 years. Length of therapy varied diversely from 6 months to 17 years. Using Giorgi's phenomenological method, the researcher analyzed interviews, found the essential elements of the experience, and developed a structural description of the client experience. The researcher found 11 common themes that are the essential elements of feeling really understood in psychotherapy. They include feeling: (a)&nbsp;safe, (b)&nbsp;accepted, (c)&nbsp;relieved, (d)&nbsp;validated, (e)&nbsp;heard, (f)&nbsp;seen/known, (g)&nbsp;engaged with an active co-participant, (h)&nbsp;a sense of intimacy with the therapist, (i)&nbsp;surprised/sense of awe at the discovery of a core truth or new way of looking at a situation, (j)&nbsp;more self acceptance, and (k)&nbsp;engaged with a compassionate, genuine "other" with own point of view. From these themes, the researcher developed a structural description of the experience of feeling really understood in psychotherapy. Six therapist behaviors or attitudes contributed to client understanding: (a)&nbsp;paying attention to non-verbal behavior, (b)&nbsp;accepting the client fully, (c)&nbsp;listening carefully, (d)&nbsp;validating the client, (e)&nbsp;sharing the therapist's understanding of the client's internal world, and (f)&nbsp;being active and genuine. These results suggest that clinical psychology needs to shift its focus from "fixing" clients, and instead, focus on understanding clients and communicating this understanding.
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This work investigates the experience of living life in the presence of the enchanted. It uses the heuristic method of Clark Moustakas and the alchemical hermeneutic method of Robert Romanyshyn and Veronica Goodchild to explore the works of selected poets. It bases its approach to the works of the poets on imaginal psychology, the psychology of James Hillman, and that of C. G. Jung. Using this, it looks beyond the cultural limitation that views expressive voice and intelligence as the sole property of individual minds. The poets' work selected for this study is written from within this expanded worldview. From this view the analysis of experience is open ended and is done in dialogue. It no longer tries to reduce experiences to fit predetermined models but instead maintains this open dialogue with the voices that address the poet, remaining continually informed by them. The rational analysis and materialism that normally dominate Western forms of thought are suspended as a prerequisite of this dialogue. This dialogue is experienced as containing mystery. It also embodies a directly felt experience of meaningfulness. Through this the poets become intimately engaged with an expanded everyday world. 

This worldview experienced by the poets suggests that psychotherapy can be re-visioned as a poetic dialog that takes place beyond the personal. This dialogue is open to all that words contain. Temporarily silencing the need for analysis, it is open to the mystery of this larger world. It first listens and then responds to the other voices that speak through and in-between the words of therapeutic conversation. This interaction responds not only to the concerns made present to the ego, but it also responds directly to the other voice through its own poetic expressions. This opening to these words and images brings to the conversation a larger reality. By responding to and participating in this reality, it is assimilated and in return opens up the experience of living with enchantment.
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Educating society and the therapeutic community about the experience of psychosis is crucial as an effort to reduce fear and increase compassion for those who are mentally ill and, more specifically, for those who experience the terrifyingly altered state of consciousness that is psychosis. 

In an effort to provide a depth psychological understanding of the meaning of madness, the personal interviews of six participants diagnosed with schizophrenia are presented along with related autobiographical accounts from sufferers of schizophrenia or other experiences of psychosis who were fortunate enough to recover from or to be able to write at length about their experience. The experience of madness presented in this study is the actual psychotic process and the various states involved, from mild to acute. The interviews and autobiographical accounts reveal for the reader of this study the real inner experience of madness, and the commentary and discussion reveal from the words of the individual sufferers of schizophrenia a depth psychological look at and description of the experience of madness. 

A. Giorgi's phenomenological method is employed in this study to conduct the interviews, transcribe them, reduce them to their essences, and present an overall picture of the experience of psychosis/madness and the clearest picture of the actual daily, lived experience of schizophrenia. 

The study addresses the problem of understanding how psychotic individuals experience their madness. From a depth psychological perspective, this investigation is an explication of the symbolic parallels between three stages of the "night sea journey" described by C. G. Jung (1912/1976) as related to individual sufferers' phenomenological experience of three phases of their illness. The study is intended to reduce fear by educating the therapeutic community about the inner experience of psychosis. 

The findings are presented in an elaborate aggregate of all of the participants' similar experiences combined with autobiographical accounts that match with the experiences of the participants in the study. 

Implications of the study are that more such studies are imperative if the field of psychology is to gain an accurate understanding of psychological illness from the client's perspective.
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The main interest of Carl Jung's work was the approach to the numinous. He believed that experiencing the numinous released persons from the curse of pathology, and it fed spiritual hungers as well. The dilemma people find themselves in today is that of not having persons with whom to share spiritual depth. Whereas the container or temenos for the numinous experience in the Jungian tradition has ordinarily been the consulting room, our own times require containers that can provide numinous experiences in and as community. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how the imaginal dream group known as Dreamtending provides such a container. A phenomenologically-based study using a heuristic method was undertaken, which analyzed in depth the experiences of eight women who were participants in Dreamtending groups. Taped interviews were taken in order to determine four things about people's experiences in Dreamtending groups: (1)&nbsp;How do people experience the numinous? (2)&nbsp;What about this particular process facilitates an opening to the numinous? (3)&nbsp;How is the Dreamtending group a container for the numinous? (4)&nbsp;How does this experience help people feel connected? These four questions built a context for examining the Dreamtending process as a vehicle for approaching the numinous and releasing the curse of pathology. The results of this study demonstrated that the numinous, as experienced in the Dreamtending group process, occurred when people felt interconnected. The numinous was elicited by synchronicities and surprise happenings, was experienced as both transcendent and immanent, and was generally a positive experience, even when dealing with initially dark or frightening images. Numinous experiences created strong bonds of connection with one's self, with other persons, with inanimate objects, with nature, and with a higher power. The most effective aspects of the Dreamtending group were (a)&nbsp;the process of being with a dream or image in the here-and-now, (b)&nbsp;the group as a strong container for emotional material, and (c)&nbsp;a sense of experiencing community with other beings. Numinous experiences in the Dreamtending group led to greater personal integrity and playfulness in life, greater awareness of and involvement in the world, and a release from pathology.
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To the person who suffers shame, the world is full of eyes, crowded with things and people that can see. Cold, annihilating eyes watch every movement and moment of self. The point of anguish and despair in shame is this element of exposure. One is visible and not ready to be visible, looking and not ready to see. Ancient and modern writers of all persuasions—psychologists, anthropologists, philosophers, and novelists—have long noted the visual and facial components in the phenomenon of shame. In fact, shame's presence in the Story of Creation, the Western world's depiction of the beginning of human history, is linked to the eye and was the reason Adam and Eve covered themselves with fig leaves. On both a collective, archetypal level and an individual, developmental one, shame manifests itself most through the eye. It is mediated and conveyed by the idea of vision, and cannot arise without this perceptual element. Despite its prevalence as one of the deepest, most fundamental emotional experiences for all mankind, and the recent proliferation of explorations into shame, the amplification of shame's quintessential phenomenological image-the human eye-has not been developed. This study is an effort to explore the eye as a natural symbol for shame in order to open a portal of vision into the unconscious depths and intrapsychic dynamics of shame in the core of the self. Using psychological literature, infant and developmental research, archaeological studies, philosophy, the visual and literary arts, myths, fairytales, and clinical case examples to reflect the eyes of shame excavates another layer of its meaning, a strata barely visible to the naked eye but which manifests through eye contact. This kind of precise looking has identified shame as a core affect in psychotic anxieties. Absolute shame is ultimately about an experience of mother's eyes during the holding phase of psychological development, resulting in the intensification of psychotic anxieties with the image of the eye at their core. The hollow, dead, mechanical, or envious eyes that do not reflect the infant but carry the mother's disturbance petrifies the self. Such eye contact at life's earliest stage forms the internal, object relationship that generates pathological shame, resulting in a self obliterated by the eyes of the other. The image of the eye provides not only insights into shame in the core of the self, but also a means of metabolizing shame's presymbolic, concrete object representation into a conscious, archetypal symbol of the totality of the self. Analysis at this deep level transforms disintegrating shame, and restores it to its rightful place as a spark of self-awareness.
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Nature abhors a vacuum. Father absence or emotional abandonment by the father leaves such a vacancy. Despite the father's absence in the lives of his children, the son is fathered by father images that mother presents, by other adult males, and by the Father Archetype manifesting in cultural imagery. This dissertation explores the psychological relationship of the Father Archetype to the Fatherless Son. The myth of the Greek hero Theseus provides a context with which to explain the psychological and emotional experience of the fatherless son. This story offers distinct imagery for the psychology of abandonment, father-son conflict, single parenting, step parenting, substitute father imaging, and the need for rites of passage for fatherless adolescent males. The instinctual and animating energy of the Father Archetype defines fathers and fathering that are reflected in the historical and modern imagery of fatherhood. Father images are traced from ancient cave paintings of the Bull Father, to evolving Sky-God fathers, to the eventual dominance and deconstruction of the patriarchy. Modern images of father, when compared to historical father images, clarify the psychological impact that the absent or emotionally distant father has on his son. Cultural and artistic icons of fathers and fathering are highlighted and discussed as presented in Nathaniel Hawthorne's (1970) My Kinsman, Major Molineux, Arthur Miller's (1999) Death of a Salesman, and in Linson, Chaffin, and Bell's (1999) film Fight Club. These specific images of the American Father span three different eras of American history. The fathers and fatherlessness depicted in these works voice concern, not that fatherhood in America has diminished, but that the modern father has become irrelevant. Clinical attention to the fatherless experience amplifies the particular psychological distress of the fatherless son. Meaningful rites of passage that signal a psychic transformation and elevate the fatherless boy into manhood are needed. Suggestions are made to assist the clinician in facilitating this process. Clinical psychologists can respond to this cultural void by providing treatment focused on the influence and power of the Father Archetype on the life of the fatherless son.
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A chance encounter with an 11th-century Chinese alchemical text in Jade East, a jewelry shop, was the beginning of a personal alchemical process. The alchemical process evolved through a hermeneutic interpretation of the text, Understanding Reality (Chang, 1987). The 99 stanzas in Understanding Reality presents Chang Po-tuan's (983-1082) complete teachings of Complete Reality Taoism, a form of Taoism that developed during the Sung Dynasty (960-1279), the golden age of Chinese alchemy. This paper, a depth-psychological analysis of the Complete Reality Taoism alchemical process, focuses on the union of two opposites, yin and yang or body and mind. A depth-psychological analysis approaches the alchemical symbols in the Taoist text through an amplification process that works to uncover the underlying archetypes, universal images. A meeting of West, depth psychology, and East, Taoist alchemy, this paper continues a tradition that began with Jung's (1957/1967) first alchemical exploration, The Secret of the Golden Flower . However, Jung, in introducing Eastern thought to his Western readers, omits in-depth discussions of the Chinese alchemical process and the Taoist cosmogony. This paper augments Jung's commentary by attending to the Taoist doctrines that define a cosmos that is the foundation of the Chinese alchemical goal, a Return to the Tao . One of the essential components of the Taoist cosmogony and the Chinese alchemical process is the vital energy ch'i . Although Jung was aware of ch'i , he did not associate its transformative actions with the Chinese meditative process. In the Complete Reality Taoism alchemical process, ch'i , like soul, is the mediator between body and mind, the transformative agent that brings consciousness to unconscious content, and the creator of psychic images. An exploration of the many wondrous qualities and characteristics of ch'i contributes to the general knowledge of the alchemical process and offers new perspectives to contemporary ideas of soul and the relationship between body, mind, and spirit. The actions of ch'i stand as a model for all of our thoughts and behaviors. In addition, the spiral paths and transformations of ch'i create a temenos , a sacred space that is a sine qua non for the therapeutic process.* *Originally published in DAI Vol. 62, No. 10. Reprinted here with corrected author name.
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This research investigated the observations, attitudes, and feelings of primary school teachers concerning "golden children" in their classrooms. "Golden children" were defined as only children born of affluent, professional, working mothers who were 35 years of age or older. Twenty first and second grade teachers in middle and upper-middle class schools in the Chicago area responded to a 26-item questionnaire using a Likert-type scale. From the group of respondents, five were interviewed extensively about their observations, attitudes, and feelings concerning the golden children in their classroom. The interview data was analyzed phenomenologically utilizing a method based on the work of Georgi (1975a, 1975b). The findings of the study show that teachers experienced golden children as bright, articulate, and highly motivated to learn. Teachers noted that golden children sometimes exhibited difficulty in relating with peers and tended to prefer the company of adults. The subjects also described an experience of stress in their relationship with parents of golden children, primarily because they felt that parents had high expectations of them, but were not often willing to grant teachers sufficient authority and respect. The findings of the study were discussed from a depth psychological perspective. Specifically, the myth of Demeter and Persephone was used as a prism for looking at the archetypal dimensions of the relationship between teachers and parents of golden children.
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Jung's theory of psychological type posits that the potential for consciousness of the human personality is made up of two perceiving functions and two judging functions. For each individual, one perceiving function and one judging function make up the core of that person's conscious personality, together with the will. If both are sufficiently conscious to be available for skilled use by the individual, that person's type is said to be adequately developed. Adequate type development facilitates the ego's healthy adaptation to reality and an openness to the unconscious, which permits unconscious contents to emerge in a purposive way. It is in this sense that I view psychological type as integral to the totality of the psyche. The feeling function is one of the judging functions. It uses values as the criteria on which to base judgment. The feeling function has been severely wounded in Western culture, degraded into an essentially unconscious condition over the last 500 years. The thesis of this dissertation is that feeling judgment can be healed by establishing a better understanding of it and by identifying ways in which it can be used by individuals more effectively, both of which would contribute to making the function more conscious. I envision a healed feeling function contributing to the healthy type development of individuals. I also envision the healing of the function in enough people contributing to its healing in the culture.
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The traditional mythic hero was assumed to be a male who was separated from his known world, was initiated into a new consciousness, then, returned to his community. This dissertation argues that there are new stories in which the hero is a female. These new female heroes portray the archetype of the hero and the process of individuation. They can be used as role models by adolescent girls and can encourage girls to progress developmentally. The introductory chapter discusses developmental issues of adolescent girls and highlights the special needs of girls which can be addressed in their literature. It also contains an overview of relevant Jungian concepts of archetypes and a review of literature with special attention paid to female archetypes and the archetype of the maiden. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 are primarily concerned with the individuation process of the hero; however, each chapter has different secondary issues. Three of Cynthia Voigt's realistic fictional works, //Homecoming//, //Dicey's Song//, and //Come a Stranger//, are the focus of the second chapter, in which not only individuation but also developmental issues are discussed. The third chapter treats works in which individual differences and ego strength are issues: Madeleine L'Engle's //A Wrinkle in Time// and Elizabeth Marie Pope's //Perilous Gard//. Two fantasies and a fairy tale by Robin McKinley, //The Hero and the Crown//, //The Blue Sword//, and //Deerskin//, are the subject of the fourth chapter. The symbolism surrounding such objects as the horse, the cat, the dragon, and the sword are examined in the first two books. The trauma of incest is the secondary issue in //Deerskin//. The final chapter includes the conclusion, interpretations, and implications.
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This study examined attitudes toward the religious impulse in the schools of depth psychology—Freudian, object relations, Jungian, and archetypal—and in transpersonal psychology. The religious impulse is defined as an individual's innate desire to commune with something greater than the individual self; it is the longing to transcend the ego, to return to the archetypal realm, or to experience union with God, depending on one's language and frame of reference. Thus this study situated theorists with divergent attitudes, who rarely appear together in the literature, in a kind of dialogue with one another, not to reconcile them but to allow them to challenge and extend each other. It was not the aim of this work to reduce the holy longing to a psychological complex or to a singular archetype. Rather, it aimed, first of all, to acknowledge the pervasiveness and worthiness of authentic religious desire, which has been overlooked by many professionals in the psychological community and which could be of value to both individual seekers and their mental health care practitioners. Second, it aimed to point out some of the inherent psychological dangers of the holy longing, which have been overlooked by many religious believers and spiritual or transpersonal practitioners. Thus this study was an attempt to present both the light side and the dark side of the holy longing. Finally, this study suggested that there is an archetypal basis for the spiritual impulse in human beings, which can lead either to ecstatic, numinous experience, communion, and compassion or to spiritual abuse, trauma, splitting, and despair. Thus the holy longing is a two-faced archetype, with a light side and a dark side. A deeper understanding of its dual nature will assist spiritual seekers, as well as those seeking to treat them.
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The icon is seen in Orthodox Christianity as a window through which one is able to experience the numinosity of the Self. The ego is inspired through encounter with the Self into a greater awareness of the God-image in the world. This dissertation is a theoretical study that explores Eastern Christian dogma through the lens of Depth Psychology. It is with this understanding that I embark upon the exploration of the ancient tradition or icon veneration. In addition, I maintain the viewpoint that the attitude of reverencing the icon has profound implications to the work of psychotherapy. As a mystical spiritual tradition, Eastern Christianity holds within it the awareness that, no matter what can be asserted about God, our understanding and abilities to articulate this transcendent reality will always be incomplete. Similarly, Jung avoids the use of the term "God" because he sees the difficulty in making assertions about that which exceeds understanding. Although Jung uses the term "God-image" and Eastern Christianity refers to "God", these have very similar meanings. The goal of the Eastern Christian is Theosis , or union with God. In Depth Psychological terms, it is through consciousness that the ego comes into relationship with the Self. The icon assists in the goal of Theosis (or in psychological terms, the individuation process) because it provides a means in which the ego can encounter the Self. The symbols contained in the icon allow the ego to enter into relationship with the divine archetypes. Through spiritual preparation, the iconographer translates the "Word of God" into the materials of wood and paint. This craft can be viewed as an alchemical process. As the ego of the iconographer is impacted by the presence of the Self, it is incarnated into the materiality of the icon. The person who venerates the icon is, therefore, a participant in the process of the Self becoming incarnate in the world. The icon's symbols speak to a reality that is numinous and transcendent. Two significant icons in Eastern Christianity are amplified in this study: the icons of the Nativity of Christ and the Descent of Christ into Hades. These icons symbolize the mysteries of the incarnation of the Self in the world and the ego's realization of the Self. Through the symbols in these icons, the ego is supported in the process of individuation as it encounters the numinosity of the Self. In the process of psychotherapy, the veneration of the client as icon entails the ability to see all aspects of the psyche as having value to the ego as it is brought into fuller consciousness. As the ego becomes more aware of the Self, it is also more capable of viewing the beauty of the God-image as manifested in the anima mundi .
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Although there is a growing emphasis on cultural-specific psychotherapy for Asian Americans, there is virtually no research on how acculturated Asian Americans respond to conventional psychodynamic psychotherapy. This study sought to determine how Japanese Americans would respond to Davanloo's Partial Trial Therapy and how levels of acculturation and gender affected their response. It was hypothesized that highly acculturated Japanese-American subjects would respond better than less acculturated Japanese-American subjects and also that Japanese-American women subjects would respond better than men. Acculturation was determined by generational status and the Suinn Lew Acculturation Scale. The outcome was determined by pretest and post-test scores on State Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory and Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Twenty Japanese Americans from the community were selected (10 men and 10 women); six were from the second, eight from the third and six from the fourth generations. Instruments utilized were of the Suinn Lew Acculturation Scale, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, and Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. The experimental treatment, a single session of Partial Trial Therapy, was held a week later after pretesting. Treatment required 60-90 minutes and the experimenter, an advanced graduate in clinical psychology, trained in Davanloo's Intensive Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapy, provided the treatment. Post-testing was conducted 1 week after treatment. The relationship between generation groups and scores on the Suinn Lew Acculturation Scale was assessed using a chi-square test. Tests of hypothesis using generation groups as a predictor variable employed 1-way ANOVA. Tests of hypotheses using Suinn Lew Acculturation groups or gender (low vs. high) or predictors employed 2-sample t-tests. No impact was found for Davanloo's Partial Trial Therapy on the Japanese-American subjects. No effects of treatment on anxiety and depression were found. Low-acculturated subjects assessed using the Suinn Lew Acculturation Scale benefited from the treatment, whereas the high-acculturated subjects experienced an adverse effect. Additionally, no impact was found that could be traced to treatment of the acculturated groups based on either the generation or the gender of subjects. The sample size may have prevented a full testing of the hypothesis. It is recommended that a qualitative study be considered in future research if obtaining a significantly larger sample size along with a control group cannot be ensured.
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This study evaluated the effectiveness of a sex-education curriculum for male and female youth ages 13 to 15 years old through random assignment of participants to parent-present or parent-absent classes. Sixty youths completed the Nowicki Locus of Control Inventory for Adolescents and the Mathtech Sexuality Questionnaires for Adolescents, and 58 parents completed a parent questionnaire developed by the researcher. The sex-education curriculum (SHAPE II—Sharing Healthy Adolescent and Parent Experiences) was developed by the Coalition for Children, Adolescents, and Parents in Orange County, California. The study demonstrated the significance of parents in pregnancy-prevention education. All of the youths in the study increased their clarity about their personal sexual values. Youths in the parent-present design significantly increased knowledge, internal locus of control, and satisfaction with social relationships. In addition, females significantly increased assertiveness skills. In the no-parent design, males increased, scores in internal locus of control, assertiveness skills, and comfort with their current sex life, whatever it might be, whereas females decreased scores on these same items. Parent and child communication increased to the parents' satisfaction and the dissatisfaction of the youths, whereas both parents and youths reported improved relationships with each other. The study includes baseline data on the attitudes and values of parents in relation to sexuality.
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Perhaps the most fundamental relationship is friendship. Friendship is particularly important for older adults, who utilize their friendships as buffers for dealing with the stress associated with the losses which occur in the twilight years. This study addressed the dynamics of friendship in older adulthood from a Jungian perspective. Jungian psychology argues that humans proceed toward a life goal through a series of life cycles based on archetypal configurations. For Jung, human existence is a process of ongoing development; new attitudes are required at each phase, as is a renewed orientation and reanchoring of oneself. Of all the life transitions that humans negotiate, Jung was most interested in the developmental dynamics of later life. The purpose of the study was to examine the importance and meaning of friendship among a sample of eight older adults. The researcher conducted interviews using the phenomenological method. Following were key findings. (1) Many older adults relied upon family members as friends. (2) Geographical proximity was not necessary for deeply meaningful relationships. (3) Many subjects had intergenerational friendships. (4) Cultural factors come into play in that several subjects were born abroad and subsequently immigrated to America. These immigrants had grown up in traditional societies in which the dynamics of friendship differed significantly from that in a Westernized setting. (5) Seven of eight subjects had one or more close friends with whom they could communicate and with whom a spiritual relationship could be said to exist. In the eighth case, the animal companion served as a friend. (6) Many of the friendships demonstrated reciprocity and mutual caring. The final chapter discussed these findings in theoretical context and in light of their implications for clinical psychology.
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Angel or Artifact was an investigation into the validity of the coconscious observer state/Inner Self Helper (ISH) in multiple personality disorder (MPD). It concluded that there are salient traits uniformly associated with the ISH that identify it as a mental state different from alter-personalities. It is astute and objective, exhibits a memory superior to other ego states, is emotionally stable, is more alert to and has a wider recognition of events in the environment than other ego states, and sometimes exhibits a sixth sense. It appears to be a subliminal organizing function rather than personality. It may be a manifestation of the Jungian Self. Some clinicians described it as spirit or soul. The ISH's ability to influence and direct therapy was addressed from both historical cases and interviews with eminent clinicians. Transference and countertransference issues or the rapport between ISH/patient and therapist were explored and described as mature and useful. A theoretical model of child abuse was proposed to explain the dissociation of the ISH in MPD. The abuser, in this model, is pathologically narcissistic. His unempathetic, controlling attitude cripples the victim's capacity to use transitional innerpsychic space—the cocreative, symbol-producing realm created between ego-awareness and coconsciousness. Reacting to the abuse, the child creates alter-personalities to defend against the destruction of self and also minimizes or treats as false the seemingly impotent, elusive, inner perceptions that seem ineffective or out of touch with the emotional trauma. These out-of-awareness cognitions organize as unconscious/coconscious functions and develop a separate reality. The ISH was described as a non-ego, coconscious matrix of observations and potential whose non-ego perspective is estranged from the reactive ego-personalities. When the ISH appears as personification of the multiple's capacity for objectivity, wholeness, and creative inspiration, the doctor and patient collaborate in a three-way (ISH-patient-therapist) relationship at the subliminal level that is soul.
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This dissertation explores the experience of being addicted to substances in the lives of people who have suffered from addiction. The study addresses the following question: What is the lived experience of addiction? Using phenomenological research methodologies, this study seeks to uncover the essential nature and structures of the experience of addiction. Rather than focus solely on the etiology or treatment of addiction, this study attempts to gain access into the genuine experiences as felt by people addicted to substances. Moreover, this study attempts to investigate the nature of addiction including the identification of subtle phenomena such as values, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs. The literature review provides an overview of addiction from a psychological perspective. The conceptualization of addiction as a medical disease is examined from various perspectives. The causes of addiction are outlined from many different schools of thought including biological, sociological, and environmental. The review of literature also explores treatment modalities used for treating addictions to substances and examines various styles of treatment including the moral model, the learning model, the disease model, the self-medication model, and the bio-psycho-social model. This dissertation employs a phenomenological research methodology. Phenomenology allows one to look deeply into the experience of addiction and to shed light on this topic in a unique manner. Phenomenology allows the experience of addiction to unfold through interviews with the research subjects in this study. Kvale (1996) explains, "Phenomenology attempts to get beyond the immediately experienced meanings in order to articulate the prereflective level of lived meaning, to make the invisible visible" (p. 53). Using phenomenology, new insights about addiction became available which allowed addiction to be viewed without the characteristic labels and negative perceptions that exist in our culture; this allowed the study to simply report on the lived experience. This dissertation proposes that the experience of addiction can unfold in many ways while preserving several key constituents. Addicts use substances for many reasons, for example, to feel euphoria, to self-medicate, and to be accepted. This dissertation suggests that it is the psychological defensive position of self-deception (denial) that maintains addiction within individuals. The notion of self-deception and its relationship to addictions is explored analytically in this study. From a depth-psychological perspective, addiction can be acknowledged as the soul's need to travel or move away, and in particular, the soul's need to seek darkness or the shadow. Campbell (1973) states, "Perhaps some of us have to go through dark and devious ways before we can find the river of peace or the highroad of the soul's destination" (p. 21). Indeed, addiction can lead people to seedy, dark places both in the world and in their minds. Psychologists or counselors who work with addicts or their families will be aided in their clinical work by utilizing the information in this dissertation. In particular, alcohol and drug therapists can use the knowledge of how self-deception may be operating in a client's life.
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This phenomenological study explored the lived experience of four licensed psychotherapists ( astrotherapists ) who integrate astrology into their practice. Through semi-structured interviews, the co-researchers were asked to describe their feelings, attitudes, values, and conflicts about using this body of knowledge in clinical work. They were also asked to describe how astrology interfaces with their worldview and how it influences the way they do therapy. The literature review was framed around several relevant topics. The role of astrology in human consciousness was examined, with emphasis on how its insights have been used to help understand and predict the evolution of history. Because Carl Jung is regarded as the figure who introduced astrology into the field of psychology, a selection from his relevant writings were reviewed. Perspectives of key astrologers in the field were presented to show how they have found confluence with Jungian concepts. Finally, astrology's contribution to the therapeutic process was examined through a review of contemporary scholars. Interviews with participants in this study suggested that they feel they provide a much better service to their clients when integrating the astrological chart in their practice. Four major themes emerged from an analysis of the data. First, astrotherapists experience intense feelings and reactions regarding this controversial approach to therapy; they are apprehensive about criticism from the mental health community and community at large, while maintaining personal passion for the work. Second, utilizing the astrological chart alters the way the astrotherapists perform therapy, ushering in the presence of a numinous "third" into the relationship. Third, the chart invokes transference issues which therapists process with clients. Fourth, astrotherapists use the chart to help them explore countertransference issues more effectively. Taken together, these four themes provide insight into how therapists conduct therapy using astrology. On the whole, the findings indicate that the astrological chart is not merely a tool or a technique used by the astrotherapists. It has a much deeper meaning. Astrotherapists bring their whole worldview and spiritual beliefs into the therapeutic process. They feel that this worldview enhances their qualities as depth psychotherapists, which in turn deepens the clinical work they do with their clients. The study recommended that astrotherapists and researchers discuss their perspectives more openly with the mental health community, especially depth psychotherapists. Suggestions were made for studying the lived experiences of both clinicians and clients who integrate astrology into their therapeutic work.
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Combat soldiers of the Vietnam War have made great gains in their search for wholeness through numerous programs that help them deal with the psychological effects of war. Noncombat soldiers have been left behind, because conventional wisdom affirms that they did not suffer the same trauma as combat soldiers. The present phenomenological study found that noncombat soldiers have also suffered from war, and in similar ways. Through vicarious trauma, the men in this study have lived with different but no less painful memories of the war. Some suffered by having to treat the injured soldiers who returned from Vietnam, and others by hearing stories of atrocities committed by their brother soldiers. Guilt played a large part in the stress and trauma that many suffered during their time in the military: the guilt of not going to war when others did; the guilt resulting from anger toward the government for allowing so many of their comrades to die in a country that few had ever heard of. The loss of fellow soldiers, family members, and friends to this war weighs heavily on each participant. The fear of death from nuclear attack during the Cold War, or even from conventional weapons in sensitive regions, has added to the effect on these individuals. Some were traumatized by the American people's hatred of the war and were inadvertently targeted when in uniform by protesters. Others were ridiculed by World War II veterans, because Vietnam was not fought like their war. All eight men who were interviewed for this study discussed some type of negative effect from serving in the military during Vietnam, and several broke down and cried when they remembered the stresses and losses they felt. This remembrance comes more than 30 years after they left the military, and it still deeply affects them today.
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This study endeavors to unite the myth of the journey of the hero with adult children of trauma. The literature suggests that the hero is both a warrior with a mission and a traveler who yearns to find meaning and purpose in a life fraught with longing and disillusionment. After 17 years of working with and observing this population, I find the trauma experienced from early object relations failure is painfully clear. In spite of this, the histories of adult children of trauma are filled with many heroic efforts to find the elusive missing piece that will bring peace to their wounded souls. They have undergone many departures, initiations, and returns, but the premise is that the initiations were not completed, sanctioned, or understood. Often, tired and in despair when seeking one more avenue by which to initiate, they identified themselves as pathological and misfits because they lacked a framework and societal support that validated their determined journey to find completion. The literature purports that our society lacks meaningful ritual vital for transcendence. A true initiation must be witnessed within the container of community. Thus, hidden rituals, often destructive in nature, are substituted for the longing in the collective psyche. This population must be seen within the context of group and soul of the world because the need for belonging and containment is, to them, a life-or-death matter. Using a new language, an imaginal group container and treatment program is created. This may provide the adult child of trauma with the longed-for container in which to begin healing and completion. Hearing the voice of the soul and eliminating what is blocking its emergence is vital. The psychotherapist and society are urged to reframe the adult child's lonely life struggle to the difficult, but empowering, journey of the hero. Could this better serve the client and the soul of the world?
<<link 1092087791>>

First-time motherhood can be a life-altering adjustment in a woman's life. Traditional research methods used in exploring this area have tended to fragment the mother's experience in order to prove a stated hypothesis, or to make the research more applicable to the field of psychiatry. This study employed a quantitative methodology in order to explore the "lived experience" of 31 women who were first-time mothers with children under the age of 5 years. The purpose of this study was to assess first-time mothers' experiences of motherhood in order to understand the feelings, attitudes, and adjustments experienced during this transitional time of life. This study further examined the changes that occur in the psyche of women who entered motherhood with the hypothesis that mothers would encounter a lack of emotional support or understanding both during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. These women would also struggle with role identity and formation leaving them feeling confused, overwhelmed, and unprepared for motherhood. Findings from this study indicated that overall most women reported having a positive experience of pregnancy. The majority of the women took good care of themselves and received adequate medical care. Yet even though the pregnancy was a positive experience for most, many women reported feeling angry, agitated, and insecure during pregnancy and reported that the birthing process was more difficult than they had expected. They also related a lack of physical help during both the pregnancy and the postpartum period. The results of this study affirmed the need for more effective mental health care as well as the need for a celebratory custom or initiation rite inaugurating women into motherhood with the aim of helping them to more easily transition into this phase of life.
Type the text for 'New Tiddler'
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The factors associated with the health and social service utilization behavior of the elderly have been widely studied over the last 20 years. Little is known, however, about what factors are related to the mental health behavior of the elderly. Moreover, no research has tested causal models of formal mental health use among the minority elderly, or has evaluated when Latino elderly turn to others outside of the family for help. This study examines the influence of Predisposing, Enabling and Need factors on the utilization of the professional, the physician, and the church for mental health help by the Mexican and Mexican-American elderly. The three types of formal mental health behavior were analyzed by regression analysis. The results for Mexican Americans indicated that use of a professional was the strongest predicted criterion measure, accounting for 19% of the variance, followed by use of the church at 12%, and use of a physician at 10%. The results for the Mexican elderly indicated that use of the church was the strongest predicted criterion measure, accounting for 23% of the variance, followed by use of a professional at 10%, and use of a physician at 8%. The findings indicated that Need was the strongest predictor across service type with greater variability among the Enabling and Need factors among both groups. This study suggests that the use of health and mental health services are similar because of their emphasis on Need factors. However, the greater variability among Enabling and Predisposing factors suggests that we should consider the heterogeneity among both the Mexican and Mexican-American elderly when designing mental health programs. More important, because of the multidimensional nature of the criterion variable, the establishment of an interactive and cooperative formal mental health network is imperative.
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The purpose of this phenomenological research study is to gain a conceptual and theoretical understanding of a temporary condition of brief spontaneous moments of altered awareness and attention. The mesmerized moment announces its arrival when a vacuous stare and stilled body response collides with the recognition that the subject is temporarily lost in reflection or contemplation of something unseen or unknown. Mesmerization includes a variety of phenomena such as subjective alterations in awareness and memory, the productions of responses and ideas unfamiliar in the usual state of mind, and the physical and psychical appearance of a dual or altered state of consciousness. This study attempts to expand upon the knowledge surrounding the arrival of a lost moment which hints of extraordinary experience, illuminating the potential of a powerful place which can both excite and frighten. The Austrian physician Franz Anton Mesmer (1735-1815) originally coined the term mesmerized . He believed that mental disorder resulted from an imbalance of a force between the inner state of the patient and another external world at large. He became fascinated with the multiple phenomena that appear spontaneously in response to verbal or other stimuli, which suggested precise moments of significance. These consequential moments provide either an actual or metaphorical space that reflects and evokes parts of psyche and the unconscious, which have been under-examined, neglected, or simply forgotten. This study wishes to gain a deeper understanding of those mesmerized moments in which these unique arrivals hint that direct contact is made with the unconscious mind. Fourteen currently practicing clinicians from a wide variety of theoretical orientations were interviewed, describing and analyzing their lived experience. Although this moment can occur at any time, in any place, for the purposes of this study it is investigated primarily within the psychotherapeutic relationship. The research questions attempt to understand the clinical situation in which an individual appears to have moved into a mesmerized, trance-like, or altered state. Additionally, the research participants personally expanded upon their individual understanding and subjective experiences. The final result attempts to identify and promote a growing recognition of the significance and potential of altered appearances.
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The purpose of this study is to examine the death images and rituals that individuals and cultures create, and how these symbols influence and affect our daily lives. In the beginning of the paper, various attitudes and beliefs toward death are presented from the disciplines of philosophy, psychology, theology, anthropology, and the arts. The overview of multiple views reveals the diversity of beliefs and practices in this universal experience. Specifically, the research focuses on death in America, where death tends to be in the shadow of the culture, as well as in the shadow of the individual's psyche. The study also focuses on the cultures of Bali and Tibet, where death is consciously confronted and integrated into daily existence. Bali and Tibet were chosen given their accepting view of death versus America's repressed view of death. This work indicates the psychological danger in creating an imbalance within the reciprocal relationship of the opposites of life and death. It suggests that a contributing factor to violence in America may be our tendency in this society to remove death from our awareness. The research further implies that the nature of death needs to be seen and represented, and that death rebels and grows unruly in the darkness of the shadow. This study explores the possible compensatory role of violence created by the imbalance of life and death. In examining death and loss in Bali and Tibet, this dissertation suggests that the awareness of death within life and its respected presence in these communities help maintain a balance, lending a more sacred way of living, leading to compassion and peace. Finally, this dissertation explores the possible ways that depth psychology can help us move beyond culturally conditioned views to allow for diversity and openness in experiencing death at different levels. Furthermore, it discusses the benefits of the descending journey into the shadow and the role of death and loss in the individuation process. The study also explores the role of depth psychology in creating a balance between life and death through symbolic images and rituals, which can bring a culture into a sense of compassion and community.
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Contrary to a recent popular book by John Gray (1992), all men are not from Mars, nor are all women from Venus. The popularity of the book reveals a prevalent myth in this country that people fit into types and categories. The myth surfaces in everyday conversation in terms such as "conservative," "liberal," "yuppie," "intellectual," "chauvinist," "blue-collar," "co-dependent," "hacker," and so forth. Unfortunately, even disciples of Jungian typology, like myself, are susceptible to the myth. It is easy to lapse into using terms such as "thinking type," "intuitive," or "extrovert" as if, by themselves, those terms said anything useful about an individual. Too often typology falls victim to yet another Mars/Venus project. In an effort to help people recognize and affirm differences in personality styles, typology is often presented in a reductionistic way that minimizes the complexity and versatility of human nature. Applying the tools of hermeneutics to Jung's text itself, one finds that Jung developed typology in order to facilitate the process of individuation, the effort to become conscious of, and to integrate, the diverse aspects of one's nature. Jung also wanted to show how people of good will could fall into misunderstandings and conflicts because of differences in outlook and judgment. He did not intend his work on typology to be a facile tool for the purpose of classifying people in type boxes. Rather, Jung's typology provides a language for listening to soul. Following Gadamer's dialectical hermeneutics, the text is heard through subject-object dialogue when the text is subject encountered in the open space of shared understanding created by language. It is in this sense that typology provides a hermeneutical language that is able to create a space in which the complexity of human being may be more dynamically expressed and experienced. There are many applications for typology, but this work will focus on the use of typology as a tool to better understand the complexities of human perception and judgment, especially as it relates to interpersonal communication. Typology, in this context, serves to facilitate understanding and acceptance of the diverse values and communication styles of people. A number of illustrations will serve to "flesh out" the theory of type as hermeneutic. These illustrations will be taken from literature as well as from historical personalities. In this thematic hermeneutic study, my hope is to show that Jung's work on typology is a superbly creative form of "hermeneutical language" uniquely suited to interpret the "sacred text" of human being.
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In the archetypal literature of psychology there is limited reference to the Greek myth of Theseus. In this study the myth and the symbol most synonymous with Theseus, the labyrinth, are examined in-depth. The fields of mythology, art, anthropology, literature, and religious studies have been examined in order to achieve a comprehensive view of the Theseus myth. The significance of the myth and the symbol were applied to Jungian psychological constructs. Jung's concept of individuation was compared with both the myth and the symbol. The study showed how the myth encompassed and reflected all of the major constructs of Jungian psychology. The myth proved to be a fitting representation of individuation throughout the lifespan. The study followed the chronology of the life of Theseus and selected images of labyrinths. Clinical case material was used to connect the story and image to the psychotherapy process. Suggestions were given for incorporating the myth and the individuation process into the dynamics of psychotherapy. The role of the psychotherapist was seen as an Ariadne's thread for the patient lost or dead-ended in the maze of life. The path of the hero and the labyrinth as a container were used to suggest a new vision of the psyche. The vision imagined is both subjective and objective, labyrinthine and mandalic. This new vision was proposed as an aid for successful navigation of the labyrinthine path of life, especially when dealing with psychological dead-ends which can deflate the needed heroic ego. The dynamic aspect of the hero was viewed as a compliment to the static aspect of the labyrinth. Together the two compromise a wholistic, curative map of the transcendent function in which the unconscious becomes conscious and illuminates the way.
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The inspiration for this investigation into lullabies comes from Marie Louise von Franz's work on the value fairy tales provide from a Jungian perspective. The success of von Franz's work called to my attention the lack of similar studies on lullabies, arguably a genre as familiar and widespread as fairy tales, sharing many of the same motifs and themes. Using a theoretical methodology 1,074 lullabies representing 79 countries from around the world were examined using Jung's method of amplification to flesh out images, motifs, and underlying archetypal themes inherent in lullaby texts. This investigation reveals three prominent archetypal patterns in the lullabies examined. The first pattern is the Psychological Lullaby. This type of lullaby tends to the psychological issues of the caregiver and the child. This text reveal the insecurities, trials, and tribulations of living within the uncertainties of the world. The second archetypal pattern revealed in the texts is the Transformational Lullaby. This type of lullaby makes use of the connective force that lives within the mysterious space between the conscious and unconscious known as the transcendent function. The third archetypal pattern is the Cosmological Lullaby. This type of lullaby not only affirms our place in the universe; it is an archetypal recapitulation of the divine order of the cosmos. The Cosmological Lullaby is none other than a recollection of the archetypal soul experience from the spiritual world of the cosmos. The Cosmological Lullabies that sing to us from the compositions around the world are, like fairy tales, faithful copies of the archetypes of the collective unconscious. This investigation also explores how the lullaby ritual develops consciousness. What a child is, is determined, in large part, by what, if any, lullabies were in effect during the early development of the child. The inner psychic organization of a child stems directly from the elements present in the lullaby ritual: tone, rhythm, warmth, and Self-ego differentiation. All the elements a child experiences and assimilates from the lullaby form and fortify the primal human being and enable the child to enter into the world with a mythological and psychological understanding of its place in the world. Viewed in this way, lullabies are an index of the individuation process of the caregiver, child, and the society in which they live. The very fact that lullabies have been sung for thousands of years suggests that a lullaby archetype is already programmed into the psyche of every child born in the world.
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This work has read (and written) psychoanalysis (Freud-Klein-Lacan-Bion) to illuminate its quandary with feminine subjectivity. As a theoretical query, its source is a feminine subjectivity which exists, in the Real, but which has not, as yet, acceded to a theoretical definition within the Symbolic or Imaginary of psychoanalysis. Its hermeneutic orientation has allowed for a confrontation of two events intended to reveal something recognizable as a feminine position. Challenge to the feminine has continued through two major waves of debate—one surrounding Freud's postulations of the unconscious, penis envy, passivity, and the centrality of the Oedipus conflict; the second surrounding Jacques Lacan's return to Freud where subjectivity, language, speech, jouissance, and desire take priority. The lineage of Klein and Bion has remained in an enduring state of marginality for gender study, so that within the psychoanalytic tradition, the female subject remains either unremittingly problematic or a theoretical impossibility, a symbolic contradiction in terms. The work revisited the borders of woman's exclusion by, and from, the system of psychoanalysis as well as the centrality of its assertion that it can define her sexuality, read her unconscious, and treat her sufferings. Contemporary women analysts, critics, and theoreticians have been chosen to represent the ever-broadening spectrum of discourse on the subject of the (barred) Woman: Chasseguet-Smirgel, Kristeva, Irigaray, Mitchell, Rose, and Cixous from an Anglo-European perspective; and Felman, Benjamin, Gallop, Young-Bruehl, Bernstein, and Keller from an emerging American one. The dissertation has concluded that women, indeed, must approach psychoanalytic conceptualizations with caution, and has proposed that the umbilicus be added to the existing list of (gendered) signifiers (and part-objects). As a founding signifier, the umbilicus is seen as representing a more authentic view of the unconscious which does not exclude women and which includes an ethic of practice into which a woman may venture with less apprehension. The dissertation has also concluded that woman's traditionally private sexuality (including homoerotic and autoerotic experiences) must be exposed, by theorizing women, so that psychoanalysis may remain a viable theory and practice for feminine subjectivity.
<<link 765336641>>

This dissertation attempts to account for the resilience of the negative attitude associated with menstruation and identifies some of the ways that this attitude impedes women's psychological development and individuation. The negative attitude is evident in affects of shame and dread and in the values and behaviors that denigrate menstruation or dismiss it as a significant phenomenon. This is a theoretical dissertation utilizing a hermeneutical method. The study in part proposes to destabilize dominant perspectives of women's gynecological functions, thus allowing a new pattern to emerge. This goal will be achieved through an exploration and critique of clinical approaches to menstrual-related phenomena. The study reveals that masculine values and early cultural perceptions of women underlie contemporary research on menstrual-related disorders despite advanced medical knowledge, decades of feminist scholarship, and integrated treatment models that acknowledge women's subjective experiences of discomfort and illness. These approaches have not significantly contributed towards changing the negative attitude associated with menstruation. The study finds that dominant research approaches continue to rely upon methods that support the fundamental split of mind and body and therefore unwittingly participate in maintaining the negative attitude associated with menstruation. The study suggests that there is evidence that menstrual phenomena can have a significant role in women's psychological development and individuation. It is suggested that images found in mythology could be helpful in fostering women's discovery of menstruation as psychologically significant. Images found in mythology are proposed to be helpful due to the diminished life these images have in Western culture; they therefore serve to awaken libido in the unconscious and serve to bridge the gap in women's experiences of themselves as alienated from an innate source of self. The psychotherapy relationship is discussed as an initiatory experience for women and has the potential to utilize the significance of women's bodies in psychological development and individuation.
<<link 727696391>>

This phenomenological study explores the unconscious historical, cultural, psychological and familial factors affecting the older, never-married woman of today. The "baby-boom" generation of always-single women who have lived on the edge of societal change and transformation. The stereotypes of the single woman as spinster and old maid are outdated and archaic, yet they continue to permeate the collective unconscious of our culture. These single women have become a part of the shift in cultural thought that has freed women to pursue new paths and options in their lives. These new life choices come with a price of past social indoctrination that is not easily forgotten, and which still lingers in the psychological makeup of these women. Literature, media and social commentary have all influenced the single woman in developing an image of who she is in relationship to others in our society. Marriage no longer needs to be the ultimate goal for all American adult women, beginning the erosion of this particular patriarchal doctrine so ingrained in our Anglo-Saxon roots. The participants of this study show a high level of self-confidence and self-esteem in being able to live a lifestyle that flies in the face of conventional social beliefs. The Jungian concept of individuation may be applicable to women who have had to face cultural stigmas in remaining single and who have been able to forge active, fulfilling and vital lives. Prior to the 1960's a stigma was attached to women who chose not to marry. The feminist movement encouraged a changing image of the single woman. The 1990's have introduced studies showing a majority of both men and women marrying in their mid-to-late twenties. People are experiencing far greater happiness as singles than in any other time in recent history. The exploration of adult singlehood as a separate life stage is becoming a reality. There has been a gap in both clinical and research studies in understanding this growing life-stage population. This body of research is important in helping psychotherapists to comprehend their role in recognizing singleness as a viable life option and aiding their clients in believing that an unmarried status is acceptable.
<<link 885647741>>

The focal point of this dissertation is Jung's concept of the shadow and its manifestation in the workplace. The study applies a thematic, hermeneutic methodology to identify universal themes regarding the conditions under which shadow is formed, exteriorized, and ameliorated. Drawing upon seemingly disparate bodies of work, Jungian, Freudian, contemporary psychoanalytical, and organizational behavior literature is analyzed to offer a new synthesis of meaning with respect to shadow as well as models for addressing shadow in the workplace. Three case studies are presented to illustrate the phenomenon of shadow in the day-to-day functioning of organizations and to serve as a vehicle for applying newly integrated Jungian and psychoanalytical theoretical constructs. Shadow dynamics are explored from a systems perspective at the level of the organization, the team, and the individual. The study identifies that these three systems are mutually interpenetrating and interdependent, and that shadow dynamics cannot be thoroughly understood without comprehending the complex interactions between the three systems. In addition, intrapsychic, interpersonal, and suprapersonal influences are identified in connection with the manifestation of shadow in organizations, and the study highlights the role that these three influences play in the creation and working through of shadow dynamics. This study demonstrates that just as an individual's confrontation with the personal shadow can facilitate personal growth, so can an exploration of an organization's shadow offer the potential for organizational renewal and transformation. The dissertation concludes with specific depth-oriented approaches and recommendations for pursuing the untapped potential that resides implicitly in the organizational shadow.
<<link 733016721>>

This dissertation explored the legacy of the erotic encased within the Freudian theoretical histories of Anna O., Dora, and the Wolf Man. The study sought to re-spect, to take another look, at these textual bodies in order to liberate marginal readings obscured by the monolithic practices of a modernist, scientific, interpretative stance of truth. The case histories were, for the purposes of this investigation, re-placed within a subjective, aesthetic, metaphorical consciousness. As such, the case history was viewed as a dramatic rather than representational, production. The biographies of the case narratives more reconsidered to reveal the autobiographical. Countertransferential motivations were liberated allowing a fuller reading of the complex case history as additionally auto-psycho-graphical. The textual analysis of the case histories was illuminated by drawing upon the domains of theoretical and literary criticism, feminist inquiry, cultural/historical analysis, and queer theory. The dissertation sought to extend the contextual authority of the case history to the therapeutic encounter as one which doubly situates and creates meaning through language or poetry—psychotherapy as storied lives. Under these circumstances, psychotherapy, past and present, becomes a creative and collaborative act which is mutually penetrating. The politics of this creative collaboration was explored as the doubly constitutive recursive process creates our history of cases as the case history becomes articulated. Within this consciousness, the author employed several case vignettes to expand and illustrate the autopsychographical nature of the case history as aesthetic engagement. These vignettes served as parallel offerings to the classical analytic bodies under investigation. They also served as compliments to the author and subjects of the case histories, the history of cases, which have served as inspiration.
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This dissertation presents a theoretical study of the skin's archaic linkage to memory and to emotion and of how that linkage is or is not inscribed in language. The skin is described as a multi-layered and nerve-filled structure which develops in the human embryo before the emergence of other sense organs and confers primacy to the sense of touch for human experience. This study explores the complexity of the skin as a physiological, psychosomatic, and psychic organ. Touch, the skin sense, with its capacity for both active and passive functioning, provides the medium through which the skin—considered as a pre/non/verbal construct—defines the self, inscribes emotional memory, and develops language. This dissertation analyzes and questions traditional and alternative theory and practice concerning the relationship of touch and language to psychotherapy. A four-fold hermeneutic method, which relies on (l) the developmental state of infancy, (2) subjectivity within the framework of post-Cartesian physics, (3) the unconscious as defined by Sigmund Freud and C. G. Jung, and (4) feminism grounded in interiority emotion, experiential reflection, and innovative language, guides the content and form of this study. The writings reviewed include those of E. H. Weber, G. Revesz, William James, James J. Gibson, and David Katz, sensory/perceptual psychologists, who believed that skin and the sense of touch, independent of other human senses, provoked excitations of consciousness, and who focused on physiological tactile stimulation and exploration as a means of differentiating between and of gaining information concerning self and the surrounding world. This study also analyzes selected texts regarding the roles of skin and touch for memory, emotion, and language from the subject areas of developmental psychology, psychosomatics, mythology, and etymology. The skin, considered as a psychic organ, is explored from the vantage point of psychoanalytic theory and practice. This dissertation focuses on the writings of Freud, Melanie Klein, Donald W. Winnicott, Esther Bick, Alessandra Piontelli, Didier Anzieu, and Judith Mitrani, each of whom either provided theoretical underpinning for or explicitly dealt with the psychic skin as a mediator between conscious and unconscious realms. The psychoanalytic pandox inherent in the juxtaposition of theory's explicit recognition of the skin as a communicative organ with practice's preference for language as the exclusive therapeutic method provides the framework for this study's struggle to reconcile the pre/non/verbal and verbal worlds as they collide in the therapeutic consulting room. The writings and practices of Winnicott and the touch-based, Gestalt-oriented method of Ilana Rubenfeld, as well as the author's experience, supply material for examination of this paradox and for speculation concerning alternative means to access the inner world of tactually inscribed experiences, whose exploration is essential to an ethical psychotherapy which permits a variety of self-expressive forms.
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The mythopoetic men's movement has tried to recreate male initiation for current American conditions. Feminists, among others, have criticized this effort as simply continuing patriarchal forms of oppression. The problem is to develop a morally acceptable account of male initiation, framed within depth psychology and the Western cultural tradition. This dissertation uses a hermeneutical method as defined by Gadamer, Ricoeur, and Foucault. Male initiations vary between two poles, patrilineal and matrilineal, also called spirit and soul, transcendent and immanent. When feminists criticize initiation, they have in mind the patrilineal and its cultural descendents. The men's movement tries to combine both but remains patrilineal through lack of clarity. In fact, the two forms are inherently in contradiction, although both are necessary; hence initiation's character as a mystery. Depth psychology's view of initiation, including Henderson's distinction between hero and initiate, must be broadened to include this contradiction. Drawing upon Jung, Kohut, and their successors, this dissertation looks at initiation in anthropology (e.g. Mead, Bateson, Layard) and in the Western literary and religious tradition (e.g. Orestes and Oedipus, the orthodox and Gnostic Jesus, Perceval/Parzival, even Hiawatha). The final focus is Hamlet, who acknowledges opposing patrilineal and matrilineal demands as he struggles for integrity. His initiation develops through his relationships with others, who serve both as Kohutian selfobjects and as feeling-toned imagos of Jungian archetypal complexes. In the success of his failure, he advances a tradition that acknowledges the matrilineal side of initiation, seen also in Apuleius' Cult of Isis, the Gnostic Sophia, the Hermetic Anthropos, and the metals, salts, sulphurs, and regimens of Renaissance alchemy. This tradition connects depth psychology, with its three types of selfobjects (Kohut), four masculine archetypes (Moore & Gillette), and various autonomous complexes (Jung, Sandner & Beebe), to the seven initiatory figures imagined traditionally as the planets and in Hamlet as the play's dominant characters.
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The dissertation explores television from a depth psychological perspective, employing Jungian theory, archetypal psychology and object relations theory. The approach taken is theoretical, approaching the medium of television with the perspective that television is a vessel for cultural symptoms, caricaturing, mirroring, and revealing the collective psyche. The process of viewing and the place that television takes in the home and culture is emphasized as opposed to the content of the programming. Specific chapters address areas such as bipolar disorder, attention deficit disorder, addiction, the religious function of the psyche, transference, teen violence, and the realm of the imaginal. Television is the central theme, and these concepts are explored by the way in which they are expressed through the medium, how the medium invokes them, and how the medium creates them. Ultimately, the medium of television is seen as a form of resistance to both conscious living and dying.
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This hermeneutic dissertation explores numerous psychological issues related to compassion by bringing Western psychodynamic literature into dialogue with the Stages of the Path literature from the Tibetan Buddhist tradition, which has extensively studied the psychology of compassion for centuries. The dissertation is structured around three principle aspects of the Mahayana Buddhist path which were outlined by the great Tibetan teacher, Lama Tsong Khapa, as renunciation, the altruistic awakening mind (bodhicitta), and the wisdom arising from meditation on emptiness. Buddhist meditative methods are discussed from a developmental perspective; mediations on karma, the preciousness of human life, impermanence, suffering, and renunciation are analyzed as significant preliminaries to healthy, stable compassion. The relationships between compassion, empathy, love, and altruism are discussed, as is the role of compassion in psychological development and mental health. The relationship between the ego and the development of compassion is also addressed. Psychological implications of two essential Tibetan meditative methods for generating compassion and altruism are also explored. The problem of narcissism in relation to compassion is explored, as are object relations issues related to the depressive position and to projective identification. How these Buddhist meditative methods evoke these deep psychodynamic issues in order to allow the practitioner gradually to bring about structural changes in psychic functioning is addressed. The psychological effects of meditation on emptiness and the relationship between this kind of meditation and compassion are also discussed. Clinical and social applications of the insights regarding compassion and the methods for generating compassion are also explored, and areas for further research into this subject, which has previously received limited attention in Western psychological literature, are suggested.
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There has been much discussion in the past decade concerning young adults and their alleged nihilism, naiveté, and cynicism. One central theme that emanates from descriptions of this current generation, controversially discussed as Generation X, is that they are disillusioned. Given disillusionment's ubiquitous nature as a descriptor of an entire generation, it emerges as a phenomenon worthy of scientific research. Research on the experience of disillusionment has previously been undertaken by exploring it in particular circumstances or with a middle-age demographic. The current research stems out of the request by previous researchers for more descriptive studies on disillusionment in early stages of adulthood. To pursue this study, an empirical phenomenological methodology was utilized. Results of this research are discussed in terms of the general structure of being disillusioned and the particular hermeneutic shifts that occur as one moves through the transformative process of becoming, being, and resolving disillusionment. To be disillusioned means to undergo a loss of idealism that was based on untested, naïve assumptions. Being disillusioned is to enter a liminal space in which not only particular idealism but meaning in general is questioned. Resolution of disillusionment is the movement to a realization that all beliefs are beliefs rather than truths, and that one must participate more fully in one's own meaning making. One may become stuck in pre-resolution and may experience, for example, denial or cynicism. The broader implications of this research include offering a model of hermeneutic shifts that a person may experience in disillusionment or perhaps any transformative process. It also provides insight into the importance of young adulthood as a formative phase that should be taken seriously by clinicians and young adults themselves. The study suggests that further research would be useful to see how people, over time, move through the 12 stages of the disillusioning experience. Further research on the existential struggles of young adults would be beneficial.
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The upsurge in interest in the psychological role of the father which started in the mid-1970s has followed a long period of neglect among psychological researchers and theorists. Since Freud proposed the central role of the oedipal father in the structure of the psyche, interest shifted to the mother/child relationship. This dissertation asserts that this situation results from the cultural polarization of parental roles which had reduced the fathers role to that of an economic provider. The accompanying assumptions and cultural myths cast a "blind spot" upon the father's role to which psychological researchers, until recently, have not been immune. This theoretical dissertation has gathered source material from the widest possible range of psychological research. The academic and psychoanalytic literature has been comprehensively surveyed. In addition, the literature of three psychological theorists—Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and Andrew Samuels—has been studied in depth. This dissertation has concluded that the positive psychological role of the father consists of the combination of emotional passion, moral restraint, and physical presence. The negative father has been found to lack either emotionality, moral restraint, or physical presence. All three of these situations constitute the "absent father" effect. Fathers have been shown to bond deeply with their children from birth, to forge independent relationships with them, and to promote social adaptation. The positive effect of the father is to bring a pluralistic or symbolic charge to his children's psyches. Healthy fathering has been shown to promote the ability to hold psychological certainty and psychological confusion in an interactive tension, to foster the ability to be empowered in a variety of social roles, and to constructively sustain conflict. The father has been shown to play an especially important role in the erotic development of his daughters and in the aggressive development of his sons.
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The purpose of this study is to challenge the assumption that growing up with and inheriting great wealth leads to happiness and fulfillment. This dissertation applies self-psychology and object-relations theories to the experiences of affluent individuals. The author highlights the multigenerational legacy of psychopathology in affluent families to show how excessive wealth interferes with the formation of healthy selves. These are selves which will eventually inherit great wealth and the power to affect social values. Despite stereotypes about the wealthy, low self-esteem, poor frustration tolerance, depression, narcissism, sociopathy, addiction, and suicide are common. Though affluent parents have the resources to be with their children, parental neglect, superficial communication, and preference of work and leisure over child-rearing are repeated. Pressures on the child to be somebody extraordinary are often not supported by parental mirroring and role-modeling. Unrealistic expectations combined with chronic parental absences lead to mirror-hungry personalities and false-self adaptations which great inherited wealth often complicates. The emphasis on status and appearance over the inner lives of family members reinforces secrecy and the tendency to deny the negative impact of wealth on the family. Such secrecy and denial reinforce myths about wealth that do not correspond with the reality experienced by affluent families. These disparities can lead to confusion, guilt, and conflicts associated with simultaneously receiving significant wealth and psychological impoverishment. In therapy, early deficits in mirroring and conflicts associated with inheriting wealth often result in premature termination of therapy and poor prognosis'. Too much wealth can interfere with maintaining a long-term therapy relationship and family members may attempt to control the therapy when it threatens the family's public image. The tendency of some therapists to idealize, resent, or envy their affluent or prestigious patients may further obscure the course of therapy. If not resolved, the therapist's countertransference can hinder appropriate assessment and treatment. Such reactions must be explored so that a deeper understanding of the impact of wealth on the patient's self and society can be brought to light.
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This theoretical study explores the complex relationship between emotional abuse and the experience of emptiness. Emotional abuse is just beginning to be understood as a real and formative type of maltreatment that leaves its recipients with an aftermath of inner destruction and a robbing of the soul. This paper explores the idea that emptiness and emotional abuse in our culture are pervasive. Growing numbers of adults having experienced emotional abuse in childhood are apt to act out this early trauma in the world. Their desire or need to consume and fill up the empty void can be witnessed daily, as emptiness seems to permeate our present culture, in which consumerism is the ideal and quantity is better than quality. A hermeneutic method was employed to explore the intricacies of emotional abuse and how such trauma of the soul leads to an inner landscape of emptiness. The literature engaged and examined in this study provided an abundance of evidence that supports the hypothesis that emotional abuse significantly affects and even creates the experience of emptiness in the abused individual. The story of Menelaus and Proteus in The Odyssey was seen as analogous to the struggles of the emotionally abused and empty individual. Menelaus had to struggle to catch hold of the shape shifting Proteus in order to find his way home—back to the true self. His efforts are akin to those of the empty individual who struggles to get in touch with his or her true self in order to heal from emotional abuse. Emotional abuse and emptiness in our modern culture were examined. We are a society addicted to change, constantly finding the need to reinvent ourselves, but not reaching the true self connection. People, in general, remain dissatisfied and compulsively attempt to fill the emptiness with consumer goods, self-help books, and addictive substances. As emptiness gets filled with meaningless objects, creativity is nullified and we become a "false-self" nation. The empty traumatized patient comes to psychotherapy with limited self capacities and in search of a selfobject. Ideally through the analytic process, transformation occurs where emptiness is gradually felt and not escaped from.
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The present dissertation study examined the relationship between self-esteem and self- silencing. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) measured self-esteem and the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS) measured the construct of self-silencing. A sample of 75 adult college women aged 18-24 were administered the RSES and the STSS. It was hypothesized there would be 1.) a negative correlation between low self-esteem and high self-silencing, and 2.) a negative correlation between high self-esteem and low self-silencing. Statistical analysis showed that there is a negative correlation between the two constructs, however the correlation (p = -.062) is not significant. Possible explanations for the results of the study are discussed including methodological considerations such as sample size, reliability and validity of self-report instruments used, social desirability biases, and random variability. The possibility of using qualitative research methods to more comprehensively discern the variables involved in the phenomena studied are discussed, which might provide richer detail and deeper insight into the experience of the relationship between self-esteem and self-silencing. Additionally, there may be a number of associated variables other than self-esteem that determine self-silencing, including communication style, attachment style, and power. Future research could evaluate the interdependent role of these variables with self-esteem that may be implicated in the self- silencing phenomena.
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This study investigated the relationship of the experience of pain to personality type among women with fibromyalgia. Voluntary subjects were solicited from four sources, including the Internet, flyers at medical offices, flyers at support group meetings, and announcements in newsletters. After initial contact, the participants each were mailed a packet containing three questionnaires along with appropriate instructions and informed consent. All subjects read and signed an informed consent. Each completed the three questionnaires. The instruments employed were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), The McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The packet was then mailed back to the researcher using an enclosed self addressed stamped envelope. The study had 98 participants. Findings suggested statistically significant differences between the Myers Briggs data bank population and the study population for the Extraverted/Introverted (E/I) and Sensate/Intuitive (S/N) pairings (p =.0016 and.0039 respectively). Additionally, for reported pain within personality pair groups, it was demonstrated that the only pair showing a statistical difference was the E/I pair with the E's being statistically more elevated for reported levels of pain than the I's. Finally, the VAS, PRI and age at onset indicated a statistically significant correlation (p =.017) between age at onset and reported pain measure when using the VAS instrument with the suggestion that the later the age of onset the lower the VAS score. No statistically significant correlation (p =.447) between age at onset and reported pain when using the PRI instrument was found. Implications are discussed in regards to theoretical and clinical considerations as well as for future research.
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Nietzsche is a disciple and initiate of Dionysus. His Dionysian perspective has been neglected and/or misunderstood by most interpreters of Nietzsche. It is not generally known that Nietzsche's Dionysian writings profoundly influenced the four founding fathers of Depth Psychology (Freud, Adler, Jung, and Rank). They repressed his influence. This dissertation began the task of returning Nietzsche and Dionysus from repression. Nietzsche's ideas on the Higher man, the Overhuman, and self-overcoming were developed into a new interpretation of Nietzsche as a Dionysian soul therapist. This interpretation is based upon Nietzsche's Dionysian therapeutic faith that profound suffering develops a noble soul. The first part of this dissertation introduced Nietzschs's psychology through exploring his life, legend, repression in Depth Psychology and the current literature. Part two explored Nietzsche's Dionysian worldview, Dionysian psychology, and Dionysian psychotherapy. This dissertation argued that Nietzsche's Higher man represents the development of individual consciousness and the Overhuman represents the development of soul. In light of Nietzsche's distinction between the Higher man and the Overhuman, Freud's conceptualization of the goal and method of depth psychotherapy was critique as being a therapy for the development of a Higher man. Freud's method of therapy relies on the therapeutic power of becoming conscious with the aim of developing a conscious rational human being—a Higher man. tn contrast, a Dionysian method of psychotherapy relies on the therapeutic power of self-overcoming with the aim of cultivating a noble soul—an Overhuman. Self-overcoming was described as a Dionysian initiation process of overcoming conscious resistances to becoming unconsciously experiential. Dionysus was proposed as an archetypal foundation for a depth psychotherapy that aims towards the development of the nobility of soul in contrast to Freud's depth psychotherapy that aims towards the development of individual consciousness. Nietzsche's writings offer an unexplored therapeutic, psychological, and philosophical foundation for a Dionysian depth psychotherapy of soul-making.
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The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that the themes in dreams which occur naturally in a well population are similar to death symbols and motifs found in the dreams and imaginations of the terminally ill. The study illustrated that dreams play a significant role in preparing persons for physical death. This case study explored a series of six dreams and personal associations of a 70 year-old woman. The dreams occurred over a period of 1 year, were not clearly related to her personal life situation, and had a numinous quality. The dreams illustrate one manner in which psyche confronts the reality of death. The images and motifs identified in this series were shown to be similar to those reported in the dreams of cancer patients and persons who died unexpectedly after a dream which contained death themes. The themes and images were also considered similar to those reported in near-death experiences (NDE). Archetypal amplifications revealed that the themes were identified with themes of death and rebirth from sacred writings and mythology. The analysis provided an example of how the unconscious brings awareness to the issues of dying as a natural part of the individuation process, encouraging the dreamer to face the issue of her own death. It also showed how the dream symbolically addresses issues of death and life after life and participates in the transformation of the dreamer even when she is unaware of the meaning of the dream images. Although the dreams corresponded to an understanding of life transitions occurring in the participant's external life, the dream themes also contributed to the dreamer's acceptance of her own death when they were interpreted within the context of death preparation.
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This phenomenological case study explored the experience of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) and the resulting loss of identity, or "sense of shattered self" using interviews to elicit personal stories from five MTBI survivors. In spite of the growing recorded incidence of this diagnosis in our culture and the fact that the majority of those individuals who have incurred this diagnosis have demonstrated adequate recovery, there remains a significant number who do not recover, but whose lives and identities continue to be 'shattered' long after rehabilitation efforts have ended. Experts disagree on the factors contributing to this failure to recover. Extensive research of the current literature revealed significant confusion in the medical community regarding this diagnosis. From a Depth Psychological perspective, this confusion was interpreted as further reason to focus on the patients' experiences rather than the traditional behavioral symptoms and measures. The research regarding pre- and post-injury considerations, such as previous traumatic experiences and personality influences on the rehabilitative process, was reviewed. The 'self' was described from both a Self-Psychological point of view as well as a Jungian stance. Five subjects were asked to tell stories about themselves before the injury, during rehab, and following discharge during two lengthy interviews. Joseph Campbell's description of the male's heroic stages along with Maureen Murdock's definition of the heroine's journey were used as models for re-framing the viewpoints of these survivors from victims to heroes. In every culture there are stories of heroic characters. In our society today, survivors of MTBI are identified more as forgotten figures than heroic role models, however, the foundation of this research rests in the belief that heroes are ordinary people who experience extraordinary events. Using Campbell's depiction of the hero as a blueprint, the initial injury was viewed as the "initiatory call" to go deeper, precipitating the birth of the spiritual life of an individual. Those who respond to the call must endure much suffering during the process of "initiation." Rehabilitation was seen as this painful time of initiation. For those who responded positively and grew psychically through this event, individuation continued to evolve through the rest of life's stages, but for those who denied the call, the risk of psychic deadness resulted. Several themes emerged in the interviews, but the overwhelming conclusion of this study was that no matter what the details were surrounding this traumatic event, each experience and eventual response was unique. The personal stories illustrated that each MTBI survivor had already demonstrated heroic characteristics prior to the traumatic event and the availability of these powers emerged as the person's awareness grew. These patients became empowered by the recognition of these qualities as they were demonstrated in their own stories.
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This dissertation explored the relationship between internalized homophobia and same-sex domestic violence. Fifteen self-identified gay adult males participated and completed a self-administered questionnaire, which involved a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale and the Reactions to Homosexuality Scale.

The results of the study revealed a positive correlation between social comfort scores related to minor assault and severe coercion. As social comfort increased, minor assault and severe coercion increased. Additionally, as moral/religious acceptability decreased severe assault increased. This study suggests the possibility of homophobia in gay men as a contributing factor to same-sex domestic violence. Understanding homophobia and its role in same-sex domestic violence would benefit clinical psychologists and therapists working with both victims and victimizers. With an increased level of empathy for victims of same-sex domestic violence, professionals will be moved to provide a safe and non judgmental environment to facilitate the wellness of individuals affected.

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The relevance of the imagination to clinical psychology is hermeneutically investigated within this body of work from the perspective of four main schools: phenomenology, gestalt therapy, analytical psychology, and archetypal psychology. This study will show how the imagination is central to psychological process and to psychodynamic psychotherapy. The multiplicity and depth of psyche's interior life—from the ego to the collective unconscious—are the foundation on which clinical depth psychology stands. This research project has demonstrated that the Other, the multiplicity of the unconscious, is constantly present and expresses itself imaginally through dreams, sensations and diseases of the body, slips of the tongue, daydreaming, fantasy, and spontaneous imagery. Phenomenology emphasizes the honoring of the pure possibility of phenomena and of "what is." The phenomenological method facilitates an open, unbiased way of being and seeing phenomena as a psychological process that begins in the imagination. Gestalt therapy posits a consciousness that is present-centered, one that builds on the formation of the I-Thou therapeutic relationship. Creating the environment of the empathic, dynamically alive encounter, the gestalt-trained psychologist joins the patient on his imaginal journey. In analytical psychology, image is the mythopoetic voice of psyche that is heard through the imagination. Jung's theories of the pluralistic and autonomous nature of the psyche expanded the understanding of the totality of the personality in the field of clinical psychology. Jung understood that the language of the personal and collective unconscious is the metaphorical language of the imagination. Archetypal psychology sees-through and hears-into a consciousness and "derangement of the senses." This derangement mixes and re-orders our conventional use of language to hear the expressions of psyche as imagistic statements. Archetypal psychology places the realm of the imagination in the mundus imaginalis , calling forth the autonomy and power of the imagination in its own right. This investigation further employs the image of the hermeneutic circle. Placing imagination at the circle's center, the study delineates the radiating spokes as the specific and unique aspect of each school's theoretical and clinical application of imaginal work. From the resulting synthesis, a new whole is created.
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This dissertation inquires into the complex and often ambiguous relationship between sisters. Sisterhood is an arena of human interaction long ignored in the literature. This work asks in what way the sister relationship affects the process of individuation. Does a biological sister act as an instigator who propitiates the individuation process in her sister? A second path of inquiry considers the sister relationship from an archetypal perspective and asks whether there is a sister archetype, and, if so, how she make herself known? To explore these questions, two in-depth interviews were conducted with five women in middle age who had biological sisters. Three myths in which the psychological relationship between sisters was a central theme were used as instruments. Employing a heuristic approach, the author explored these myths with the participants from a depth psychological perspective. Because sisterhood is a subject of particular interest to women, the author attempted to illustrate these intimate concerns in a language reflective of a feminine consciousness. This intention entailed particular attention to the wording, tense, and relational qualities in which sisterhood was described. A similar intention pertained to the methodology, which needed to be of a more feminine nature—qualitative, heuristic, subjective, and reflective. Addressing the psychological and archetypal roots of sisterhood revealed elements of the sister bond that catalyze the individuation process over the lifespan. Issues of polarity, jealousy, and projection all play their part in instigating the development of the individual. The reading of the three myths amplified sister themes and deepened the conversation, although for some participants the impact of reading the myths, themselves, seemed minimal. A comparison of the first and second interviews showed an increased depth and substance that appeared to be related to the introduction of the mythic element, albeit unconsciously. In addition, the psychological presence of an archetypal Sister could be deduced from the intensity and complexity of the responses. All of the participants agreed that the dialogues had been of value and had increased their understanding of the sister bond.
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This dissertation is a theoretical study that utilizes hermeneutic, phenomenological, and heuristic methodologies to inquire into the nature of mentoring and its effect upon the soul and destiny of humankind. The study begins with an inquiry into the mythical origins of mentoring. This is followed by a survey of contemporary authors who speak on mentoring from a depth psychological orientation and show how the phenomenon is being hailed and vitalized in the culture today. A descent into the darkness of mentoring examines the role the shadow plays in the development of the soul when conflict and separation disrupt the mentoring tie, and as it manifests in the deathly experience of the metamorphic process. The study draws on Carl Jung's experiences with Freud, his encounter with tutelary figures coming out of the transpersonal levels of the unconscious, and his relationships with his own followers, to uncover the meaning of the mentoring phenomenon. Finally, an in-depth interview with the 97-year-old Jungian analyst, Joseph Henderson, examines the nature of his relationship with Jung and Toni Wolff. Through this historically significant and personally reflexive account, we glean Jung's analytic and mentoring acuity, Wolff's anagogic perspicacity, and we gather vital knowledge about the mentoring process. This study defines the soul of mentoring as the guiding and prophetic voice of wisdom that inspires, bestows absolute knowledge, and illumines the soul. It defines the mentoring of soul as the transmission of wisdom aimed at liberating the soul to its nature, purpose, and fate, thereby expanding its totality and augmenting its evolution. The mentoring relationship is a manifestation of the psychic process by which the soul actualizes the destiny that is essential to its nature, and the mentor is patron of that process. Buried within every soul lies the absolute longing and propensity towards wholeness, which consists of knowing our divine origin and purpose. The realization of this objective depends on our journeying the untrodden paths of the unknown where the lantern of the guiding function glows eternally in wait of lavishing its sacred beneficence.
<<link 1179953581>>

This dissertation is a case study based on artwork created as soul-making during an acute personal crisis. The daily paintings and poems changed the face of the crisis, infusing the circumstances with depth, meaning, and a sense of the sacred. A narrative serves to put the paintings into context, in an attempt to portray the psychic field wherein the imaginal, timeless domain of the soul and the time-space reality of everyday life intermingle and inform each other. The survey of pertinent Jungian literature identifies the artwork as a spontaneous form of Jung's method of active imagination through which the ego establishes contact and interacts with personified contents from the unconscious. When used over a period of time, this method makes visible and propels the transformative process of individuation implicit in the psyche. Jung closely related both method and process to alchemy. An alchemical hermeneutic, therefore, the understanding of the soul as an autochthonous domain of reality, is a presupposition of active imagination. Research into the archetypal symbolism of the imagery traces the alchemical themes contained throughout this series of colorful paintings. The research also discovers and recovers the presence of the archetypal Divine Feminine (aspects of the Goddess) and the Divine Masculine (images of the Horned God). Holding both of these perspectives, the alchemical and that of a Jungian goddess feminism, opens a field of inquiry that invites further research.
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This pioneering investigation used the phenomenological research methods of Amedeo Giorgi in order to understand the lived experience of the soulmate phenomenon. Data were collected through in-depth interviews. The meanings that were embedded in the narratives were sorted out by the phenomenologically oriented researcher. The design of this inquiry focused on understanding the lived world of the participants. Since the interviewer is the research instrument, careful attention was paid to verbal as well as non-verbal cues. The interview began with the following statement: "Please give me as full and complete a description of your soulmate experience as you can. What I would like from you at this moment is a description of the experience, not an explanation or discussion. Give me concrete examples, I would like you to tell me about it so I can be there with you from the inside, what it means to you." The only questions asked were clarifying questions. The researcher was at pains to bracket her presuppositions, expectations and personal experience of a soulmate relationship. Five participants, aged 47-82, were interviewed. Three of the participants were married, one was widowed, and one lived without her soulmate. Each participant believed that she or he had experienced or was presently experiencing a soulmate relationship. The interviews took from 60 to 90 minutes. The transcripts of the interviews were subjected to three more levels of phenomenological analysis. Each participant received a copy of the transcription and analysis of his or her interview and a follow-up telephone interview. No substantive changes were required, thus validating the accuracy of the phenomenological reduction. A further analysis of all the level 4 materials produced the fundamental description of the soulmate experience. On this level, sixteen common elements of the soulmate experience were disclosed. They were: (1)&nbsp;ease of adjustment; (2)&nbsp;effortless communication; (3)&nbsp;common interests; (4)&nbsp;trust; (5)&nbsp;mutual growth; (6)&nbsp;physical compatibility; (7)&nbsp;the mystical/numinous component; (8)&nbsp;oneness/indivisibility; (9)&nbsp;soul maturation; (10)&nbsp;pre-determination/instant recognition; (11)&nbsp;synchronicity; (12)&nbsp;reincarnation; (13)&nbsp;paranormal communication; (14)&nbsp;the all encompassing nature of the relationship; (15)&nbsp;complete self-enclosedness; and (16)&nbsp;use of metaphors. The final level of analysis demonstrated that the soulmate experience has four essential structures: (1)&nbsp;predetermination, (2)&nbsp;mystical identification, (3)&nbsp;paranormal communication and (4)&nbsp;complete self-enclosedness.
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This dissertation's alchemical perspective builds on Edinger's (1994) psychological correlation of key Christian images with the transformative processes depicted in 11 of the 20 Rosarium Philosophorum (1550) woodcuts. However, as both Fabricius (1971) and McLean (1980) point out, by not using the full set of Rosarium illustrations, Jung (1946/1966), and subsequently Edinger, omit significant information when correlating their selected images with the psyche's archetypal dynamics. This study contends that by not commenting specifically on illustrations 11-17, they both disregard a vital transmutational stage of the alchemical process, the rubedo , in which the feminine archetype's repressed somatic aspect is redeemed and integrated. This omission slights the significant contribution the feminine archetype makes, by means of its developmental dynamics, to the redemptive process of individuation. To adjust for any distortion of process created by this omission, Neumann's (1955/1963) schema of the feminine archetype's structure and dynamics is used as a lens for this study's archetypal interpretation of all 20 Rosarium woodcuts. His diagram reveals the significance of the Virgin Mary's symbolic role in the feminine archetype's dynamic of spiritual transformation. This lens is used to correlate the Rosarium woodcuts with the Catholic doctrinal images that comprise a prayer form known as the Mysteries of the Rosary. By means of this correlation the relationships and events of the Virgin Mary's life are identified as reflecting a spiritualizing process that is prototypical of the one projected onto the alchemical material by the alchemist. Mary's "fiat," "I am the handmaid of the Lord, let what you have said be done unto me" (Luke 1:37-38), is understood as reflecting a spiritual positioning of the human will, which serves the psyche's religious function by evoking the Eros principle and supporting its redemptive journey. Both sets of images are presented as defining the spiritual path by which matriarchal consciousness evolves through the developmental stages of Eros and re-unites with the ground of its own being, the Anima Mundi . This true coniunctio gives flesh to an evolved feminine spirit and evokes the dawning of a world informed by Sophianic Love.